Volume 34 Issue 1
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Almighty Allah created the man, endowed him with intellect and raised prophets among humanity for guidance. The scriptures were revealed by him which contained Divine commandments. Allah granted the prophets the power to show miracles to prove the truth of His message. Every prophet was endowed with miracles according to the need of hour and divine wisdom. The prophethood continued generation after generation and the prophet Muhammad (upon whom be peace and greeting) is the last in the chain of prophets. He was stengthened with countless miracles by Allah. Among these miracles, the Holy Qur`an is the greatest which is a universal and eternal miracle of the last prophet (peace be upon him).
In sahih Bukhari the reform’s of Imam Bukhari are present in various styles and artistically sahih Bukhari is an eximious book. But in this present confab we want to disuses such a topic which is about the colligation of sahih Bukhari’s parts and order. The intellectual advisability and sequences called the order of the parlance, and some time many points are practical and various expediencies recondite in this order. With identity the object of the speaker is explicated e.g., he started the book with incipiency and it is brought first because the inspiration the provenance of admonition. He arranges “kitab-ul-Emam” of on the second because to have belief on Allah as “Rab” is the most preeminent and also the prerequisite.
In the first Hdith انما الاعمال بالنيات is in the same order and we understand that candidness is not only enough in the outset but it should be obsessive on both the commencement and the verge. The advisability we understood is the deserts starts form intentness and suppress on the left. Imam Bukhari to words both radicals in the inception and completion of the book.
اجتماعی اجتہاد کا تصور اور عصر حاضر کے اہم توجہ طلب شرعی مسائل کے حل کے لئے عالم اسلام کے اہم اداروں کا تعارف
مصنف/مصنفین: احمد، رشید
The Concept of Collective Ijtihad and Introduction to Prominent Institutions in the Muslim World for resolving contemporary jurisprudential issues is a burning issue these days. Ijtihad is the effort made by the mujtahid in seeking knowledge of the ahkam (rules) of the Shariah through interpretation.
It is a known fact the ahkam specifically and explicitly prescribed in the Holy Quran and Sunnah are limited, and as human society evolves, new problems come to the fore. This is the responsibility of mujtahid to present solution of the problems in the light of the rules and principles prescribed in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. This endeavor can take place in three shapes, first by an individual effort of a mujtahid, second by a group of in the form of collective ijtihad while its more advanced shape is the consensus (ijma’a) of all the mujtahidin of the time. In this article all the three modes of ijtihad have been discussed and it has been concluded and suggested that the best option for resolving the issues faced by the Muslim Ummah is collective Ijtihad due its easy implementation. This also helps in avoiding many complications while seeking consensus (Ijma’a) in present day time. In this article a list of the problems have been given which need immediate attention of the Muslim scholars, while in the last part introduction of some prominent institutions of the Muslim World have been given with elaboration of their objectives.
This research paper will discuss the position of khula in case of without husband's consent or with husband's consent. All jurists and scholars unanimously said that khula is purely a transaction between husband and wife and which entirely depends upon them. Neither party is to compel to another party to implement khula. There should and must be basically hatred or aversion on the part of one or both of the parties pertaining to a strong wish to annul the marriage contract or any other feeling to produce such an effect. The present study is aimed to focus exceptional position of women in Islamic jurisprudence in order to formulate certain conditions of khula and its implementations. Conditions have been made clear in Islamic jurisprudence. In case of without consent of husband, the jurists have difference of opinion. If husband is not ready to give his consent, judiciary can give unilateral decision without his consent
Christianity is the top most practiced religion on earth and has over a billion followers across the nations. It is therefore a very important topic of interest in the field of comparative religious studies.
To understand the ideology of this religion, it is very important to get familiarize with the name, introduction to its believes, the important scriptures and references. This article encompasses the Introduction of: Christianity, Canonical Gospels and Basic believes/ belief system of Christianity.
