Volume 27 Issue 2
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
It is said that “Mony makes the mare go ” and it is so because AH’ah Subhdn-au-Taa’la Has willed it so. Wealth is thus, a great blessing and a means of great trialfor man at the same time. It isutility and worth-no matter how a man may amass wealth- is restricted to this world alone. A man enters into the world hereafter-empty handedly. All his treasured troves of gold and silver are bequeathed to his loved ones after his demise. Had there been no proper mechanism or a modus-oerandifor the division of this left-over money/inheritance then violence and bloody feuds would have sparked amongst the heirs. Hence wefind that almost all religions offer guidelines for the division of ( bequeathed mony or) wealth and valuables left after the death of a person. So is the case of Hindu religion. The purpose of this article is to focus, assess and analyze the Hindu system of inheritance-as to how to disperse the left-over wealth amongest theclosest relatives ofthe deceease
The status of Ma'Iim-us-Sunan is very high in explanations ofSunan Abu Dawood because it is consideredfirst explanation ofSunan Abu Dawood. Imam Khattabi has adopted such afine method in it that with the literal explanation of words and description of jurisprudential commandments he has also collected in it sayings ofSalaf-us-Saalih, Arabian proverbs, different opinions ofvarious scholars, grammatical rules and Jarh-o-ta'deel etc. To add, he, as a specially, Ahadith and quotations ofSahabah and scholars, has made provision to describe with his chain ofnarrators. Due to this, the book has adopted the basic primary status of Hadith knowledge. And further, because of these chains of narrators this book has adopted theform ofreference source in matter ofteachers identification ofImam Khattabi. Due to all these qualities undoubtedly the way this book was a need ofscholars and researchers ofevery era, in the same way the scholars can never be exempted from this today.
Some famous books ofSeerah and Maghazi have been discussed in the given article. The important thing in the distinguished status of these books is the non availability of their sources (Masadar) . The reasonfor its being unauathoritative is that early writers ofSeerah are mostly Tabaeen and Taba Tabeen. They did not refer to the original source (Masdar) because in those days the events ofSeerah were verbally narrated and directly listened. Special gathering and sittings, regarding Seerah were arranged in Masajids. Only those writers of Seerah have mentioned the sources (Masadar) , who had deep knowledge of Hadith; others have recorded different events ofSeerah in their books, without any scrutiny and investigation. This caused the penetration of certain invalid events in this fields, which hasve been strongly objected by the non Muslim scholars in their books.
Tafseer-e-Sanai is a briefexagies of Holy Quran which was written by Montana Sana Ullah Amratsari (D: 1 948) . It has eight short volumes but has been separated in two compilations the first one hasfour volumes (1-4) <£ the second one (5-8) has also four volumes. First edition was published in 1313. Hijri & had been completed in 1349 Hijri i. e in 1931. This work was completed in 36 years. First volume ofthis tafseer was published in the life time ofSir Syed Ahmed Khan, but also it was sent to him. That's why in its early volumes, there were so many answers in response to Sir Syed's thoughts. It is worth mentioning that Moulana Amratsari has responded in a good manner to Sir Syed. Moulana was affiliated with the sect of Ahle-Hadees but after attaining the education from different institutions several ofsects like, Darul Uloom Deoband Madarsa-e-Kanpur, (i. e Deobandi & Brailvi) , Moulana had been freedfrom any single sect. He is known as a scholar of Islam, this tafseer is a witness of it. The Style & method of writing Tafseer is very unique that is why its style was adopted by a known scholar, Moulana Ashraf Ali thanvi and Moulana Abdul Qadeer Siddiqi's translation was also inspired by it. The Quranic letters ( are mentioned with meanings in it and 28 translations of are also determined in different places in the beginning ofSurah.
