Volume 37 Issue 1
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
According to Islamic Jurists the main objectives, or purpose of Islamic Law (Shariah) are the preservation of faith, life, intellect, progeny, and wealth. These five purposes are designated as necessities of life and these are the primary purposes of the Shariah (Islamic Law). Protection of faith is the first and foremost objective of the Islamic Law as the Quran clearly mentions worship of Allah as the purpose of creation of human being. Protection of life is the second purpose and according to Islamic teachings human life is sacred. The Quran clearly forbids taking human life of a person without justification. Protection of Intellect is the third purpose as human being has been given superiority over other creatures by virtue of intellect and reason. A Person with sound mind and intellect can think, act, react well, this is why Islam prohibits all kinds of intoxicants because they are harmful and may disturb faculty of reasoning. Protection of Progeny is the fourth purpose as Islam emphasizes on the establishment of lawful relationship between man and woman. It is the foundation for the establishment of a value-based society. Islam considers unlawful relation harmful for individuals and community. This is the reason that Islam prohibits adultery. Protection of wealth is the fifth purpose and the Islamic teachings’ emphasis on acquisition of wealth by lawful means. While the Quran enjoins that one should not earn wealth by unlawful means.
These dharurat (necessities are followed by the hajat (needs) and thasinat (complementary values). However the scope of these purposes goes beyond them and they include protection of civilization, culture, establishing peace, harmony, security, elimination of violence, maintenance of equality, and so on. In this article all these five kinds of dharurat (necessities) have been elaborated while in the last portion a review has been carried out for their relevance and implementation in the contemporary era.
Throughout the history humanity has witnessed many ups and downs. There might have been many eras of moral lawlessness in which humanity might have suffered from lack of moral character, civilization, lack of social norms and values and many such things. But in the present era social media has emerged as a very sharp sword which has destroyed social values, norms and morality. It has proven destructive to a unprecedented level. Sometimes people share news about a person without conformation and on other times people destroy human shapes and give them resemblance with animal shapes and then share them on social media by way of comparison between human and animals. Insulting political opponents, playing with honor and dignity of others, humiliating others have become a game to play for people on social media. Many users of the social media think that there is no respect for others at all so they don’t hesitate from humiliating people. For them the only act worth doing is to protect the so called respect of the leader they follow and love. They are ready to cross any limit for this. While doing all this they forget anything and everything about civility, morality, and social values etc. someone has quite rightly said that good character is proof of good blood. While using social media one is in fact representing one’s family and blood. According to statistics 58% of the whole population of our country consists of young people the majority of which is so much attached and engrossed with the use of social media that they are oblivious of what is going around them. The spell of social media has bound people in the galleries of hospitals, pathways, passengers, and in educational institutes. So much so that even in homes, social media has preoccupied people to an extent that they damn care for the people living in the same home with them. There is value for a friend on social media but there is no value for a person sitting very next to them. A young man is busy and engaged with a so called sister on social media but his real sister is seen tantalized for his care and affection. In the university students miss out lectures of teacher but want to learn things from google and social media. This is the dilemma of the current age. The use of social media has taken people far away from the people sitting and living very close to them. Now the young generation has options i. e. positive or negative use of social media. Your face book account, your profile is reflective of your personality. Any visitor, while visiting your profile and account will have your whole personality open up to him. Difference of opinion is permitted and appreciable thing but it should be done within limits. The current research paper is an attempt to cover up all these things and to see the Islamic teachings about the use of social media. How to open an account on social media, how to share pictures on it either self or that of others, sending friend requests and accepting them? These and other related issues will be discussed in the present paper in the light of Islam.
Islam has given lot of contemplation for economy and society in which the notion of concurrent cooperation is on top of the list and its basis are brotherliness, compassion and peace. As compared to this, the concept of modern world is mutual cooperation and the practical implementation of it. In the form of mutual cooperation bank, mutual cooperation state and insurance are there in front of us. Although these institutions took their first step and would assist mutual cooperation but with the passage of time this concept got too evanesced. Islamic elements for example usury, gambling and treachery got mixed in the roots of these institutions. Islam dissuades these elements strictly because these elements become the causes for the deterioration of people’s economy and society. On the contrary, Islam wants to establish those institutions which are based on practical mutual cooperation and which are beneficial for both man and society.