Family is the basic unit of human society which forms in the shape of marriage between a couple. Historically, all human civilizations and religions have cared for the union between Man and woman by constituting norms and rules right from the solemnization till the death of any partner of the union. Similarly, the religion of Islam has provided all sort of guidance in this regard keeping in view the natural sensations of humans for cohabitation and making their lives pure as well as chaste. Generally, Islam does not encourage late or delayed marriages rather it incites its followers to marry at appropriate time after adulthood. However, nowadays trend of late and delayed marriages is getting popularity in our Pakistani society which is a point of deliberation for the social scientists and Muslim scholars. The current paper deals with this topic to elaborate its causes and suggests means for tackling in the light of Islamic instructions.
Human being is the combination of two elements (body and soul). Soul is the eternal element in human being. Body of human is subordinate to disease and illness. Similarly soul can also get illness and inner disease. Human being visits doctors for cure and getting better physical health of body, likewise for the care and cure of the soul of human needs to have spiritual attachment, which is called tasawof. In Muslim society, it is believed that Tasawoof is confined to four categories (Salasil) i.e. Naqashbandiya, Chishtiya, Saharwardiya and Qadariya. In the same context it is also accepted that some other names of different salasil exist in different societies and books, which made the confusion in the real picture and concept of Tasawof.
This article is an attempt to find these unfamiliar Salasil of tasawof and clarify their legal status. The researcher studied in this context which stated that tasawof is not restricted to the above mentioned four categories. The reason of less familiarization in the society is that the it was practiced by less followers at the time.
Ibn Khurdathba was a man with variable culture , he had an important role in the science of geography especially (knowing of the roads , locations of the cities , weather in addition to the news of general history and some arts like (music and singing ) The growth of Ibn Khurdathba in a family worked in the military field , close to the royal court has helped him to start his practical life early and allowed him also to contact with caliphs , ministers and writers in addition to occupying of the significant positions in the state , making it easier to get information from their original resources .. Ibn Khurdathba has descended from Persian family lately entered into Islam۔ One of earliest geographical works of this period, his famous Kitab al- Masalik wa’l= Mamalik’. It gives a summary of the main trade routes of the Arab world and in addition provides description of such distant China, Korea and Japan. This article attempts his life and his “Al masalik wa al mamalik” book, varies sides.
This study sheds light on the life of an important figure that has had a great impact on humanity throughout history and that is the personality of Prophet Yūsuf Al-Siddīq “Joseph the Truthful”، peace and blessings of God be upon him. Since sources cited different narratives revolving around the events in the Prophet’s life، the researchers aimed to explore such events in the archived sources pertaining to his life. The inductive comparative method was used to conduct this thorough study of Prophet Joseph’s biography. Having defined the meaning of the name of the Prophet Yūsuf Al-Siddīq “Joseph the Truthful”، the names of the Prophet’s ancestors were traced and explored based upon a documented proof of his genealogical ancestry. The study also sheds light on the Prophet’s homeland where he was born and raised. The study also explores the qualities of beauty that God bestowed on Prophet Joseph. Moreover، the study also discusses the Prophet’s morals، ethics and disposition. The study concludes with an investigation into the marriage of Prophet Joseph، peace be upon him.
Mian Muhammadi (son of Hazrat Mian Umer) was a great sufi saint and Islamic scholar of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan in 19th century and born in a well known village “Chamkani” of district Peshawar. He was a multi dimensional personality of his time being a saint respectful to the all sects of Muslims, as a poet of Arabic and Pashto, and a scholar having a systematic program for publication of the books. He has authored a number of books in various fields of Islamic Studies and Shariah adopting a unique methodology in writing.
He, the Mian Muhammadi, has spent his whole life in quenching the spiritual thirst of the local Muslim of that era on one hand, and spreading the knowledge on other hand. In the present paper, personal life, services as well as academic effects of this great saint have been discussed scholarly in order to bring forth his life sketch and contributions before the scholars.
Travelogue is a firm of literature which describes nation and people according to their history, civilization, politics, economics, and culture and presents cities and culture by showing the ideologies and manners/moralities, economics and society in the time when there were no transportation and the travelogues were the only source to get information. Because travelogue consists of the details about history and society, thus it has a tremendous amount of information and by offering characteristics of places and personalities. Moreover, travelogue describe personalities and events in the context of society and culture which provides a rich material to geologists, historicists as well as to the scholars of society ( sociologists) and students of literature and others.
