Volume 36 Issue 1
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Abstract: Prophets and Messengers have the holiest status amongst Allah’s creation. They are the caliph of Allah in the world. Allah’s characteristics which can be present in a human after Him are present in Prophets and Messengers. That’s why Umma believes in their innocence. The purpose of their prophecy is guidance and breeding of the humanity. One of the most effective tool for breeding is that the breeder must possess the qualities which bring people closer to him. For this reason، Prophets/Messengers should be free and away from all hateful and bad habits. Some hadiths from the Hadith books are seen which appear inappropriate and against prophets grace and honor. That’s why some people have rejected those hadiths for being against prophets’ honor. In this article، we will discuss the hadith present in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim which appear against the honor of the prophets.
Imām Ahmad Al- Būṣīrī is a famous Muhaddith of the 8th Hijra century. He has authored many important works in the field of Hadith. One of them is his famous book: " Miṣbāḥ al-Zujajah fī Zawaed ibn Mājah". & nbsp; Imām Būṣīrī is an important scholar of the field of ῾Ilm al-Jarḥ wa al-Ta῾dīl. In the book mentioned above, the Imām has collected only those aḥādīth of the book Sunan Ibn Mājah, which were reported by Imām Ibn Mājah only apart from the other authors of the six books of Sunan. & nbsp; After collection, Imām Būṣīrī clarified the authentic and unauthentic narrations. There were some narrations about which he remained silent. & nbsp; This paper aims to discuss the methodology of Imām Būṣīrī in authentication of narrations of his book " Miṣbāḥ al-Zujajah fī Zawaed ibn Mājah".
Islam lays emphasis on social justice and sharing of resources between the haves and the have-nots. In order to create such a balanced socio-economic environment, the inter-class lending is considered to be a way forward ethical activity. Qard is a gratuitous contract in which one gives a certain homogeneous wealth to other against the condition of returning of similar value of wealth upon demand or after termination of payback period.
As per Sharia'h, the Qard should not bring any return or benefit for the lender because that would be equivalent to Ribâ. Therefore the lender cannot charge or demand any extra amount against the extension on the payback period awarded to the poor borrower. Furthermore, Islam considers the difference between debtors who default by procrastination and those who default by necessity. The Holy Qur'an, in principal, recommends having compassion for the poor barrowers and giving them the grace period till they have the capacity to payback. In such scenario the Muslim lenders perceive that the Islam has set unilateral direction in favor of borrowers only. Therefore the lenders feel that they are handicapped or helpless and found themselves in a strangled situation. This study is designed to solve the dilemma of lenders and explore risk mitigation strategies in case of insolvency of borrowers. The verses from the Holy Qur'an & Hadith of the Messenger (PBUH) and also work of prominent Sharia'h Scholars were considered to form a comprehensive guideline to mitigate the lender’s risk. Hence it has been proved that the Islam has given legal rights to the lender and allows some practical recovery strategies & tactics to recover the funds from the underprivileged borrowers. This study will play a key role in risk mitigation for default and late payments.
In Islamic point of view, the family is an institution that starts from the legal bond of marriage. The marriage is a contract that confirms the mutual rights of husband and wife. Including the other rights, one is the provision of maintenance to wife. The wife having leaving her family and making a life time compromise to live with her husband reserves the right to be exempted from all kind of financial obligations. In Islamic family system, the husband is responsible both in legal and moral angles, to support his wife and provide the maintenance according to his financial status. Likewise, the wife has the right to demand the provision of maintenance from her husband. In time of none Provision, she can take this right through court.
The wife reserves this right only if she is willing to live with her husband and does not disobey her husband’s reasonable orders. If it is so, then the stand for provision of maintenance shall be treated as invalid. In this paper, the matter of maintenance provision and its related problems have been discussed in contrast with the Pakistan family Laws which will provide a profound knowledge to the readers.
Consideration of illness in the rulings of Islamic Sharia fully understands and estimates the danger and potential loss in case of illness. Islamic Sharia has given illness a complete consideration. Sometimes human needs blood which is important for life as is oxygen. Without blood, it’s not possible to survive. Blood is needed in certain amount and God has given us some surplus amount in the body which comes into action in case some blood is flowed from the body. This extra blood can save human life. Previously it was not possible to preserve the extra blood but now advancement of science has made it possible to save it and to use it to help some lives of other people. An ill person can be helped and saved by injecting the needed blood. Nowadays blood banks are working all over the world and are helping save lives of human beings. Blood transfusion is not only permitted rationally, ethically and traditionally but it is a matter of great reward to help humanity. So, establishing blood banks is purely a human activity and a very good thing.
This article discusses blood banks and its establishment under the light of Islamic Sharia.
