Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Al-Idah
Title Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance
Author(s) Ahmed, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Arsalan
Volume 33
Issue 2
Year 2016
Pages 8-17
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
Keywords Islamic Banking, Running Musharakah, Running Finance, Working Capital
Chicago 16th Ahmed, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Arsalan. "Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance." Al-Idah 33, no. 2 (2016).
APA 6th Ahmed, M. M., Farooq, M., Arsalan, M. (2016). Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance. Al-Idah, 33(2).
MHRA Ahmed, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Arsalan. 2016. 'Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance', Al-Idah, 33.
MLA Ahmed, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Arsalan. "Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance." Al-Idah 33.2 (2016). Print.
Harvard AHMED, M. M., FAROOQ, M., ARSALAN, M. 2016. Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance. Al-Idah, 33.
دور حاضر میں کرنسیوں کے ادھار خرید و فروخت کا شرعی جائزہ
اسلام اور مغرب کے باہمی اختلافات
مسئلہ خلافت کی عملیت میں عرب و عجم زاویہ فکر کے اثرات کا علمی جائزہ
مولانا غلام اللہ خان کی تفسىر جواہر القرآن: منہج اور خصوصیات
ٹریڈمارک، کاپی رائٹ اور حقوق کی خرید و فروخت کا شرعی جائزہ
تعلیمات قرآن کریم اور زبور کی تطبیق و تفریق
مسئلہ حجاب: فرانسیسی مسلمان خواتین اور اسلامی تعلیمات
خواتین کی دینی تعلیم: روایت، مسائل اور عصری تحدیات
تعلیم المدنیت (شہریت کی تعلیم) اسلامی تناظر میں
بائبل اور اسلام کی روشنی میں عورت کا مقام اور کردار
علم اسباب ورود الحدیث: ایک تحقیقی جائزہ
اسلام اور دیگر نظام ہائے حیات کے فلسفہ حقوق کا تقابلی مطالعہ
عصر حاضر کی تناظر میں عرف اور عادت کی شرعی حیثیت: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ
بین المذاہب ہم آہنگی کے لئے اقوام متحدہ کا کردار
مستدلات شرعىہ کی روشنی میں بیعت کا ناقدانہ جائزہ
الإيجاز في القرآن الكريم: دراسة بلاغية
إنهاض المجتمع و تنوير العقل دراسة في روايات طه حسين و نذير أحمد
استشهاد ابن زيدون بأشعار المتنبى في رسالته الجدية التي كتبها في غياهب السجن
مناهج القدماء في الاستدلال من ’’ شرع من قبلنا‘‘ دراسة تطبيقية
دور القواعد النحوية في استنباط الأحكام الشرعية من الآيات القرآنية
أثر القرآن الكريم في شعر أحمد شوقي
أبو الأحرار محمد محمود الزبيري وخدماته الأدبية
مکانة السنة في نظر أهل القرآن
منهج الشعر العربي وأساليب تدريسه في الدرس النظامي للوفاق المدارس العربية
Communication Skills in Islamic Perspective
Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance
Economic Policies of Pakistan During Military Rules an Analytical Study in Islamic Perspective
Muhammad (SAW) in the Near-Contemporaneous Non-Muslim Sources: An Appraisal of Robert Spencer’s Views
An Analysis of Indo-Pakistan Nuclear Doctrines
Kipling’s Depiction of the Great Game Between British India and Czarist Russia
The Creation of Universe in the Light of Quran
The Notions of Obtainable Politics in the Light of Quran
Principles of Effective Management according to Quran and Sunnah
Protection of Working Women Rights in the Light of the Teachings of Islam
Transplant and Donation of Organs in Islamic Perspective
Constitutional Provisions for the Rights of Non-Muslim Minorities in Pakistan

Abstract

Islamic banking system is growing day by day. The new era of Islamic banking is very successful as new products are being introduced by Islamic banks to cater the demands of customer under Shariah guidelines, there was demand of a product for working capital as an alternative to the conventional product of running finance. Running Musharakah Product has been introduced as substitute to Running Finance Product. In this paper the concept of Running Finance as well as Running Musharakah is described, the practical steps of running Musharakah are also illustrated to examine the viability of the product.

