Volume 2 Issue 2
Title Page of Journal of Islamic and Religious Studies
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Religious Studies|
|Double Blind Peer Review|
|Language||Urdu, Arabic, English|
|Edited by||Junaid Akbar|
The University of Haripur (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Ansāb-ul-Ashrāf is one of the most prominent works of Aḥmad Bin Yaḥya Bin Jābir al- Balādhuri, a muslim historiographer of third Hijri Century. This book is, in fact, a genealogical form of writing history and a primary and authentic source of the Holy biography of the Holy Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ). This article comprises the life, works and especially the methodology of seerah writing of Balādhuri in his book: Ansāb-ul-Ashrāf. The distinctive characteristics of methodology of seerah writing have been described in this article. He has presented the traditions (Riwayat) about the Seerah of Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ) in different ways. Sometimes he mentions the whole chain of narrators and sometimes he skips the chain of narrators. The article sheds light on the methodology of seerah writing with special reference to the book Ansāb-ul-Ashrāf.
This research article is based upon critical analysis of D.S Margoliouth’s indictment regarding pious lineage “Nasb e Muṭahharra”. Generally Orientalists have tried to affect the image of the Prophet Muḥammad (s.a.w) and prevailed uncertainties. It affects a large number of Muslim Scholars, intellectuals and youngsters because Orientals’ are well aware that Muslims cannot be defeated in battle-fields unless they are defeated in the field of faith and ideology. Our aim is to protect less aware Muslims, intellectuals and youngsters form the pseudo and grimy views of the Orientalists. Like other prejudice Orientalists D.S.Margoliouth have also indictments regarding lineage (Nasb e Muṭahharra) in his book “Muḥammad and The Rise of Islam”. Margoliouth argue with texts of Qur’ān and Ḥadith, without having any relation with the passage, to identify the essence of his ill well, hatred and prejudice with in the eyes of Muslims and common readers at large. This article concern five allegations of D.S. Margoliouth on the lineage “Nasb e Muṭahharra” and concludes that he failed to maintain his objectivity in the description of lineage “Nasb e Muṭahharra”.
مصنف/مصنفین: Ahmad، Muhammad Mushtaq
Muslims scholars in principle agree that non-combatants are protected and that they lose protection when they directly participate in hostilities. However, the issues of defining the scope of non-combatant and that of direct participation remain contentious which resultantly cause confusions about the protection of medical personnel. The present paper digs out principles of Islamic law relating to the protection of medical personnel during armed conflict and for this purpose focuses on a doctor who works for humanity and who provides medical assistance to all and gives priority on the basis of need only. It tries to find answers to questions such as: is the doctor muqatil (combatant)? Does the act of providing medical assistance to the enemy combatants make the doctor liable for direct participation in hostilities? Does Islamic law distinguish between the legal consequences of direct and indirect participation in hostilities? After exploring the rich Islamic legal literature on the protection of medical personnel during armed conflict, the paper also examines the legal consequences of abuse of the protected status.
Stunningis the process of rendering animals immobile or unconscious, with or without killing the animal, when or immediately prior toslaughteringthem for food. In modern slaughterhouses a variety of stunning methods are used on livestock. Methods include: Electrical stunning, Gas stunning, Percussive stunning. There are three opinions of Islamic scholars about stunning. Those scholars; who do not allow stunning at all; are of the view that the method of rendering animals unconscious before slaughter is against the shairah method and Sunnah, and it is Makrooh e Teḥreemi. Before slaughtering, if an animal died due to stunning, then that animal is carcass and is not allowed to be eaten. But, if before slaughter, ḥayat e Mustaqirrah is present in animal and it is slaughtered in that condition then it is permissible to eat it. Certain scholars allow stunning in certain situations with some terms and conditions. The decisions of Mjam e Faqhiyyah of modern age are also based on conditional permission. Moreover, Mufti Muḥammad Taqi Usmani, Dr. Wahabah Zoḥaili and Abdul Aziz Bin Baaz agree with conditional permission, while some other scholars allow all types of stunning without any condition; Mufti Muḥammad Abduho and his pupil Allamah Rasheed Raza Miṣri agree with later opinion.