Regarding life, people’s thoughts have always been different. This is because of their personal opinions and social and political life that greatly affects human lives. Some people lead a joyful and content life. They think life is full of joys and happiness. Therefore, they always remain hopeful about it; and thus lead a happy life. These optimists always search the positive aspects of life; and shun themselves away from the negative aspects which blacken life.
Amongst such people, one is Elia Abu Madi who seems to have adopted the positive and pleasurable aspect of life and invites others to do so. He is of the view that happiness is in human’s hand. If he wants, he can bring himself happiness. This article describes the mentioned strategy of this great poet that he has presented in his poem “The Philosophy of Life”.
There has been a tussle going on between Islam and democracy for many decades in the Muslim world which has benefited most certainly the anarchic factions like kings, lords and army dictators. Though democracy is close to Islam and thought to be the best of all types of governments as majority is authority in it that may make or mar the government. In a democratic setup, the individual and personal rights and freedom are considered which is why it is preferred more these days. Many as Muslim thinkers are also in favor of it, but still there is a large faction of clerical scholars who deem democracy as the root of all evils since it empowers general public as an authoritative and decisive force. However with the passage of time, the Islamic counseling system has evolved and come very close to the spirit of democracy. Therefore, may contemporary scholars hold Islamic counseling and democracy almost similar. This article aims to present a preview of democracy and counseling in the light of what the Ulema (Scholars) say about it.
There is a great importance and significance of the role of an individual to prevent his body and property from an aggression. Islamic law and conventional law has authorized an individual to repel any kind of aggression upon his body and property and has not forced him to stand hands bound towards the aggressor. This role of an individual will help to decrease the ratio of crimes in society. It has been strived in this paper to provide proof of its legalization from Quran, Sunnah and also from conventional law. It has also been tried to discuss the main portions and relevant issues relating to the said topic such as; aggression, offence, defence during the continuance of aggression or offence and retreat during the aggression in Shariah and Common Law.
It is very clear that Ahmad shoqi was titled as king of modern Arabic poetry due to his unforgettable literary deeds towards it. Apart it all, his good struggle toward Arabic prose were ignored in his life, because of the prose was not his field to be tried in and it has its own experts. Some of these experts collected his prose and compiled it in a huge encyclopedia of his literary works named “al mosoa al shoqia” (الشوقية الموسوعة). This article also discussed his literary prosaic struggles, his methodology which he acquired and the deficiencies which were pointed out by critics. Adding more, the feature of the prose are also drawn in.
Author: Sofi, Mohammad Dawood
Ḥajj―an annual Islamic congregation―is a supreme manifestation of Faith (Imān) in which muslims assemble to pronounce explicitly their subservience and loyalty to Almighty Allah alone. Besides freeing themselves from the squalor of Shirk, Muslims satiate their souls with the feelings of ‘Faith’ and ‘Unity.’ This fact is purely accomplished when the Muslims shed off their outer difference by donning the dress of unity (Iḥrām). Ḥajj is a perfect blend between ‘Creator’ and ‘creature’, ‘soul’ and ‘spirit’ on the one hand and an enduring and invaluable expression physically, socially, and materially on the other. From this pragmatic Institution, Pakistan―one of the premier countries of the Islamic world―can derive unprecedented benefits politically, socially, and economically. One of the important objectives of the paper is to describe the significance of Ḥajj to the people of Pakistan. In so doing, the paper examines and explores, objectively and analytically, the institution of Ḥajj and its implications on the Muslim world, particularly Pakistan. The first section of the paper, “Ḥajj―At a Glance”, presents meaning and historical background of Ḥajj. The second section “Revitalizing the Ḥajj”, besides presenting the revitalization of the Institution by the final Messenger (peace be upon him) also gives an overview of some of the very important rituals to be realized (during Ḥajj). The subsequent sections, “Socio-Economic Dimension of Ḥajj” and “Ḥajj―Implications and Impact on the Society of Pakistan”, describe respectively the socio-economic impact and leverage of the Ḥajj on the Muslim world in general and on Pakistan in particular. The study is followed by “Conclusion” wherein it has been argued that the Ḥajj can bring an immense transformation and positivity in a country if its sweetness is sought in all earnestness.