Islamic Banking Industry Worldwide:

From a situation nearly 40 years ago when it was virtually unknown, Islamic banking has expanded to become a distinctive and fast growing segment of the international banking and capital markets. An Islamic banking and financial system exists to provide a variety of religiously acceptable financial services to the Muslim communities. In addition to this special function, the banking and financial institutions, like all other aspects of Islamic society, are expected to ‘contribute richly to the achievement of the major socio-economic goals of Islam’.[1] The most important of these are economic well-being with full employment and a high rate of economic growth, socioeconomic justice and an equitable distribution of income and wealth, stability in the value of money, and the mobilization and investment of savings for economic development in such a way that a just (profit sharing) return is ensured to all parties involved. Perhaps the religious dimension should be presented as a further explicit goal, in the sense that the opportunity to conduct religiously legitimate financial operations has a value far beyond that of the mode of the financial operation itself.

The encouraging response received from different corners of the Globe resulted in tremendous growth of Islamic Banking in financial world during the recent years while offering innovative financial solutions for basic financial needs in under-served markets especially in the Muslim worlds to complex financial requirement of the modern times, it is seen as a socially responsible and ethical banking model with considerable growth potential.

History of Islamic Banking in Pakistan:

‎Pakistan has made a bold attempt in 1980’s to start Islamic banking by converting the whole banking and financial system into Islamic system. However in the first phase, Pakistan’s efforts had to face difficulties due to some reasons such as lack of Shariah complaint mechanism in financial institutions, , lack of public awareness about Islamic economic system, weak political spirit of successive governments for Islamization of economy, lack of socio-economic will etc.

After the historical Supreme Court judgment on 19th December, 1999, Commission for transformation of financial system was formed and the said commission evolved and formed a new approach towards financial sector of Pakistan. This approach includes establishment of full-fledge Islamic Banks, Islamic Banking subsidiaries of existing banks and stand alone branches for Islamic Banking in order to promote Islamic Banking in Pakistan as a parallel banking system which is compatible to conventional banking system and the same is Shariah Compliant.[2]

The new strategy worked very well for Islamic Financial industry in the country as total assets under the management of Islamic Banks in Pakistan reached Rs. 1.745 trillion by the end of June 2016 from Rs. 6.97 billion in December 2002. Total Islamic Banking deposits reached to Rs. 1.461 trillion in June 2016 from Rs. 5 billion in 2002.[3] During this period the share of Islamic Banking assets and deposit in overall banking sector has reached to 13.2 percent.

Branch network of Islamic Banking Industry is continued to expand and reached up to a total number of 2146 of Islamic Banking branches in all over the country.[4]

Structure of Islamic Banking

The role of Islamic banks is defined by M. Ayub as under:[5]

Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) also serve as intermediaries between the saving surplus and the deficit units/households. However, the instrument of ‘interest’ is replaced with a number of instruments. While conventional banks mainly pay and charge interest in their operations, Islamic financial institutions have to avoid interest and use more than one key instrument as a basis of their intermediary activities. The striking difference is that risks in Islamic banking remain with the ownership as a result of which IFI’s share of profit or loss arising on investments and earn return on their trading and leasing activities by dint of the risk and liability taken and adding value in real business activities. They mobilize deposits on the basis of profit/loss sharing and to some extent on the basis of Wakalah against pre-agreed service charge or agency fee.

On the assets side, they take the liability of loss, if any, in case of Musharakah/Mudarabah based financing and bear risk in trading activities so long as the assets remain in their ownership. In leasing activities they purchase the assets, give them on rental and bear ownership related risks as also expenses. It implies that IFIs will remain as intermediary as they would collect savings from a large number of savers/investors for financing the needs of business, agriculture and industry, but their modus operandi will change. Their subject matter will be the goods and real business activities.