Islam is the full code of life that not only provides guidance to its followers but also is a source of growth for each and every one who has soul. Islam emphasizes on formation of an exemplary society. Basic unit of each society is dependent upon the family system. If family system is inspired with good and healthy values, then the resulting society will certainly be brightened with brilliance of the righteous values. Family and affiliation with family is a natural need for humanity. Since Islam is the nature, therefore it provides us full guidance about the family system and its importance in our whole life. Islam emphasizes on family strengthening and stability. The importance of family relationships and relations with the relatives has also been mentioned in the holy Qur’an. Family is referred as “Usrah” in Arabic, which means being bound or connected. Strongest castle is also known as “Usrah” in Arabic, where members within a family remain united and connected together with strong bonding among them. Keeping in view the needs of a family, Islam has described the fundamental principles related to family system in a very narrative way. Moreover, mutual responsibilities towards each other and other rights have also been mentioned explicitly. Even Islam has emphasized on showing generous compassion, sympathy and providing legal rights to one another. While some of the issues have been left mainstream which people within a society consider good and don’t even contradict the principles of Islam. One such issue is the family system. What should be the nature of family? Is it all in living within one family or in a separate family system? There are two types of family systems in Sharia; Joint and separate family systems. The conditions and circumstances which better suit in an environment with good effects on family as well as society should better be adapted. But it should be kept in mind that the western concept of separate family (wife, children and one’s own-self) being presented today is not an Islamic concept. For explaining these aspects, the present article will focus on “what is the basic concept and Impacts of joint and separate family systems in Islam? And what are the impacts of these family systems on the society (economic, social and psychological)
To understand the commentary of the Holy Qurân is a complex matter. Since the time of Holy Prophet Muhammad (S. A. W) till date the commentators have come to interpret the Holy Qurân for general public so that they should not face any difficulty to understand it. The Muhadithen made a separate chapter for Tafseer. In 19th century Imam Alusi (R. A) wrote a detailed commentary of the Holy Qurân. In this article I will produce a brief introduction of Imâm Alūsī (R. A) and his Tafseer. This paper touches the methodology of tafseer of Imam Alūsī (R. A) and the principles adopted by him.
Islam lays great emphasis on security and the sanctity of human life. The holy Quran terms killing of an innocent person as killing of the whole humanity. It prohibits unjust killing of human being in unequivocal terms. The holy Qur’an and Sunnah terms killing of an innocent person as one of the greatest sins. An eternal torment is the destiny of a killer who takes life of a person unjustly. However, it is also a bitter fact that hardly a crime free society could be found anywhere in the world. Peace prevails only in those societies where culprits are brought to justice. This is why Islamic penal code has prescribed punishments for all kinds of crimes. It has prescribed punishment of Qisâs in case of intentional murder and Diyat (blood money in case of killing of a person by mistake, it is also due in case if remission is made by the heirs in intentional murder case). To prove the crime of murder, testimony of two reliable witnesses or confession of the killer is required before the court. However, if a corpse is found in a place where killer is unknown and witnesses are unavailable, then Islam enjoins the process of Qasâmah to safeguard rights of the heirs of the deceased. Qasâmah is a process of taking oath by fifty persons selected by the heirs of the slain. In this article the concept of Qasâmah has been elaborated. It has three parts ,in the first part conditions for the validity of Qasâmah has been elaborated, while in the second part its process has been discussed with elaborate opinions of jurists regarding taking of oath, as some of them opine that the heirs of the slain have to take oath, mentioning name of the killer, while others say oath will be taken by the defendants that they didn’t kill him , Both these opinions have been discussed by producing arguments of the both sides. While in the third part the issue of Qisâs and Diyat has been discussed as according to some jurists the Qasâmah entails Qisâs while other say that it entails Diyat only; arguments of both sides have been discussed in detail.
The religion of Buddhism attributed to Siddhartha Gautama (563-482 B.C). Afterwards he came to be known by the name of "Buddha"(mean: awakened). The religion he founded stressed on universal compassion and monasticism. His concept of compassion flowing freely towards all creatures or all living being. That is why, Buddha has forbidden all kind of wars, battles and conflicts as they cause ferocity or bloodshed. When Emperor Asoka (273-233 B.C.) accepted Buddhism as a true believer, then he set up good examples of piety, sympathy and compassion. If we look all around the modern age of Buddhism, they put off the peace living teachings of Gautama. The obvious example of that conduct is oppressive attacks on Rohingya Muslims. Since the £2012, (when the conflicts started between the Rohingya Muslims and the extremist Buddhist) innumerable Muslims are killed, mosques, houses and villages are being set on fire and destroyed.
This research shows the value of tolerance in Islam, which is the basis of the ethics of the religion of Islam. This great value has created the bonds of love and harmony between Muslims and all human beings. This was the main reason for spreading the message of Islam to various parts of the world without coercion. There have been many attempts to accuse Islam of intolerance, terrorism and intimidation. Hence, this research is concerned with showing the truth about the ethics of Islam and its noble high values.