The Holy Qur’an is miraculous in its words, methods, organization, statements, drawings and writing, as cited and agreed by all researchers, we aim through this research to: define the Ottoman drawing in Arabic language, terminologically, demonstrating its benefits, the rule of commitment to it, weighing between sayings, demonstrating its six rules, explaining and discussing the differences between the Quranic words drawings and mentioning several examples. The most important results of this research are:
1- The opinion which comforts one's self is the commitment to Ottoman drawing, and not to be written by modern spelling methods. 2- The Ottoman drawing has multiple benefits and advantages, which are not available in any other, so that it attracts commitment and reservation. 3- It has a very significant concurrence between the drawing and the meaning of the words and verses of Quran. 4- The Qura’nic word drawing strengthens the meaning and gives the full dimensions; achieving the honesty of Allah's saying: "and whose words can be truer than those of Allah?". 5- The letters' contiguity of Quranic word, knowing its characteristics embodies the meaning with the best picture. 6- The miracle of Ottoman drawing is a modern issue that Abdalaziz Ad-Dabbagh calls the most famous and the oldest one who declared this.
The most important recommendations made in this article are:
1- Conducting more researches about the benefits of Ottoman drawing, where it still needs more studies to be conducted, and more thoughts and meditations. 2- The spread of Ottoman drawing commitment culture between Quran teachers and students. 3- Obligating all Quranic associations that adopts Quran writing to write in Ottoman drawing, and prevent any other forms of writing. 4- Obligating all students and researchers to depend on Ottoman drawing through their studies and researches; which establishes a promotion to spread its culture. 5- Guiding the researchers for more studies on this topic, throughout a focused studies and clear scientific plans.
التّناص الدّيني والأدبي في شعر ابن اللّبانة الدّاني (ت 507 هـ) القرآن الكريم والشّعر القديم أنموذجان
مصنف/مصنفین: Rabi، Mahmood Muhammad
The focus of this research is on addressing the theme of intertextuality in the Andalusian poetry of Ibn al-Labbanah al-Dani, and on addressing its manifestations and how the poet benefited from the Quranic verses. In view of what the Holy Qur'an offers to the creator of the broad linguistic potential, as well as the ancient Arab poetic heritage, rich in high poetic images and meanings in both the expressive and aesthetic aspects. The research concludes that our poet was always acquainted with the miraculous Qur’anic text, and with constant contact with previous poetic texts.
The methods of Al-Hafiz Al-Zaili in criticizing of text of the Sunnah as described in his book Nasbu Al-Raya in analyzing the hadiths of Hidayah. The science of criticism is well known science since the era of the Companions, and critics of the hadith of the honorable companions have played a very important role in the field of narration and carefully criticizing it. And by passage of the era of the Companions and beginning the era of the followers (tabieen) , the criticism became more obvious depending on the growing need, especially after spreading of lie, and creation of fake hadith, which led the critics to further research and verification, for scrutiny between the narrations and then differentiation between the right and the weak. The imams and scholars of hadith from the era of the Companions till present continuously inheriting the approach of criticizing the narratives in succession of their predecessors, whether criticizing the narrators or the texts. I have seen that it is worthwhile to stand on the efforts and methods of one of the imams in his criticism of the hadiths and I have chosen the effort of Imam Hafiz al-Zaili through his book " Nasbu Al-Raya in analyzing the hadiths of Hidayah" to learn how he was using the standards traded among the scholars of Hadith for textual criticism of Sunnah. As the those denied the hadiths from orientalists and their followers and those who follow their example simply claim that the scholars of hadith did not criticize the Sunnah in true criticism and even if they have criticized the hadiths, their criticism was only concerning the narratives not the text, now it is clear through this article that the scholars of hadith did not leave the side of the text, but they criticized text as they criticized the attribution of the hadiths. They set solid rules, which remain scholarly proven and accurate forever. We will revolve in this article around the following topics: learning about Al Hafez Zaili and the science of criticism, methods of textual criticism according to Hafiz Zaili, by focusing on: Criticism of the hadiths for violating the explicit meaning of the Qur'an, or for contradicting the Sunnah, or for contradicting the explicit consensus, or for risking and exaggerating the promise or the warning of simple action, or lack thereof in books of hadith These are the most important rules sited by al-Hafiz al-Zaili, which he practiced and criticized the hadiths and distinguished them between the correct and the weak.