Islamic banking Products and Services

The following table 1 presents product wise Islamic advances breakup.[6]

Table 1 Product-wise Islamic advances break-up

Nature of Product / Service Modes and Basis
I. Deposits – Fund Mobilization
Current Deposits Amanah – Qard to bank; no return payable
Savings deposits Mudarabah
General Investment Term Deposits Mudarabah
Special Investment Deposits Mudarabah, Close and open ended Mutual Funds, Wakalatul Istismār
Individual portfolios Mudarabah, Wakalatul Istismār
Liquidity generation Tawarruq – Reverse Murabaha, sale to any 3rd Party
II. Trade Finance, Corporate Finance:
Project Finance Musharakah, Mudarabah based TFCS, Syndication through Mudarabah, Murabaha, Istisna´a, Ijarah / Ujrah
Working capital finance Murabaha, Salam, Musharakah in single transactions
Export finance – pre-shipment Salam / Istisna´a plus Murabaha and Wakalah, Murabaha, Musharakah
Import finance Murabaha, Musharakah
Cash finance Salam, Istisna´a, Tawarruq (sale to 3rd party)
Export finance - post shipment (Bill discounting) Qard Hasan in local currency (spot rate) and promise to sell Foreign exchange in future market – exchange rate differential bank’s income; Murabaha if funds needed for next consignment.
Letter of credit Commission, Ujrah alongwith Murabaha, etc
Letter of Gurantee Kafalah, service charge
III. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Production finance for inputs & pesticides Murabaha, Salam
Tube-wells, Tractors, trailers, farm machinery & transport (including fishing boats). Ijarah Munthiah bittamlik, Salam, Murabaha
Plough cattle Milch Cattle & other live stock; Dairy & Poultry Murabaha, Salam
Storage and other farm construction (viz. sheds for animals fencing etc.) Diminishing Musharakah or rent sharing
Land Development Operating Ijarah, Salam
Orchards, nurseries, Forestry. Salam, Musaqat
IV. Treasury
Money market – Inter-bank Mudarabah
Liquidity management Sale / purchase of permissible securities, Parallel Salam, Tawarruq.
Fund management Mudarabah, Wakalatul Istismār, trading in permissible stocks & Sukuk.
Trading in Sukuk, stocks Depending upon the nature of instruments
Forex operations Unilateral promise to buy/sell foreign exchange simultaneously at pre-agreed rate
V. Personal Advances (including consumer durables & housing)
Consumer durables Murabaha / Installments sale
Auto mobiles Ijarah Munthiah bittamlik, Murabaha
Housing Finance Diminishing Musharakah, Murabaha
Providing cash for personal needs Salam if Possible, Tawarruq

Source: Ayub, M (2007, pp. 194-195)

Working Capital Requirement

There is a need for the product in Islamic banking which cater to the demand of customers regarding working capital finance. In conventional banking, this requirement is fulfilled through Running Finance products. Industry experts in coordination with product developments department have introduced the Running Musharakah product for this purpose.

Running Finance: a Product of Conventional Banking

Running Finance (RF) is a very common form of borrowing by commercial and industrial concerns, and it is made available either against pledge or hypothecation of goods, produce or merchandise. In RF, a borrower is allowed to borrow money from the banker up to certain limit, either at once or as and when required. The borrower prefers this form of lending due to the facility of paying markup or service charges only on the amount he actually utilizes.

If the borrower does not utilize the full limit, the banker has to lose the return on the un-utilized amount. In order to offset this loss the banker may provide for a suitable clause in the cash finance agreement, according to which the borrower has to pay markup or service charges on at least on one-half or one quarter of the amount of cash finance limit allowed to him, even when he does not utilize the amount.[7]

Musharakah

‘Musharakah’ is a word of Arabic origin which literally means sharing. In the context of business and trade it means a joint enterprise in which all the partners share the profit or loss of the joint venture. It is an ideal alternative for the interest-based financing with far reaching effects on both production and distribution. In the modern capitalist economy, interest is the sole instrument indiscriminately used in financing of every type. Since Islam has prohibited interest, this instrument cannot be used for providing funds of any kind. Therefore, Musharakah can play a vital role in an economy based on Islamic principles.[8]

Types of Musharakah

There are two broad categories of Shirkah or partnership in Islamic jurisprudence. They are Shirkat-al-Milk and Shirkat-al-Aqd. Let us have a look at them.[9]

Shirkat-al-Milk

Shirkat-al-Milk is also known as proprietary partnership or partnership by ownership. It is further divided into two kinds:

Optional Partnership (Ikhtiary)

It is obvious from the very name of this kind of partnership. The relationship among the partners or parties comes into existence at their own will and consent.

