The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Al-Idah
Title The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan
Author(s) Iqbal, Mehnaz
Volume 37
Issue 1
Year 2019
Pages 37-51
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Chicago 16th Iqbal, Mehnaz. "The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan." Al-Idah 37, no. 1 (2019).
APA 6th Iqbal, M. (2019). The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan. Al-Idah, 37(1).
MHRA Iqbal, Mehnaz. 2019. 'The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan', Al-Idah, 37.
MLA Iqbal, Mehnaz. "The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan." Al-Idah 37.1 (2019). Print.
Harvard IQBAL, M. 2019. The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan. Al-Idah, 37.
مقاصد شریعت کا تصور اور ان کا اطلاق
سوشل میڈیا کا استعمال اخلاقیات اور شریعت کے نکتہ نظر سے: ایک تفصیلی جائزہ
معاشی امداد باہمی کے جدید ادارے اور اسلامی نقطہٴ نظر: ایک تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ
الرّسم العثماني وأثره على المعاني القرآنية
التّناص الدّيني والأدبي في شعر ابن اللّبانة الدّاني (ت 507 هـ) القرآن الكريم والشّعر القديم أنموذجان
أساليب الحافظ الزيلعي في نقد متون السنة من خلال نصب الراية
ظاهرة الحذف في الجملة الفعلية دراسة نحوية دلالية في صحيح البخاري
الاستدراك: أهميته وأثره في تفسير القرآن الكريم تبيان القرآن ومفاتيح الغيب نموذجا
شیخ محمد یعقوب شرودي: حیاته، خدماته وآثارہ العلمیة
الأساليب النبوية في معالجة التطرف الديني
الشيخ محمود بن بكر البخاري الكلاباذي: حياته وآثاره دراسة متخصّصة لكتابه ضوء السراج في علم الفرائض
Maulᾱna Waḥῑduddῑn Khᾱn’s Views on Relation Between Islam and Secularism
Media Framing of the ‘War on Terror’: The Case of Urdu-Language Elite Press During the Dictatorial Regime in Pakistan
Correlation Between Internal and External Assessment at University Level: Acase Study of I. E. R, University of Peshawar
The Incident of September 11 (2001) & its Socio Political Implications on Pakistan
Role of Religion in Mate Selection Among Educated Working Women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Abstract

Abstract: The paper identifies major changes in educational policies in Pakistan after the incident of September 11. It hoards the facts on the attack of September 11(2001) that had no direct link with Pakistan, but has changed the spectrum of regional policies and shifted the traditional way of learning with west-led agenda on the name of international standards. The study indicates major changes and shifts in the education policies and national curriculum as well as amendments in legal framework and laws including 18th Constitutional Amendment of 2010 and Article-25A of the Constitution of Pakistan. The struggle for uniform education system by various political and military governments throughout the history of Pakistan since independence is also scooped and a comprehensive view is provided on major policy changes and its impacts on education system in Pakistan. The research is based on analysis of primary and secondary sources of information. It is a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Pakistan as a State still is in the list of developing countries and struggling with internal and external problems and their effects caused hurdles in the process of development and reforms in various sectors including education. Security remained one of the major subjects of focus for Pakistan for last many decades along with other administrative matters. The matters including economy, infrastructure development and strengthen democratic system in with democratic or dictator led governments whichever was the case of administration continued tackling with security and terrorism within the state as a top priority issue since 9/11. Pakistan’s investment on education sector remained poor in which resulted lagging behind of the country in all major development indicators. Education remained the core subject that bough up revolution in 21st century and hence has acquired greater importance around the world. After 18th Amendment, the duty of satisfactory spending on education consequently dwells with each province to have the capacity to satisfy Pakistan's national and international duties regarding education. The research encompassed efforts of Pakistan’s administration during various eras on national and international level to meet requirements of international standard education policies.