Istisnā’- a Realistic Approach to the Concept in Islamic Finance and its Application to the Agricultural Sector in Pakistan
Author: Saqib, Lutfullah, Kellie W. Roberts
Farmers predominantly belong to lower class of the society, particularly in developing and under developing countries. This actuality really put them on back-foot in every sphere of life, including their various agricultural activities. For instance, they always face problems to fulfil their agricultural requirement, both for crop and non crop activities, and hence, not in position to get utmost benefits from their efforts. Being citizens of a developing country, Pakistani farmers come across the identical situation. As they are Muslims, therefore, avoid securing interest based loan from the financial institutions. Islamic financial system provides an alternate to such interest based arrangement in the shape of various financing techniques. Among these, Istisnā’ (manufacturing) is the most important one which can be used effectively for the fulfilment of various agricultural requirements. However, its role is more dominant in the satisfaction of non crop agricultural activities that is for example, manufacturing of some heavy agricultural machinery and equipments, installation of tube-wells and channels for appropriate irrigation system, construction of small houses for farmers in their lands etc. The present work discusses the theoretical background of this mode, available in the scholarly work of classical and contemporary Muslim jurists’ work, followed by the description that how it can be used for financing various sectors of agriculture. Study reveals the transaction is equally viable for the development of all sectors of agriculture like local farming, fish farming, dairy farming, poultry farming, horticulture etc. The intended results can be achieved when the financial institutions apply the transaction in its true spirit and philosophies envisaged for it by Islamic commercial law, and not mere a source of earning profit.
Author: Sejo, Suzic
Definition of justice and its scope is something about what legal and political philosophers could never reach a unified position throughout a history. In these days, many in the West are trying to present Islam and its law and justice as something utterly uncivilized, unjust, cruel, and outdated and of no use in modern world. Positivist's concept of justice that prevails in the world today, mostly based on temporary secular-materialistic values, is in most of the cases opposed to the eternal principles and rules laid down by God Almighty. Justice according to the early proponents of Natural law, if not based on the universal values in itself is not justice, and as such is doomed to failure. Today we are witnessing the kind of global justice that threatens even to destroy humanity. The present article is an effort to find out the most suitable definition of justice according to the Islamic law, and present the concept of universality and scope of justice in Islam in a way to show the absolute God's principles and values are unchangeable and everlasting, and only rightful solution to be followed today.
Author: Farman, Mursal
According to Qur’an, the difference of opinion among peoples of the world is natural and something that will always be there. However, in order to stop the difference from becoming a conflict, people should hold dialogue. The significance of dialogue in Islam is well understood by the fact that God chose to hold dialogue with angels concerning the creation of man. Furthermore, the Qur’an declares dialogue the greater jihad and arrangement of a successful dialogue is considered as a manifest victory In order to arrange a successful dialogue, Qur’an lays out a number of principles: 1- Dialogue should be held in such a nice way that it may lead the opponent to get a close friend. For this it is necessary to speak mildly and the dialogue must be based on wisdom and sincerity. 2- Dialogue should rest on the principle of mutual respect and should not contain any kind of abusive and taunting language. 3- Dialogue must not override the principle of justice and equality and must not be affected by the past experiences or personal grievances towards the opponent. 4- Dialogue should not address the issue of pulling everyone together, e.g. the opponent (for example a nation) should not be blamed for the evil deeds of few. 5- Dialogue should be held with an attitude that is characterized by patience and tolerance and efforts must be made to keep the vicious elements out from harming the process. 6- Both parties should openly acknowledge and recognize the mutually positive attributes. 7- Imposing one’s opinions upon the opponent must not be the objective of dialogue. 8- Both parties should, despite the inherent difference of opinion, pursue to find practical solutions by striving towards finding a common ground.