Compulsory Partnership: (Ghair Ikhtiary)

It is also known as non-optional partnership. Under this kind of partnership two or more than two persons become partners with out their own effort or consent. The simplest example is the property of the deceased becomes a joint ownership of his/her heirs.

Shirkat-al-Aqd

Shirkat-al-Aqd is also known as contractual partnership or partnership by contract or joint commercial enterprise. It is an agreement between two or more individuals to share their assets, labor or liabilities for the purpose of earning profit. This type of partnership is affected by the mutual contract among the partners. It is further divided into three major types.[10] #

Shirkat-al-Amwal

The Arabic word Amwal means money or capital. This is a partnership in capital or investment when all members of the contract invest some capital into a business or commercial enterprise.

Shirkat-al-Aamaal

The Arabic word Aamaal is the plural of Amal which means action, deed, labor or service. Shirkat-al-Aamaal is also referred to as Shirkat-al-Sanai (because the capital of the partners is their skill) or Shirkat-al-Abdan (because the partners perform certain manual labor like tailors, electricians, butchers etc). This is a partnership in services where all members or partners jointly undertake to render some services for their customers and the income earned is distributed among them according to an agreed ratio.

Shirkat-al-Wujuh
It is known as credit partnership. The word ‘Wujuh’ is Arabic word which means face, which can be further used for reputation and goodwill. So, the partners in this type of partnership do business using their reputation and goodwill in the market instead of their skill and capital. The people trust in them due to their sense of responsibility and trustworthiness and their entrepreneurship qualities. They buy goods and commodities on credit at deferred price and sell them on the spot for cash. The profit so earned is then distributed at an agreed ratio among them.

Running Musharakah Product as an alternative to Running Finance

Running Musharakah is Shariah compliant alternative of Running Finance Facility available in conventional banking system. RM is based on the concept of contract of Musharakah (Shirkat-al-Aqd). Basic features of running Musharakah product are as under:[11]

  1. RM is a Shariah compliant alternate for conventional running finance facility which is the most popular product amongst the customers.
  2. Running Musharakah will allow customer to draw down funds and to adjust the same as and when required without submitting any additional document to the bank (as required in other modes of Islamic financing).
  3. The facility shall be offered to the customer who conducts a business declared as Halal and endorsed by Shariah.
  4. The profit sharing will be based on Gross Profit of customer business or any profit sharing ratio which shall be mutually agreed upon, in the Musharakah agreement/ contract and subject to revision quarter to quarter/ defined period to period.
  5. RM cannot be used for financing/ purchase of fixed assets.
  6. The Bank and the Customer will enter into Musharakah, based on Shirkat-ul-Aqd
  7. The Bank and the Customer will invest in the identified primary Operating Activities (or any identifiable segment thereof) of the Customer’s business
  8. Running Musharakah will be used to finance Customer’s Operating Activities only.
  9. Bank and customer will participate in the profits/(loss) generated by the Musharakah in proportion to their respective Profit sharing Ratios.
  10. Payment by the client is done provisionally and temporarily at the end of each Musharakah (Monthly/quarterly/biannual/annual as mutually agreed) period which is subject to final settlement.

Understanding the concept

In order to calculate total investment a simple working example of Running Musharakah with a retailer who purchases and sells the goods on the same day on cash is taken, thus having nil inventory turnover and average collection periods.[12]

Table 2 A Simple Working Example of Running Musharakah

Days Total Daily

Purchases

Bank

Investment

Balance

Customer

Investment

Total Sales Profit
(A) (B) (C=A-B) (D) (E=D-A)
1 100 50 50 115 15
2 100 70 30 115 15
3 200 40 160 230 30
4 200 60 140 230 30
5 150 30 120 173 23
6 200 60 140 230 30
Total 950 1,093 143
Average 158 52 107

Source: Authors’ own calculations

Total Investment

Since investment period in Musharakah would not be limited to the purchase/production and sale of goods on cash the same day, therefore the results of the following formula will be used to arrive at Musharakah Total Average Investment:

Adjusted cost of goods sold multiplied by Inventory Turnover in Days and divided by Musharakah tenor + Adjusted COGS multiplied by Average Collection Period in Days and divided by Musharakah tenor.