Received: Jan 12, 2019 Accepted: May 22, 2019 Published: June 30, 2019

Education remained essential part of human life that unfolded ways for development of nations. Education plays a life-sustaining role in growth of countries both economically and socially. There are number of way a country could excel through education, for instance, education is the only way to help public become informed and better citizens, it assists them in recognizing the importance of vote and power sharing, it opens new ambits and provides better opportunities for employment to public and helps individuals recognize their legal rights provided within the system they are living and gives them courage to stand up against any illegal acts either committed by other peoples, political parties and systems, national or international policies or by their rulers.

Pakistan as a State remained in the list of developing countries since long and still struggling with internal and external problems and their effects caused hurdles in the process of development and reforms in various sectors including education. Security remained on of the major subject of focus for Pakistan for last many decades along with other administrative matters including economy, infrastructure development and strengthen democratic system in with democratic or dictator led governments whichever was the case of administration continued tackling with security and terrorism within the state as a top priority issue.

Traditionally, Pakistan’s education policies stayed under the dense impact of faith systems, universal disputes, local patterns and socialist motivation. Prior to September 11 and the developing powers of radicalism, the administration decided on a new “National Education Policy (NEP 2009)”. The approach stayed propelled through the possibility of globalization and pronounces instruction and education as an information economy. In spite of fact that administration adulates the approach, the ethnic slants, the restriction, the religious groups and the overall population contradict it as far as access and value.[1]

Literature Review:

A year after independence, Pakistan turned out to be a part of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of United Nation. In this way, Pakistan compelled to the ‘Article 26’ of this treaty that says. "Everybody has the privilege to education. Education shall be free, in any event in the rudimentary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be mandatory…." (UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948).[2] Later on the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan (1973) proclaimed: "the state of Pakistan should evacuate absence of education and give free and necessary secondary education inside least conceivable period".

In late 19th century, Bhutto tribe came in control with concept of communism and made and effort to nationalized all institutions of the Pakistan. Thus, the quantity of the general population area schools expanded to some extend that ended up noticeably unmanageable.[3] Along these lines the nationalization approach did not accomplish the focused on objectives and it brought about diminishing enrolment rate and in addition generous money related advantages got from this division. Amidst Zia administration in 1977, privatization was reproved and educational institutes especially schools were denationalized as well as decentralized.[4]

Later on, gaps existed in getting education particularly to the rural territories and therefore ‘madrassa’ (religious school in which students study Koran and hadith along with other education) was proclaimed as sponsor of education alongside the private and government owned educational institutions. The madrassa turned into a dynamic piece of conventional instruction system in Pakistan and added exceptionally to eliciting figures of enrollments. The fundamental concentration of madrassas was the Islamic religious education. Blanchard specified in his report that there are thirteen thousand certified madrassas in Pakistan at that time.[5]

This development led to introduce and divide the educational system in Pakistan into three very systems, the government schools system, the private schooling system and the religious system comprised on religious madrassas, , serves the poor class of the country by giving the students’ free education, meal as well as shelter.[6]. The government education system was providing free compulsory education while its medium of instruction remained Urdu.[7] The second system – Private Educational Institutes – was based on English medium of instruction and speaking which catered the rich and elite classes in the country.[8]

A journal published by Georgetown University Press written by Zamir Akram (2002) titled ‘Pakistani-U.S. Relations after 9/11: A Pakistani Perspective’ made an argument about relationship between Pakistan and US after 9/11. He was of the view that relationship between Pakistan and US have qualitatively transformed after World Trade Center incident on September 11, 2001. Pakistan has become a key player in war against terrorism and its position has shifted from marginal to center. The then President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf offered US to join international collision against terrorism which was the key decision and reflected Pakistan’s geostrategic position in the region and the Islamic world. Pak-US relation evolved through times in a desire to contribute for peace, prosperity and security of the region. The two countries extended support to each other and there was a need to make the relation long-term and sustainable which was vital for the overall sustainability of the region. This overall condition has also change the domestic dynamics and revision of various policies with the pro-modernization approach.[9]