Arabic language is one of the most developed languages of the world. It has a number of grammatical phenomenon, Omissions is one of them. Omission of any part of a sentence creates ambiguity to fully understand its meanings. Due to this phenomenon Arabic has a specific cause when viewed in the light of Semantic analysis. This study deals with the phenomenon of dropping or omission of the part of a speech. In the article under review, I have explained as to how an omission becomes requirement of the text to reflect a particular meaning. I have chosen semantic study of three basic parts of verbal sentence that is Verb, Subject and Object to unveil this phenomenon in Sahih Al Bukhari. This clearly explains the significance of omission of words in the sayings of Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) .
Rectification is a terminology of Islamic Studies which means corrections of mistakes, completion of deficiency and clarification of ambiguity, it is a very special Quality of Islam due to its impacts and importance. Rectifications of Honourable Muslim Scholars on one another is a source for the innocency of this Ummah, here is the example of Rectification in the era of Sahahaba رضي الله عنهم and Tabieen and later, while the book of Eimam Al Hakim “Al Mustadrak Ala Sahehain” is an example of rectification at the time of Tabieen; in which he collects the narrations missed by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim in their books Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim. The Honourable scholars follow this way in all the disciplines of Islamic Studies especially in the field of Tafseer because they had rectifications on one another in their explanation of the Holy Quran. As for example Eimam Al Sayuti (911 AH) and Emam Aalusi (1270 AH) has rectifications in their explanations of Holy Quran on the Tafseer of Eimam Fakhr uddin Al Razi “Tafseer ul Kabeer”, while in our era Shaikh Ghulam Rasool Saeedi (1437 AH) follow the same way, and most of his ratifications in his Tafseer “Tibyan ul Quran” is related to Imam Razi. One thing which is unforgettable is that, these Scholars have maintained respect of personalities and opinions, furthermore they were mostly impartial in their research as well as tolerant while dealing with these issues even having different schools of thoughts etc. Their difference did not make them discourteous or impolite.
Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Yaqoob Sharrudi, also known as Sheikh Sharrudi; born 1930- 2007) was a religious saint, preacher, researcher, mystic and imam. In this research paper the works of Sheikh Sharrudi is elaborated in a sophisticated manner, His numerous works were written in Brohvi and Balochi and then translated into Urdu, Arabic, pashtu and many other languages. He had not only worked for the renaissance of Islam but also propagated the “true Islam", He gave solutions for the weaknesses because of which Islam had suffered for hundreds of years. He opined that preaching of Islam (Dawat o Tableegh) was necessary for Islam, establishing Sharia and saving Islam from both; the secularism and nationalism. has publicly disclaimed sectarianism in Islam.
The existing study sheds light on the Shariah principles as laid down by the holy Prophet to eliminate the contemporary scourge of extremism. In fact, this scourge has won international significance which does not belong to a specific society, class, language or place. It is found in different forms in different societies. It is imperative for the formation of rules to curtail and exterminate in the light of the teachings of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) which could accrue results having long-lasting impacts on religious affairs as Islamic Shariah emphasizes for broadmindedness to discourages its growth. Islamic Shariah has insisted upon avoiding every kind of extremism and fanaticism. It has further scared man from the effect of such extremism. To eliminate extremism, teachings of the Holy Quran and the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) be made common which teach us respect of mankind and protection of life and property. The last sermon of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.), which is the essence of the principles of his (P.B.U.H.) teachings, may be a foundation to provide guidelines for it. The following article is an attempt to streamline this address for the elimination of this scourge
مصنف/مصنفین: على، اسماء
Ashaykh Mahmūd bin Abī Bakr bin Abīulala bin Alī Al-bukhārī Al-kalābādhī is one of scholars of Mirāth. He was born in 644 A.H. and died in 700 A.H. He was a man of eminence in Central Asia. He visited many metropolitan cities across the world to get knowledge. During his foreign visits, he contacted great scholars of Islamic sciences. Similarly, thousands of students used to attend his lectures. Allāmah Kalābādhī was a man of letters. He wrote many books. Famous of them are: Ḥall ul Frāi Fī Sharah Naẓm Assirājiyah, Ḍaw us Sirāj Fī Sharah Assirājiyah, Mushtabeh un Nasab Fī Asmā ur Rijāl, Mujamush Shuyūkh, Al Minhāj Al Muntakhab.