In Islamic Sharia, the usury is prohibited while the trade has been allowed. This ruling is very clear and transparent in sources of Sharia. From the emergence of Islam many means of financing have been continuing which have got new shapes and names in modern ages. Among these contracts, one is sale in installments. This type of transaction is a part of modern financing in which the object is sold on the condition of payments in installments. The price of the object remains more than the cash payment. This concept has been discussed by the jurists and they have presented their different views about the sale in installments. In Islamic Sharia, the usury is prohibited while the trade has been allowed. This ruling is very clear and transparent in sources of Sharia. From the emergence of Islam many means of financing have been continuing which have got new shapes and names in modern ages. Among these contracts, one is sale in installments. This type of transaction is a part of modern financing in which the object is sold on the condition of payments in installments. The price of the object remains more than the cash payment. This concept has been discussed by the jurists and they have presented their different views about the sale in installments.
Allah sent his prophets for the guidance of the Human beings. Prophet Muḥammad (SAW) was the last of them. In the short span of only twenty three years, he changed the scenario of the world through the teachings of Islam. Apart from countless Muslims, the Non Muslim scholars also wrote about his life. Lesley Hazleton is a Non Muslims scholar wrote "The First Muslim-The Story of Muhammad". This book is divided into three parts; 1 The Orphan, 2 Exile & 3 The Leader. She expressed her views about the Prophet in her book openly. Many times she praises the prophet (SAW) for his achievements but like her successors, she criticizes his life. Sometimes she criticizes the family (forefathers) of the prophet, sometimes, in soft words criticizes the family life and polygamy of the Prophet (SAW). This research paper discusses her approach to the life of the Prophet (Seerah) in the light of her book.
مصنف/مصنفین: Rahman، Hafiz Aziz ur
Emergence of biomedical research and innovation with an unprecedented speed has created number of opportunities and challenges for policy makers. On the one hand, it is now possible to introduce tailor-made personal medication regime for an ailing patient to offer state of the art treatments. On the other hand, several ethical and legal issues have been raised due to the complex nature of emerging technologies. Policy makers all over the world are constantly addressing these challenges by continuously upgrading their respective professional and regulatory frameworks. This article is an attempt to highlight Shariah maxims which have contemporary application in medical field. Lately, there has been a lot of interest in the debate of Shariah maxims and many scholars have used maxims-based analytical frameworks to show the dynamic application of Islamic law. This article builds upon those works by focusing on issues related to the medical field.
مصنف/مصنفین: Begham، Farida
Mafatiḥ - al- Ghayb (The Keys to Unknown) by Imam Fakhr-ul-Din-Al Rāzi (born 544-606, Ray Iran – died 1149- 1209, Iran) is a well known classical scholarly commentary of the Qur’ān, written in Arabic. The exegesis of Imam Rāzi explain each passage of the Qur’ān by mentioning reports and narration (athar from the prophet, his companions (sahabah) and the immediate generations following the companions (Tabi’un). Imam Al Rāzi accumulated a big treasure of explanatory tradition which is extracted from many books. He compiled all the reports and narrations that he could gather for each particular passage without concentrating on their authenticity which resulted in compilation of many weak, unauthentic and even fabricated reports chipped into his tafsir on which he kept silent. tafsir. The present article critically analysis the tafsir portion from Surah al Taubah and discusses the fabricated reports detected during the investigation.
Whenever any issue regarding the religious matters was put up in the presence of the Holy Prophet (SAW), he himself explained that logically. The companions of the Holy Prophet (SAW) also sought his consent in such matters. However, there were some differences among the Companions (Saḥabas) regarding some of diligently-conceived views. Later on, such differences were multiplied and caused sectarian issues. In consequence of diligently-conceived opinions and efforts to address the issues of the Holy Qu’rān and Sunnah, four distinct sects emerged. Moreover, such differences took a different form in the later years which further led to the heinous act of “Takfeer”. Currently, the mutual enmity is at a great premium especially in Pakistan. This article will introduce and analyze the selected books, trying to indicate strengths and weakness of the subject matter discussed in books, in addition to examine the methodologies used in.