The National Education Policy of 2009 states that uniformity in Pakistan’s education system flows from the Constitution which bounds the State to organize effective and equitable education system to enhance overall wellbeing of Pakistanis. A uniform education system is essential for sharing the ideas, purposes and objectives of a State. It states that ‘the institution of Education in fact, plays the source of the faith that the nationals have on the State, arbitrating the accomplishments of the past times with the ambitions of the succeeding eras for all the citizens of any given State’.[10]

The Guardian writes a story on critical relations between Pakistan and US during the times of American led war in Afghanistan. It was stated that Pakistan has suffered lot during this war as CIA and other agencies conducted their activities inside Pakistan, frequency of American Drone Attack was at rise and lack of progress in Afghanistan were some of the major factors fueling rift between the two countries. The paper quoted statement of the then Interior Minister of Pakistan, Mr. Rahman Malik who said that the Americans should stop charging others for their troubles in Afghanistan, where ferocity has aggravated in the past year and reconciliation efforts have made little progress. "If the strategy is not right, all the stakeholders have to share responsibility," Malik said. This position of Pakistan showed the impuissance and need based relationship of US-Pakistan and how badly it costs the country economically and socially.[11]

Daily Dawn, a reputed English language newspaper had written a piece on Timeline: History of US-Pakistan relations in June, 2014 which posited that the ties between Pakistan and America mainly remained focus on military and economic support while it is also a fact that US was one of the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with Pakistan. Pakistan remained most import strategic ally of United States after 9/11. Pakistan remained major party to arrange dialoged between US and Taliban and negotiate for peaceful solutions but on failure of negotiation, Pakistan agreed to provide its complete support to American authorities and offered its ground territory which was used by US for armed action against Taliban and Al-Qaida. The mounted international pressure to become a friend and opt the war against terrorism was the only choice for Pakistan after 9/11. US in response lifted all the sanctions which were previously imposed on Pakistan. Pakistan’s cooperation in war against terrorism was recognized worldwide and US in reply forgave a billion dollar worth loan previously granted to Pakistan in a goodwill gesture.[12]

Ikram in his research paper on war on terrorism and its impacts on society of Pakistan conducted a survey to analyze and understand the initial level of development of war against terrorism and its links to Pakistani society. He argued that the code of behavior of Pashtuns enforced them to give shelter and aid to militant as part of their culture. This act is satisfactory for Arab and Afghans but it’s a crime in the eyes of West countries. He argued that after 9/11, fight against terrorism became the foreign policy of United States and the then Leader of US George Bush announced soon after the incident on state television that the world has to decide if they are with US or against him because every nation in every region has to deal with terrorists from now which was the option for Pakistan to choose at that time and Pakistan chose to become the part of international collision against terrorism.[13]

Objectives of the Study:

The major objectives specifically designed for the study topic are as following:* To analyzing the account of Pakistan-US ties (pre as well as post 9/11) frameworks the foremost factors presently inducing this relationship and offers an attitude to reinforce the footing for forthcoming Pak-US collaboration. Describing the outcomes of 9/11 and looking into the foreign policy of Pakistan before 9/11.

  • To inspect the education policy of Pakistan after September 11.
  • To propose suggestions for future prospect of education policy of Pakistan.

Statement of the Problem:

The study investigates post 9/11 Pak-US relation and political and regional shift in the policies at local level. Pakistan remained key ally of US against war on terror and the incident of September 11 which created economic and political chaos within the country. Many armed conflicts were witnessed after 9/11 inside Pakistan boundaries.

Through this research, an attempt is made to identify and list down major changes in educational policies in Pakistan soon after the incident of September 11 in US. The utmost effort was put in to collect the facts on how international incident that does not have any direct link with Pakistan, has changed the spectrum of regional policies and shifted the traditional way of learning with west-led agenda on the name of international standards.

Research Methodology:

The research is based on analysis of primary and secondary sources of information. It is a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods and encompassed the historic, experimental, comparative and descriptive methods to analyze the problems under investigation.