Author: Shah, Siddique Ahmad, Syed Waqar Ali Shah
The article explores views of Maulᾱna Waḥῑduddῑn Khᾱn on relation between Islam and secularism as there is no specification of his thoughts on the above issue as critics and other scholars tend to show confusion when they approach Khᾱn’s thoughts from that specific angle. Maulᾱna Waḥῑduddῑn Khᾱn is an Indian religious scholar and peace activist who is alive and known for his modern, cosmopolitan and peaceful thoughts. In this article the scattered and disjointed views of Khᾱn on relation between Islam and secularism have been portrayed as to give context to his original views and show his actual stance which might remove the confusion prevalent amongst intellectuals and scholars as to spot Khᾱn’s basic stance on the above issue. The definition and different experiences of secularism has been shortly described along with projection of diversity of stance from other Muslim scholars as to broaden the very background of the issue. Later the views of Khᾱn and his approach to the issue have been presented. The article will throw light that how Khᾱn perceives the issue of relation between Islam and secularism and what is the point of convergence and divergence between Islam and secularism. This article will also highlight that whether he deals the topic on the basis of creed or philosophy or pragmatism and that whether he takes secularism as beneficial or damaging to the interest of Muslims and Islam. The article also shed light on the scheme of Khᾱn that how Muslim should deal with the phenomenon of secularism.
Media Framing of the ‘War on Terror’: The Case of Urdu-Language Elite Press During the Dictatorial Regime in Pakistan
Author: Gul, Naeem, Sajjad Ahmad Paracha
This research is focused on press-government relationship on the issue of ‘War on Terrorism’ (WoT) during the dictatorial regime led by the then military ruler General Pervez Musharraf who remained in power till 2008 in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Global war against terrorism, generally known as ‘war on terror’ was actually started by the United States of America in the aftermath of 9/11 episode in 2001. Pakistan, on US demand, had not only become an important ally of the grand alliance formed under the umbrella of the United States but had also adopted the role of a frontline state just to fight the war against terrorism (WoT) alongside the war allies. Generally mass media have the potential to influence public opinion and help reshape the states’ policies on different issues. Likewise, mass media of Pakistan also took an active part in the war either by going alongside the then dictatorial government or against it. This research is based on examining the way the Urdu language elite press, the most popular mass media of Pakistan, covered the dictatorial regime of President General Pervez Musharraf with regard to its policy on the issue of ‘WoT’. Main purpose of this study is to know the nature of relationship between the Urdu-language elite press and the dictatorial government of Gen Musharraf in Pakistan with regard to their policy positions on ‘WoT’ from 2001 to 2008. Three newspapers including daily Jang, daily Nawa-I-Waqt, and daily Pakistan, considered to be representatives of the Urdu-language elite press of Pakistan, were selected for this study. The method used to measure the phenomenon is called framing where contents of the selected dailies were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. Data were collected through systematic sampling method, while coding sheet was used as a tool for data collection. Unsigned main editorials of the selected newspapers were analyzed to examine the nature of relationship existed between the two entities i. e. the Urdu-language elite press, and the dictatorial government of Gen Pervez Musharraf, on the issue of ‘WoT’ in Pakistan. The results revealed that the selected elite newspapers, in general, remained critical to the dictatorial regime on the issue of ‘WoT’. The findings also revealed that daily Nawa-I-Waqt remained highly critical to the government as compared to its other contemporaries i. e. daily Jang, and daily Pakistan. It was also revealed that the Urdu-language elite press while framing the ‘War on Terror’ remained somewhat supportive and rarely neutral to the dictatorial regime on it policy on ‘WoT’.