To achieve the desired goal, the research was divided into an introduction, a preface, three chapters and a conclusion. The introduction addressed the importance of the topic and the reason for its selection. In the preface, the meaning of the word "tolerance" was shown and compared with the Quranic words used in this topic. In the first chapter, the researcher deals with the value of tolerance is the origin of Islam. It characterized the Prophet Muhammad (prayer and peace be upon him). The second chapter says tolerance is the cause of the spread of Islam, and the voluntary entry of people into it. The third chapter shows that tolerance is the root of solving problems and resolving all forms of conflict between nations, individuals, parties and groups. The researcher in conclusion suggests the most important findings and recommendations.
مصنف/مصنفین: زوائی، نورۃ محمد
In this research paper the method invented by the critic scholars of hadeeth for the maintenance of quality. It is the sake of delivering the hadeeth to us the way it was narrated by the prophet peace be upon him. This study came to highlight the greatness of the critical approach of the Muḥaddithīn, this unique and precedent based approach has been opted and enjoyed the respect of the opponents.
I have paid special regard to the timeline, which reflects the evolution of the Muḥaddithīn criticism, from the Era of the Prophet (PBUH) to the end of the Hadīth Narration Era. This paper shows the extent to which the critic scholars go in order to maintain the book; their attention is not limited to the Oral narration as claimed by the opponents of Sunnah and their stooges. This is done by examining the classified works of scholars that had preserved the bases and the rules followed in the criticism process, as explained in this study.
Scholars of the Usul -early and recent- have paid utmost importance to the Maqâsid al-Shariah or the Objectives of Shariah and tried to substantiate, associate and link them with its sources, Qur’an and Sunnah, then to derive from them the Legislator’s or the Shari‘s purpose, the revelation’s true purpose and how it benefits the creatures in terms of promoting what is in their interest and shunning away what is harmful.
These objectives became the point of interest for the jurists and scholars who toiled to understand the texts and what they connoted and they continue to venture into its depths and extract its treasures. It becomes quite evident from their exegeses of Qur’an and the Prophetic Traditions and elucidations of the juristic principles and issues. Imam al-Shâtibī and Ibn ‘Ashoor are two such scholars in this field who studied the Objectives of Shariah and contributed to this discipline so greatly that they became reference points for those who came after them. The basic principles in the field that were inferred by them are still its pillars. The Objectives of Shariah are divided into four kinds with reference to their benefits: the necessities, needs, improvements and supplements. The necessities are further divided into protection of Deen, protection of self, of intellect, of possessions and of race among others. Prudence demands that all means should be employed to safeguard these necessities. Thus knowing the Objectives of Shariah and their promulgation among the masses is quite important for the society since it leads towards promotion of the beneficial and shunning away the harmful elements in it.
مصنف/مصنفین: الازہری، عبد الوہاب جان
Sheikh Walī Ahmad nick named as Sandâkī Baba was a famous political leader, reformer, sūfī saint and literary personality of Swat (KPK) , Pakistan. In the subcontinent, he also contributed in freedom movement against the English imperialism like other literary and political workers. Especially he was the founder of Swat State. In this article political, scholarly and reform services of Sheikh Sandâkī has been highlighted.
Author: Shitu, Mujahid Hamza
Christian missionary scholarship on Islam and the Qur’an in Nigeria dates back to the advent of Christianity in the country. The reason was that Islam had become well established and indigenized in most parts of northern Nigeria and south Western Nigeria, and the Qur’an provides Muslims with information on Christianity and its doctrines. Thus, Islam became a serious obstacle to their endeavour. The early 20th century Christian Missionaries therefore, held that they could only get to the Muslims through the learning and research on the Qur’an. & nbsp; This spurred them to produce works on the Qur’an. Joseph Kenny was a Christian Missionary who was sent to Nigeria in 1964 through the directive of the Holy See, to assist the Catholic Church in reaching the Muslims in Nigeria. He underwent trainings in the fields of Arabic and Islamic Studies, and was able to produce more than 170 works on different areas of Islamic Studies. & nbsp; This paper critically examines some of his views on the Qur’an, as compared to the views of other Christian missionary scholars of Qur’an and thus elaborates on the misrepresentations contained in them.
Memorization Without Comprehension: A Window onto the ‘Extremities’ of the Capability of Human Brain
Author: Saleem, Amjad
Muslims across the world memorize the Quran in Arabic for verbatim recall. Memorizers can be native speakers of Arabic, non-native speakers of Arabic, or non-Arabic speakers. The purpose of this study is to investigate expert Quran memorizers on their memorization practices including what they brought to the act of memorization and what, according to them, underlay their success in memorization. Ten memorizers were interviewed about their reflections on their memorization practices. The analysis reveals that while some practices of the Quran memorizers are in line with findings from research literature on memory, there are others which are peculiar to them. The conclusion drawn is that Quran memorizers recite accurately because they do not learn the language. It is further concluded that Quran memorization is a special case, in which a range of extra linguistic factors such as identity, motivation and intention play an important role.