According to a cosmopolitan publication institute – SAGE – the foundation of research in the social sciences is historical methods. This orchestrating and integrative venture on the technique of historical sociology addresses automatic goals, interpretive standards, illustrative rationale, and substantive applications to frame a one of a kind commitment to the field. [14]

The historical methods in the social sciences offers the broadest disciplinary scope accessible with commitments from manifest history specialists, anthropologists, sociologists, political researchers, financial analysts, clinicians, and scholars and furthermore includes a more profound and more extensive interdisciplinary engagement with the most problems that need to be addressed of hypothesis and technique. By republishing a considerable lot of the most original commitments in the field of historical sociology, this four-volume set draws together probably the most lighting up reflections on verifiable sociological research rehearses by and accessible, and should along these lines fill in as a basic academic hot spot for every one of those occupied with this interdisciplinary endeavor.[15]

The historic method was adopted to discuss educational polices of country since independence. Descriptive and comparative methods were used to discuss the reasons and factors affecting various educational policies while experimental method is used to determine relationship and comparison of educational procedures. A detailed survey of literature covering different aspects of the research was also conducted for this study.

Discussion:

After the incident of 9/11, Pakistan’s foreign policy took a U-turn due to external and internal factors. There is a lack of coherence, consistent academic work on the subject of political implication on Pakistan after 9/11. Pakistan molded its domestic and foreign policies because of 9/11 and it was said that the historic event will be written in a whole different form and with a whole new angle. The idea did not affect the foreign policy of the country but also impacted the national policies including policies related to education system.

A well-defined fact is that education plays vital role in national development. Development and progress in education can only be achieved through policy framing, comprehensive planning and liberal allocation of financial resources for this valuable sector. Pakistan current allocation on education is merely two percent of GDP which is very low than the international standard set for developing countries. The literacy rate of entire country stands at 58% as the country missed the set targets in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the United Nations. The enrolment ratio in primary schools was 57% by the end of year 2011-12 which was set at 100% while the targeted literacy rate till 2015 was set on 88%. Additionally after the devolution of powers to provinces and 18th Constitutional Amendment in 2010, education is now a provincial subject and figures showed that literacy rate of Punjab province is 62%, Sindh (56%), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (53%) and Balochistan (46%).[16]

After 18th Amendment, the duty of satisfactory spending on education consequently dwells with each province to have the capacity to satisfy Pakistan's national and worldwide responsibilities regarding education. In a convinced advance, the vast majority of the provinces have dispensed noteworthy measures of spending plans for education. For monetary year 2016-17, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) remained the main region that has expanded the education budget in its aggregate spending plan for province, making it the province with most elevated education spending designation for the second successive year. Out of the aggregate 505 billion rupees worth of common spending plan, the KP government has reserved 143 billion rupees for education (28% of the aggregate spending plan contrasted and 24.6 percent in financial year 2015-16. Sindh has allotted 20 percent of its aggregate spending plan (PKR 176 billion out of a sum of PKR 869 billion) trailed by Punjab with 19 percent spending plan dispensed for education (PKR 313 billion out of 1,681 billion rupees). The portions in both these provinces have marginally diminished from the earlier year i.e. 20% in Sindh and 19.8% in Punjab consequently. In Balochistan in any case, the spending on education has significantly fell. In last six years the increase in education budget in Balochistan from 10 percent in 2010-11 to 20 percent in 2015-16, the administration radically sliced the apportioning to 17 percent (PKR 49 billion out of PKR 289 billion) in 2016-17.[17]

Pakistan’s investment on education sector remained poor which results in lagging behind of the country in all major development indicators. Education remained the core subject that bough up revolution in 21st century and hence has acquired greater importance.

The aforementioned arguments required immediate actions by major stakeholders in the country to boost the education development which is essential for overall progress. The given issues were addressed in this research to comprehend the long history of educational policies in Pakistan which were time to time impacted by overall situation in the world especially ally states of Pakistan including Untied States.