Correlation Between Internal and External Assessment at University Level: Acase Study of I. E. R, University of Peshawar
Author: Tariq, Ateeq Ahmad, Arshad Ali
Abstract: Evaluation is the backbone of our education system. It is one of the important factors of the three pillars of our education system. The three pillars are: educational objectives, teaching learning process and evaluation or assessment. Assessment, scores or grades are one of the factors of the main concern for the students of any academic programme. The present study is aimed to investigate the correlation between the internal and external assessment of Master of Education (M. Ed) examination of the students of Institute of Education amp; Research (I. E. R) , University of Peshawar. In total all 200 students of university of Peshawar who appeared in the M. Ed. annual examinations were taken as a sample being convenient to the researcher. The data was obtained from the Examination section of the University of Peshawar. The data so obtained was then analyzed through SPSS and it was concluded that both the Internal and External assessments were correlated. The implications were discussed. Key Words: Correlation, Assessment, Case study, M. Ed, University of Peshawar.
Author: Iqbal, Mehnaz
Abstract: The paper identifies major changes in educational policies in Pakistan after the incident of September 11. It hoards the facts on the attack of September 11(2001) that had no direct link with Pakistan, but has changed the spectrum of regional policies and shifted the traditional way of learning with west-led agenda on the name of international standards. The study indicates major changes and shifts in the education policies and national curriculum as well as amendments in legal framework and laws including 18th Constitutional Amendment of 2010 and Article-25A of the Constitution of Pakistan. The struggle for uniform education system by various political and military governments throughout the history of Pakistan since independence is also scooped and a comprehensive view is provided on major policy changes and its impacts on education system in Pakistan. The research is based on analysis of primary and secondary sources of information. It is a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Pakistan as a State still is in the list of developing countries and struggling with internal and external problems and their effects caused hurdles in the process of development and reforms in various sectors including education. Security remained one of the major subjects of focus for Pakistan for last many decades along with other administrative matters. The matters including economy, infrastructure development and strengthen democratic system in with democratic or dictator led governments whichever was the case of administration continued tackling with security and terrorism within the state as a top priority issue since 9/11. Pakistan’s investment on education sector remained poor in which resulted lagging behind of the country in all major development indicators. Education remained the core subject that bough up revolution in 21st century and hence has acquired greater importance around the world. After 18th Amendment, the duty of satisfactory spending on education consequently dwells with each province to have the capacity to satisfy Pakistan's national and international duties regarding education. The research encompassed efforts of Pakistan’s administration during various eras on national and international level to meet requirements of international standard education policies.
Author: Sarir, Saima, Niaz Muhammad
The present study was conducted to probe the role of religion in mate selection among educated females of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data for the study was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from 278 working women from three public sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa i. e. The University of Agriculture, University of Peshawar and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar. Simple random method was applied to pick the samples from the study area whereas chi-square statistics was applied to get the major findings. Results reveal a contradictory type of situation as on the one hand, religion particularly the rituals were strictly followed during marriage but on the other hand, the mate selection rights of women were ignored mainly. This is practiced despite of the fact that Islam has given right/liberty in mate selection to both men and women. Female respondents attributed it to lack of Islamic knowledge on part of family members or they do it to get more say and power through following common values and culture. Religious leaders do not lay much stress on the rights given by Islam to females in mate selection in their religious sermons. The issue according to respondents was not discussed either. Females on their part, though found interested in mates from their own sect or religious groups preferred liberal males over conservative ones because believing them to be stern and inflexible. The study recommends that an awareness campaign through mass media which may include religious leaders, civil society and political parties needs to be launched in order to raise awareness among both the educated and uneducated females along with their parents regarding mate selection, the nature and impact of religious misinterpretations, and current wave of western values, materialistic outlook and idealism that affects the selected females perception about mate selection.