Author: Khan, Muqtedar, Tahir Shad
The political reality of many countries in the Muslim World is untenable and reforms and change is absolutely necessary. This article argues that use of force and violence for political change is making things worse as one can witness in Syria and Iraq. The article advances a Qur’ānic perspective on the desirability of peace as a goal and peaceful means as instruments of change. The article acknowledges that the Qur’ānic sanction for use of force to defend religious freedom prcludes the advocacy of pacifism but nevertheless the article does make a strong case for privileging peace over use of force.
Classical Works on Islamic Political Order: Critical Evaluation of the Methodology of the Modern Scholars
Author: Tabassum, Sadia
As Muslim scholarship generally treated with the issues relating to rebellion in the manuals of creed, Western scholars and many modern Muslim scholars generally overlooked them. Moreover, when some of them focused on manuals of law-proper where the rules for regulating the conduct of hostilities during rebellion are elaborated, they pick and choose between the views of the jurists belonging to various schools presuming that jurists of various schools followed a common legal theory. The present paper after critically evaluating the methodology of these scholars concludes that every school of law represents a distinct and internally coherent legal theory and as scuh mixing the views of the various schools leads to analytical inconsistency. Hence, it suggests that scholars woking on the legality of rebellion from the perspective of Islamic law should focus on proper legal sources and should adopt a principle-based approach instead of mixing the views of the various schools which are founded on different, sometimes, conficting legal principles.
Author: Farooq, Yasir, Ihsan ur Rahman Ghauri
Islam and the West are two competitor civilizations of 21st century. West is much fear by the rapid expansion of Islam. It is imagined that very soon Islam is going to become a major religion of the Europe. Now European think tanks are constantly working to present a negative picture of Islam. Bernard Lewis is trying his best to prove that Islam is not a suitable civilization and religion for the world. As there are different classes of citizens within Islamic State and society and all the citizens are not equal in Islamic teachings and practice like women, slaves and Non-Muslims. Whereas, his presented theories are quite different than real teachings and practice of Islam. All the citizens of Islamic State are equal before law but there is difference of responsibilities according to their abilities. This article is presenting a critical and real discussion about the social inequalities blamed by Bernard Lewis, existing in Islamic state and society.
Role of Masjid in Social Reformation in Contemporary Pashtun Society: A Case Study of District Bannu and Lakki Marwat, Pakistan
Author: Rahman, Fida ur, Rashid Ahmed
Pulpit and Masjid play very pivotal and productive role in a Muslim society. It not only educates and guides Muslims in religious matters as well shapes the social attitude and role of Muslims. Moreover, it is evident by the history that Islamic State was run by the Head of the State from Masjid. Unfortunately, pulpit and Masjid have been losing sense of their actual responsibility as an agent of social cohesion, integration and reformation. The paper is an attempt of studying the current role of pulpit and Masjid regarding religious education and training, exploring the factors that have been hampering the way of realizing the dream of social reformation in contemporary Pashtun society by not allowing pulpit and Masjid to play its due role in this respect and suggesting feasible recommendation for coping with the issue. The study is based on primary data that was collected through questionnaire in District Bannu and Lakki Marwat.
Assessing and Evaluating Ḥadith its Value, Significance, Authority and Authenticity in Islamic Thought
Author: Nisar, Farhat, Syed Abdul Ghaffar Bukhari
Qur’an and Ḥadith as fundamental and primary sources of Shariah stand as hall mark of Islam. Ḥadith called traditions as the second fundamental source of Islam embodies sayings, actions and expressions of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) explicit or implicit. Mainly there have been two trends of rejecting the status of Ḥadith. One is rejecting the authority of Ḥadith and other rejects the authenticity of Ḥadith especially “Khabar-al-wahid” or solitary tradition. Other group does not completely reject the authority of Ḥadith rather text of Ḥadith especially in case of weak traditions. This paper discuss the opinion of rejecters of Ḥadith and contribution of Muslim scholars along with their arguments from Qur’an and Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) to highlight the importance and significance of authority and authenticity of Ḥadith in all disciplines of Islamic thought.