The day of September 11, 2001, Pakistan faced worse trouble of all the time ever in its history. There were mixed opinions about which side to choose and which to not. The one decision could change the entire spectrum of future relations with world as the international community has already decided against the terrorism and ready to launch a full fledge operation against the militant groups where ever in the world, following the statement of US soon after the incident.

The super power was overpowered by outrage and wasted no moment in deciding and providing its reaction to this incident. The then president of United States George W. Bush debilitated solid action in contradiction of the fear mongers and promised that America has decided to do "whatever it takes" to rebuff terrorists and persons involved in this incident. Bush cautioned different countries that there is "no impartial ground in the battle amongst human progress and terror." Strict reformatory measures would likewise adopt against the individuals who "harbored" terrorism or terrorists.[18]

The state had yet to decide their association with the United States of America on war against terrorism. The choice was crude "dark or white." A Senior Administration official quoted it that: "You're either with us or against us." Pakistan, on the other hand, had to decide it relation with Afghanistan which was good at that time and Afghani Taliban’s were the chief reason of terrorism incidents as pronounced by the US due to their alleged role in supporting Osama Bin Laden and providing his association Al Qaida due support to operate form the land of Afghanistan.[19] Pakistan was also viewed as a party which is having soft heart for such activists and blames were at the rise for involvement of Pakistani government in backing Taliban and not taking any actions against terrorism groups.

As indicated by one more report, published after the incident of 9/11, the US authorities must influence it to vibrant that "they won't be happy with sympathies and standard offers of assistance from Pakistan".[20] Musharraf, who was among the primary worldwide leaders to be informed, that inability to collaborate in the battle against terrorism might take his country not much closer to the United States and Pakistan may face its consequences.

Critical Analysis:

Concisely the policy for education being operated universally is basically emphasizing over the economic growth and preservation of knowledge, it also accentuates competitiveness and provide means to standardize the checks for measures and assessment and give way to education as means of power and control using stature of privatization and decentralization. All of the above can easily be seen in pattern form throughout Pakistan. Significantly, it is pertinent to mention that there occurs hegemony as well and its factors have been picked up by neoliberalism globalization.[21] One needs to explore the arrangements being made in inclinations that are advancing throughout Pakistan. Study imparts and explains different mechanics international policies seeps within nationwide policies.[22] These include: coordination, spread, institutionalization, introducing association and inconvenience. Aside from inconvenience, different components generally take after passive methodologies, including: influencing, motivational setup, and combined contracts and prerequisites for participation. This explains the presence of digressive approaches with support via materialistic procedures. A number of policy makers have given opinions internationally on how this global policy seeped into national policy.

For basic understanding of the international policy being implemented in Pakistan, one has to bear in mind and cognize the fact that this policy camouflage into other policy and then arrived within nationwide space.[23] Keeping in view different aspects one may assume that the policy has been made in order to keep both sides happy and use a midway so that the policy may be implemented and people might not understand as to what happened like it is said “kill two birds with one stone”.[24] Besides all this, our establishment and bureaucratic personals love being in-charge and show off those international pressures are zero before them.

All things considered, conditions on national and international scale with respect to education policy will not be tensed unless something invisible appears from side of Pakistan. For instance Pakistan is anticipated to lose its settled goals under millennium development and EFA goals with higher limitations. There have been pressures on Pakistan from the donating agencies which require Pakistan to meet the above stated goals. Unless the goals are met, Pakistan cannot have more of developmental funding. Besides this Pakistan aims to achieve its own set targets for the vision of 2030. A major issue is a heavy investment in the sector of education for achieving desired results. Pakistan also faces the issues of its ideology and at some places it seems to be baffled considering its ideology. People of Pakistan are diverse ethnically and culturally yet in its books there is a symbol for either good Pakistani or Good Muslim only. On the other hand, ever since the incident of 9/11 occurred, Pakistan has external pressures on it for changing its educational policies and make amendments where international community deems fit. These pressures have brought tensions for the country and generated feelings that does not correspond will of the nation