Arbitration; Legislation, Scope, and Functioning in Pakistani Legal System a Pragmatic Approach in Law and Sharī‘ah
Author: Attaullah, Qazi, Lutfullah Saqib
This study investigates the case of arbitration in the modern states in general and in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in particular, as a self-binding, amicable mode of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).it starts with arbitration’s meaning, history and evolutional background and discusses them as preliminaries and entrance to the main topic. The study debates Pakistani legislation on the subject, with special focus on the Arbitration Act, 1940. It examines the functioning of arbitration in Pakistani legal system, detects the flaws and areas of improvement therein, and most significantly, suggests proposals for required amendments in the relevant laws. In this connection, the equivocal nature of ADR provisions in some statutes other than Arbitration Act, has been specially highlighted. As per requirement of the Article 2(A) of the Constitution 1973, some inconsistencies of the laws on the subject with Sharī‘ah have also been traced. The issue of qualifications of arbitrators (hakams) has been detected as the main subject of inconsistency between law and Sharī‘ah, resulting in substantial and effective bearings. A similar inconsistency, comparatively with a lesser effect, has been noted in arbitration of family disputes regarding fixation of number of arbitrators and the hail from families of the disputing spouses. While investigating all these issues, an analytical-cum comparative strategy has been followed. The conclusion contains a concise brief on comparison between Sharī‘ah and law on the subject and a package of proposed amendments in the gray areas.
Author: Saeed, Amna, Madad Sabri
Poetry is one of the most prominent spiritual genres of mystic literature. Most of the mystics have expressed their thoughts in poetry. Mystic poetry is replete with metaphors of “wine”, “cup”, “tavern” and “wine-bearer” although, in Islam, the use of wine is strictly prohibited. However, the mystic poets make repeated use of such metaphors. This paper aims to compare the use of the metaphor of wine, cup, and tavern in the poetry of Rumi and Hafiz. Further, it spotlights the hidden meaning of mystical metaphors to make it expressible. The current research is based on Ricoeur’s hermeneutic model of understanding text which Ricoeur calls the Hermeneutic Arc. This study concludes that the cornerstone ideology beyond the use of metaphors is to awaken the sleeping souls, the negation of material pursuit, and realization of spiritual truth---Divine love and unity with God. Hafiz focuses on freedom, an eternity of soul, joy, and immortality; further. While Rumi talks about enlightenment of soul, union with Beloved and strong faith. Rumi’s use of language, imagery, and ideas are more powerful than Hafiz.
Author: Salim, Asif
Pakistan’s involvement in the US war on terrorism was a tragic decision. No option was left for the ruling elite of Pakistan except to join the global war on terrorism and to take a U-turn from the support of Taliban’s regime in Afghanistan which was duly recognized by Pakistan’s government in 1996. It was expected by the policy-makers of the US that the alliance with Pakistan would provide extraordinary strength in combating the Al-Qaeda and other affiliated conglomerates in Afghanistan as well as in borderland area. However, after fifteen years of war, the alliance has enfeebled despite their mutual understanding regarding the objectives envisaged in the Strategic Partnership. The war on terrorism has now been escalated from Afghanistan to Pakistan and it has provided space to religious extremism, militancy, intolerance, ethnic division and sectarianism. There is no denial to the fact that religious extremism and terrorism are common threat and have damaged both the countries yet Pakistan has sacrificed more than the US in terms of human and material loss. Nevertheless, blame game and trust deficit is on the rise from both sides. This article focuses first on the joint ventures that the US and Pakistan mutually initiated to curb militant bloodbath in Afghanistan as well as in the border region. Secondly, it will explore factors responsible for increasing trust deficit between the partners. The study will not only provide deep understanding about the prevailing issues between Pakistan and the US but will also give true pictures to streamline the methodology for negotiating with each other in future.
Author: Khan, Sareer, Rashid Khan
The present study was conducted to probe the cleanliness in the tertiary healthcare hospitals in Peshawar-Pakistan. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire from 600 sampled respondents admitted in three tertiary healthcare hospitals in Peshawar i.e. Khyber Teaching hospital, Hayatabad Medical Complex and Lady Reading Hospital through proportional allocation method. The patients were very critical about the healthcare and cleanliness in the above three major hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Bi-variate analysis was made and the results reveal that hospital has clean and hygienic environment (P=0.006), Medical OPD,s were clean and tidy (P=0.000) , wards were clean and well maintained (P=0.000), Toilets were clean and well maintained (P=0.000). The study recommended that hospital administration should keep focus on cleanliness in washroom, clean water and clean food to the patients.