Author: Farhadullah, Fazal Omer
Islamic law is basically a part of a holistic system based primarily on the divine message enclosed in the Holy Qur'an and traditions of the Prophet (SAW), which are the main fundamental sources of Islamic law. After the demise of the Prophet (SAW), field of Ijtehād started development, which was already approved by the Prophet (SAW) in his life. The companions of the Prophet (SAW) developed the notion of Ijmā while early Muslim jurists discovered the Qiyās, Maslaha, Istislāh, Istehsān etc.Determining the location of authority and its scope in law-making has remained a complex situation for the western philosophers since long. As far as the case of Muslims is concerned, they are in the position to find solution of this situation as to where the authority dwells; enabling them to resolve many queries which seemed to be unanswered for the long time. It is important for the Muslims to comprehend the concept of Islamic institutions from the perspective of Islamic frame work and legal as well as constitutional history of Islamic history.
Since the “text” has received attention of all modern and post modern scholars and linguists, it has been changed. This “text” has different segments, some of them are applicable to Holy Qur’ān on the one hand, on the other hand there are some un-applicable too in connection of two textual boundaries of the “text”; bounded and un-bounded. From here many scholars declare that modern defined textual theory is totally un-applicable to Holy Qur’ān. Therefore, many Qur’ānic commentators and scholars refused “Intertextuality” with its all aspects. Anyhow some other scholars allow “Intertextuality” to be applied to Holy Qur’ān because of many Qur’ānic scholars have been interpreting this sacred text using the structural methods upon which contextual and intertextual phenomena and all the relevant conceptual components of this are based, this research intends elaboration of such dimensions of Qur’ānic “Intertextulaity” and “Textuality”, in particular, the Qur’ānic textulaity; “al-Nasḵ”; abolition, deletion and abrogation.
Muḥmood Sami al Barodi is a famous poet who was named the Resurrector of poetry in the early times when many poets of the old era were the cause of the decline in poetry. His poems had been studied from many aspects and by many scholars but no one ever spoke about al Barodi’s writings about wisdom. This article is focusing on the verses and poems that focus on the meaning of wisdom and everything that relate to it. He talked about the importance of wisdom in the poems as he encouraged the other poets to give attention to this meaning. Some published books and articles helped me write this article but I haven’t found any of them that gave this point enough significance though his poetry is full of verses about wisdom and so I chose to write about it.
Although the Muslim theological schools have tried to relate their ideologies to the companions of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), the Asha’arah stressed upon this the most so as to ensure that their school of thought remains attached to the Sunni creed. Al- Ash’ari in his school and approach, always tried to keep the middle way between the Ḥanbali and M’utazili approaches, and tried to stay connected to the way of the Salaf or early generations. His moderation in approach lied in his accommodative attitude towards Sunnah as well as incorporating reason in his thought, whence he tried to avoid the two extremes followers by M’utazilah and Hanabilah, pure reason and pure tradition, in issues like God’s attributes, creation of Quran and others. The present paper tries to highlight the main features of Al- Ash’ari ’s moderate theological approach.
There are several points which illustrate Qur’ānic I‘jāz and probably rely on Islamic Theologians -Mutakallimin’s- efforts as well as exertions regarding Qur’ānic I‘jāz. Mutakallimin for having good command over Arabic rhetorical structures have demonstrated Qur’ānic I‘jāz in two contexts: theoretically and empirically. They actually validated, that Qur’ān is the book of Allah Almighty, through comparing both standard Arabic texts: prose and poetry into face of Qur’ānic text. All these cherished efforts of Mutakallimin are rooted in Arabic rhetoric which stands for that Arabic Rhetoric and ‘ilm al-Kalām; both have very primary relation resulting in that cannot be ignored while analyzing I‘jāz phenomenon.
Islamic literature is a term referring to the school of thought who believes that a good literary work should view God, man and the world through the lens of Islam. It is conceived that the style of such literature must be of high quality with the Qur’ān, Ḥadith and the legacy of the Islamic scholars being its model. Islamic literature is a universal literature and can be written in any language. However, most of what has been written on the theory and practice of Islamic literature is in Arabic. This study discusses the model of Islamic literature in era of Islam, Umayyad period, Abbasid period, and Modern world. Topics of Islamic literature in modern times are dealing with the moral values in the Qur’ān and the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him. It discusses Jurisprudence in worship Biography of the Prophet and Praise of the Prophet and his companions God bless them all. The deep knowledge of Arabic language and Islamic literature solves the social and cultural problems around the world.