As we talk about education in Pakistan, one of the assumptions that is made is that it has a dominant madrassa system where trainings for Jihad are given[25] or it has an education sector where there is a great need to invest more as it is being invested by some vested powers.[26] Some may think that by investing more and more education system minus Islam can be achieved thus ending the problem of radical Islam. Each parent would send their children to learn Islam as a religion and respect its values and none of them would ever want their children to go to schools and practice militancy.[27]

Analytical Review of Education Policy of Pakistan:

This particular section deals with the development of white paper pertaining to education policies in Pakistan and keenly scrutinizes the methodologies it used highlighting its flaws and weaknesses. The claims of White Paper have been rejected due to a number of logical reasons.

The archive covers Islamic references. In any case, this one maintains a strategic distance from any genuine discourse in this regard, keeping its primary purpose mainstream. "Vision Statement" concentrates over availability cum improvement on aptitudes yet hives no strong bases to the proposed strategy report.

In place of "Islamic Republic of Pakistan", white paper used "State of Pakistan" and since it has been repeated over and over, it seems like a deliberate attempt to display the nation as a secular state. Since this is an attempt to move the ideology of Pakistan it may be termed as rebellious attitude. It stresses the execution viewpoint and shows some genuinely great proposition for change.

As far as essential focuses and approach suggestions, the White Paper is loaded with logical inconsistencies, befuddled thoughts and negligent redundancy. It is not just without vision and understanding, yet additionally offers just shallow guidance for handling the issues confronting our training.

Apparently, White Paper proposed uniformity of education throughout the country by the end of 2015 but if seen through original lens, this turns out to be a disaster for the education and lower class of the country.

In order for transforming instructive framework, White Paper focuses over the requirement in "investments in massive capacity building programs for NGOs in the fields of literacy and informal education.” In "Strategy Recommendations," it additionally contradicts: "Syllabus ought to be diverse for developed and undeveloped areas". This uncovered the approach producers' genuine aims that as opposed to their claim of getting consistency they are broadening the inlet between the rulers and the ruled on a lasting premise.

Recent census of education in Pakistan has rated that primary and intermediate level possessing poor conditions. As indicated by this statistics, "534,810 (37.8%) schools have no limit dividers, 46,766 (32.3%) government schools don't have the plan of drinking water tap. 572,16 (40.5%) schools are without restroom, 816,33 (56.4%) schools are without power and 97,76 (6.8%) schools have no working of their own and are working either under the sun (shade gave by trees), or in acquired temporary game plans.

In the caption cum headline "Access to Elementary Education," White paper gives yet another proposal of starting of co-education schools at elementary levels especially in the rural areas. This, as per their proposal, will enable good environment for both girls and boys. In this way it will also be easier to distribute and utilize budgets effectively. The proposal may apparently look fine but it will have many repercussions. The locals of many areas will not accept this as this is strictly against culture of many areas in the country.

Paper gives a detailed account on the use of language as medium of education. In almost throughout the world people prefer to use their national language as the medium of instruction. But somehow, this view does not seem to be applicable in the eyes of the authors of the papers. They have portrayed Pakistan being a house for tons of nations who are trying harder to get along or have been bound to stay together for the past 70 years. It is observed that the idea of national language is some kind of stigma in our society and has been displayed highly negatively. At some places it has been turned out to be religious hoax. The author of this paper does not stop here and describes to be the necessity of time and place and so on it should be made the essential medium of communication and syllabus in all the institutions. Year 2008 has been marked as the benchmark for making English compulsory language in all the institutes.[28]

The paper suggests the introduction of technical subjects at the level of schools. The level to being with is middle to 9th standard. In addition to this it proposes to start discrete technical training centers along with poly techniques institutes. The proposal came at the time when there is already a huge network of these institutions. Keeping in view the conditions of Pakistan where there are least labs for the science projects it will be very difficult to start something that cannot be continued and much needed unavailable facilities will dissatisfy the students. Also, multiple programs of different natures cannot be perpetuated under one roof. They demand different inputs, different environments and different cultures to go.