The Inventory & Accounts Receivable will be based on average of the preceding three quarterly financial statement immediately preceding Musharakah Tenor, normalized for extraordinary changes (if any) in customer business model.

Table 3 Running Musharakah Total Average Investment

Days COGS FG* Acc Rec Customer Bank
1 3,000 3,000 2,000 1,000
2 3,000 2,000 1,000
3 3,000 2,000 1,000
4 3,000 2,000 1,000
5 3,000 2,000 1,000
6 3,000 2,000 1,000
7 3,000 2,000 1,000
8 3,000 2,000 1,000
9 3,000 2,000 1,000
10 3,000 2,000 1,000
11 3,000 2,000 1,000
12 3,000 2,000 1,000
13 3,000 2,500 500
14 3,000 2,500 500
15 3,000 2,500 500
16 3,000 2,500 500
17 3,000 2,500 500
18 3,000 2,500 500
19 3,000 2,500 500
20 3,000 2,500 500
21 3,000 2,500 500
Total 3,000 46,500 16,500
Average 100 1,550 550

Source: Authors’ own calculations.

  • Finished Goods
  1. Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) is an income statement item, it relates to the whole period of the business and gives a more accurate picture compared to the Current Asset figures, which are a balance sheet items and portray only the end of period information.[13]
  2. Normally COGS is calculated as follows:

Opening Stock + (Direct Labor + Direct Raw Material + Direct Overheads) – Closing Stock

  1. For the purpose of Musharakah the COGS will have to be adjusted to exclude expenses such as repair & maintenance, stores & spares, plant depreciation, plant insurance, etc from direct overheads which are not related to the activities of the Musharakah.
  2. The Facility Limit can be calculated as percentage of the average value of Stock-in-Trade and Trade Receivables appearing in the preceding four financial year statements of the company. For example the following table shows the calculation of Facility Limit for ABC Cement for the year 2016.

Table 4 Facility Limit Calculation for ABC Cement

Amount in “000”
2013 2014 2015 TOTAL
Avg of Stock in Trade 144,026 273,594.5 553,837 323,819
Avg of Trade Recievables 19,582 60,598.5 287,528 107,940

BANK'S MAXIMUM LIMIT (at 70%)

431,759
302,231

Source: Authors’ own calculations

Profit and Loss Sharing

  1. The Profit Sharing Ratio between the bank and the customer will be in proportion to their respective investment ratios in the running musharakah up to an agreed profit ceiling
  2. The running musharakah loss will be shared between the bank and the customer in proportion to their respective investment ratio

Conclusion

Keeping in view the demand of the customers as well as the structure of the product it is expected that the product will grab huge share of finance portion in the industry in near future which will be a very good sign for overall growth of the industry because demand of the customer who need running finance will be catered by the product. However some issues of the products are needed to be addressed especially some shariah issues which are related to the distribution of profit and realization of the contribution of partners.


References

  1. Chapra, Muhammad Umer (1985) Towards a Just Monetary System, The Islamic Foundation Leicester, UK, p. 34.
  2. KAP Study, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Islamic Banking in Pakistan, Joint Study of SBP and UK Department for International Development, P. 03. Retrieved from http://www.sbp.org.pk/publications/KAPStudy.pdf
  3. State Bank of Pakistan (Sep 2016) Islamic Banking Bulletin, P. 05.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ayub, Muhammad (2007) Understanding Islamic Finance, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 206-207.
  6. Ibid
  7. Siddiqi, Asrar H. (2015) Practice and Law of Banking in Pakistan, Royal Book Company Karachi, 9th Edition, p. 286.
  8. Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (1998) An Introduction to Islamic Finance, Idaratul Ma’arif, Karachi, p. 17.
  9. Farooq, Muhammad and Ahmad, Mushtaq (2013) Musharakah Financing: Experience of Pakistani Banks, pp. 181-189. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21 (2).
  10. Ibid.
  11. Taqwa Islamic Banking, Running Musharakah Manual 2016, The Bank of Punjab.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.