Author: Amin, Noor ul, Babar Shah
The Paper attempts to highlight the most significant Muslim personalities of British India who rendered services and sacrifices for the cause of pan-Islamism. They travelled to the neighbouring Muslim states of Afghanistan and Turkey for the larger cause of the Muslim brotherhood, and their freedom from the colonial powers. Their visits were either in official or unofficial capacity. The personalities include; Abdur Rahman Peshawari, Zafar Hasan Aibak, Mualana Ubaidullah Sindhi. The paper argues that these personalities have visited the Muslim countries of Afghanistan and Turkey in order to support the cause of Muslim brotherhood and their peace, development, and freedom. Their way of support was in the form of diplomatic negotiation. Descriptive and analytical methods were followed for analyzation/interpretation of data collected.
Author: Mehfooz, Musferah
The present study is divided into two main sections; the first section will give a general overview about the figurative language and more focus on metaphor (istiᶜārah in Arabic) because the metaphor is considered as one of the most literary devices and the main category of the figurative language. So in this study has given various definitions of figurative language and metaphor according to Muslims and Non-Muslims linguists and along with this explained Al-sukākī’s classification of metaphor which is little close to Al-Jurjānī’s classification of metaphor and view respectably among Muslims and Non-Muslims linguists. The second section of this study deals with metaphors given in Holy Qur'ān, which are denoted according to Al-sukākī’s classification in this respect. In this reference the verses are presented with detailed tafsīrī literature so the reader could well comprehend the purposes and the classical aspect of metaphors in text and also could evaluate linguistic architecture of Holy Qur'ān.
An Overview of the Religious Perspective of Honour Killing in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata) of Pakistan
Author: Bangash, Arshad Khan, Samiullah
This article maps the role of religion in the prevalence and promotion of honour killing in tribal areas of Pakistan. Through simple sampling method a sample size of 377 respondents, comprising of ‘Maliks’ were selected from the study universe. The collected data was interpreted and presented at uni-variate, bi-variate and multi-variate levels. Chi-square test statistics were used to draw association between dependent variable (honour killing) and independent variable (religion) both at bi-variate and multi-variate levels. The study found a significant relationship of honour killing with the importance of religion in people lives, alienation from the religious teachings ,dominance of cultural values over religion ,existence of honour killing in all religious sects (Shia and Sunni), and lack of factual religious knowledge about honour killing. Moreover, a non-significant relationship of honour killing was found with permission of honour killing in Islam, and religious clerics often speak about honour killing in religious sermons. Understanding of women and their rights in light of the teachings of Islam, religious clerics need to perform their true role, and killing in either shape needs to be propagated as against the religion were presented some of the policy recommendations in lights of the study results.
Stylistic and Semantic Incongruities in the Earliest Purported English Translation of the Qur’an by Alexander Ross
Author: Khalis, Abdus Salam
Recognizing the unequivocal importance of English as the only and uncontested medium of global communication for disseminating the universal message of the Qur’an, this paper analyzes the ways in which translational incompetence or substantial incongruities could distort the very essence of the actual text and meaning of this last and eternal message of Allah. Taking selected parts of the first two “ruku’s” of surah al-baqara as a case study, it traces some salient instances of such deviation in the earliest purported English rendering of the Qur’an by Alexander Ross done in the middle of the seventeenth century. Besides attempting to make readers wary of such misleading attempts, it also aims at inculcating in them a sense of distinguishing the authentic works of genuinely qualified renderers from such ill-motivated and ill-informed purported translations.
Author: Iqbal, Tahmina, Muhammad Ibrahim
Medieval Punjab was amongst the first regions of South Asia to encounter the substantial impact of early Sufi mystics. This article aims to investigate the history of the Punjab from a Sufi perspective with particular focus on Chishtiya Sufism and its generous role in diverting the local community center of attention. For that, the prominent Chishti Sufi Dargahs of Baba Farid Ganj Shaker in Pakpattan is selected. The study tries to investigate Dargahs’ impact on the socio-cultural and religious set up of the Medieval Punjab. How did it influence another important religion of the region i.e. Sikh belief, paper tried to highlight this impact as well.