In the present age, unnecessary expenses for the sake of education in the names of entry exams, schema that could support or finances to be maintained by one make it look like a marketing business. True respect of education and holiness of scholars are like the stories of Stone Age. Tragically, This White Paper is good for nothing.

In opinion of the author of the paper, children as younger as in their secondary level must take the aptitude tests so that their interests may be flourished, and this can be established if the child wants to choose one stream or another. The idea, as an idea, may be excellent but there exists a large queue of questions as to what parameters will be used in implementation of this idea. Ultimately, some retired defense personal or some vested funded foreign NGO or even some consultant shall be interviewed or hired for the job. Eventually this hired person will have no proper background and will only be interested in the bugs paid to him/her. Subsequently, amount in millions will be utilized and end result shall be the future of the younger generation being affected adversely.

Using the caption "Islamic Education," report states: "The soul of Ijtehad having been lost because of its absence of enquiry… the Pakistani Muslim is suffocated in an ocean of dogmatism" and, in this way, tailoring in Islamic education is ought to custom-made in order to create "proactive [Muslim] scholars and not responsive incrementalists, whose convictions decline into authoritative opinions." It is therefore suggested: "The quality and access of freely financed schools ought to be raised to the level that there is no impulse for guardians and students to be headed to parallel surges of training; be it private educational cost, English medium schools or Madrassas." The only question one would ponder about is pertinence of the mentioned approach proposal with actual Islamic teachings.

Under the other proposal, White paper says: "Also, people wanting to seek after advanced education in Islamic sciences ought to be energized till such time that these theological schools are supplier of training and not as inculcation reason for any disruptive or dangerous exercises" (p. 52). This, once more, mirrors a forceful character of language which does not display any encouraging or optimistic note.

Pertinent to the situation here is the message delivered to the news person by Minister of Education: "The NWFP Government had solicited to incorporate Urdu Textbooks from Class IX more subjects identifying with Islamic history and in books of Islamiyat more Ayat (verses of Holy Qur'an) and Ahadith (quotes of Prophet [PBUH]) with their Urdu interpretation. We have acknowledged their demand, yet these progressions will be presented in the NWFP only." It is necessary to addressed here if the choices made in the message are ambassador of best governance practices and national solidarity.[29]

In caption of "Linkages with Principal Social Issues," it is mentioned that: "Pakistan has endured, in late decades, from pressure (and even fears mongering) activated by social polarizations in light of partisan contrasts and prejudice. This has brought about wastage of national endeavors and monetary misfortunes owing to debate radiating from disunity and radicalism. The over-blown clash is analyzed because of influence and political motivation." It has, along these lines, been suggested: "School education should now be intended to smoothen from turbulences of partisan contrasts and build up a national character and standpoint of incorporation and resilience," also: "Educational program and course readings must not cultivate, or prompt, sectarianism. All troublesome material be removed from the normal educational modules and course books." It, clearly, is much overstated record about circumstance which is way lesser unstable as explained by defenders of 'illuminated balance' would really like it to be. With the exception of sporadic episodes of partisan inconveniences at a couple of spots, there is not really anything that might be named as unstable or disturbing. No place in the nation is there any partisan separation at the prevalent level. Such pessimist publicity is quite proportional to the reasoning for magnificent forces which aids to their motivation exceptionally good. It aims to portray Islamic soul as fanatic and wishes to radicalize education system of madrassas.[30]

Besides, does not exist in any book or reading material that ignite the hatred for sectarianism. It has always been thought mandatory to establish true sense of Islam and therefore only peace, love, brotherhood and topics of fraternity have been added to the courses. Students have always been taught about moral and ethical values of humanity. The author seems to be working on some agenda.

In the topics of "Linkage with Population Growth," it mentions: "Till the 60s, the administrations took many measures of making consciousness of populace welfare and administration. Be that as it may, a large number of these endeavors endured disappointments because of unyielding submission to the inevitable and costly mindfulness programs being transient basically" (p. 53). It, in this way, prescribes: "Populace Growth and Management should discover due, and positive, enunciation in school reading material" If the textbooks will have the matter as presented above in the classes as recommended, the next generation will reflect the tides of defiance and sex crimes and violations as an impression from the enlighten era.

During a meeting with Pakistan's Minister of Education, United States corresponding person Margaret Spelling guaranteeing nation's help, and stated: "Collaboration in the national training methodology of Pakistan and two-sided discourse in the field will proceed between the United States and Pakistan." Nevertheless, it is pertinent here to define the fields where aid and assistance and mutual cooperation shall be extended. It is well understood that they need to peek into the programs of nuclear sciences and space research along with other possible advancements.

The Human Rights Watch in its report[31] on attacks on schools by terrorist in Pakistan stated that these attacks have drastically impacted the education system in Pakistan. The report was released prior to the 2nd international conference of Safe Schools in capital city of Argentine Republic. It says that Pakistan had to faces critical educational challenges due to terrorism in the country that caused expected twenty-five million youngsters and students out of school. The figures are exceptionally higher than any other country in terms of overall proportion of out of school children, especially young females.[32]

The report, "Dreams Turned into Nightmares: Attacks on Students, Teachers, and Schools in Pakistan," accounts assaults by radicals during 2007 to 2016 that annihilated educational institutes’ structures, directed students and instructors and threatened guardians for sending their kids to school. Such assaults frequently affected female pupils and the instructors and schools for females, obstructing young ladies' entrance to educational institutes. The report likewise looks at control of schools and other educational buildings by political parties, security forces, and outlaw groups.

Conclusions and Recommendations:

The study investigates post 9/11 Pak-US relation and political and regional shift in the policies at local level. Pakistan remained key ally of US against war on terror and the incident of September 11 which created economic and political chaos within the country. Through this research, an attempt is made to identify and list down major changes in educational policies in Pakistan soon after the incident of September 11 in US. The utmost effort was put in to collect the facts on how international incident that does not has any direct link with Pakistan, has changed the spectrum of regional policies and shifted the traditional way of learning with west-led agenda on the name of international standards.

Education’s vital role in national development is evident. Development and progress in education can only be achieved through policy framing, comprehensive planning and liberal allocation of financial resources for this valuable sector.

Pakistan as a State remained in the list of developing countries since long and still struggling with internal and external problems and their effects caused hurdles in the process of development and reforms in various sectors including education. Security remained on of the major subject of focus for Pakistan for last many decades along with other administrative matters including economy, infrastructure development and strengthen democratic system in with democratic or dictator led governments whichever was the case of administration continued tackling with security and terrorism within the state as a top priority issue.

After 18th Amendment, the duty of satisfactory spending on education consequently dwells with each province to have the capacity to satisfy Pakistan's national and worldwide responsibilities regarding education.

Pakistan’s investment on education sector remained poor which results in lagging behind of the country in all major development indicators.

Traditionally, Pakistan’s education policies stayed under the dense impact of faith systems, universal disputes, local patterns and socialist motivation. Prior to September 11 and the developing powers of radicalism, the administration decided on a new “National Education Policy (NEP 2009)”.

Pakistan as an ally of US on war against terrorism has suffered lot both internally and externally and the country remained far behind from the global world because of changes in policies time to time which in result, neither favored nor aided Pakistan socially or economically. The international pressures and polices forced Pakistan to amend internal strategies including reform in education sector by changing national curriculum and national education policies yet the set targets were missed by large. As a sovereign state, Pakistan should not compromise on the internal plans and goals due to external pressures as there are many possibilities of negotiations on terms and condition that may led to harmful impacts on society.

The medium of instruction is one of the most important issues within the country for education system that needed to be taken seriously. The national medium of instruction should be English language and it should be taken as daily purist, facilitation and communication. Teachers and faculty staff’s training is required to achieve long term objectives in education sector.

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