The Almighty Allah has exhibited His quality and power of Creation through bringing into existence of this Universe and several creatures in it. Amongst these creatures, are the earth and the skies. According to Islamic doctrine, Allah the Almighty created seven skies. Similarly, he created seven earths, "This is the only Allah who has created seven skies and the same numbers ofearths where His order is obeyed. So that you may know that Allah is the omni-potent and He has circumpassed all the things by His power ofknowledge. In the present article, efforts have been made to know the literal meaning ofthe term "Ardh", which standfor the earth in Arabic. Basic kinds and subsequently the different terms used by the holy Quran for Ardh have been discussed with special refrence to Tabqatul Ardh (layers of earth) . The paper aims to illuminate that the Quran has numerous secrets of universe which need to be discovered in the best interest ofthe humanity
For all laws, rules and regulations including family laws, the main sources ofderivation are the Holly Quran and Sunnah. In Islamic terminology, all of the above rules of conduct, sofor expressed are called shari'ah. Not only laws related to family code or rituals are derivedfrom the same sources, rather all economic, political and social rules and regulations are also derivedfrom these Fundamentals ofIslamic Shari'ah. In an Islamic Society, family holds an important position like an institution. All the members of the family including women, as mothers, sisters, daughters or wives can play their role in various capacities. The most important points in family matters are related to marriage, divorce, Iddat, Raza'at, Hibba and inheritance, etc. keeping in view the emerging scenario and contemperory issues, this article discusses the problems related with family matters, particularly the issues of monogamy (marriage with one woman) and bigamy (Marriage with two women) . These laws compiled in the muslim family laws of Ordinance 1961, are critically analyzed by the renown scholars of Pakistan in this paper.
This paper describes that if we want to know about poetry we must understand that out of context we can never arrive at our destination. The Quran should be read and understood in totality of its message and spirit. Its verses are local and universal. Some verses are in local environments but leave universal and eternal message. The verses ofSura'h Yasin and Sura'h Najm related to poetry clearly exhibit the truth that God rejected the claim of the infidels who regarded the Quran as the book of poetry and Prophet Mohammad as a poet. The poets in general are not condemned in Sura Yasin. It is an apt reply to the infidels that the Quran is a messagefrom God with a serious mission and motto. The Holy Prophet used to ask people to recite the holy poetry of Hazrat Abu Talib. Hassan bin Sabit used to recite "Naat" in the presence of the Prophet. Hazrat Ali was also a poet. They enhanced the divine mission of the prophets through theirfacile pen and noble spirit. Hence in the light ofabove brief dissertation we can profess that Islam does not oppose poetry ifit is written on didactic and divine lines.
The main Focus of Islam is to promote a healthy social setup. It is evident that a healthy society is a structure andframework of individuals' peaceful interactions. If the individuals are ofgood character with sound personalities, the society becomes a symbol of happiness and tranquility. It is clear that individuals face different situations in daily life and the way these matters are dealt with, depict the emotional aspect of their personality. Islam neither promotes ascetism nor it advocates to become materialistic, rather it strengthens a harmony between the spiritual and material needs. The balanced emotional expressions not only furnish a positive personality but also lead the individual to real success and salvation in this life and in the life hereafter. This article is an effort to identify the dimensions of different emotions, so that the negative emotional trends at individual or social level should not disturb the balance of the community life. (Note: Main components of the development of the personality are reffered as cognitive, behavioral, and Emotional. Thefirst two components have been discussed in Issue No. 19th / 2008, whereas the Emotional components are being discussed in this Article.)
Heela (-f*) is an Arabic word used as a term in Islamic Jurisprudence. In English language it can be explained "evasiveness" which can be interrupted in to ways as a person may understand something else than the meaning ofspeaker without labelling the lie. It demands wisdom and minuteness to be usedfor achieving the objectives. It legitimately lawful evasiveness and sinful evasiveness all two dimensions fit. The valid evasiveness fulfill all the legal requirements. It has further three types. Infirst type although evasiveness may be invalid but the achieved purpose must be lawful and valid. For example, a woman, who hasfiledfor divorcedfrom her husband can present before jury the fake witness, in order to achieve her purpose. In second type an evasiveness may be used as mean of profit or hurdlefrom getting a loss. It has the relation ofcause and effect. While in third type it has an element ofambiguity, which may be used to avoid the loss by misleading or giving false statement. Sinful evasiveness is the one which is used to achieve an illegal target. It is further divided into three types. In first type the evasiveness and the required purpose both stand illegal. In second type the evasiveness may be lawful but the targeted objective is unlawful. While in third type the evasiveness and the purpose both may be valid but these are manipulated to achieve an illegal purpose and objective.
Jalal-al-Din Al-Suyuti is famus scholar who has compiled a full fledge and long tafsir known as Al-Durr Al-Ma'thurfit al-tafsir Al-Ma'thur. This work is a masterpiece and is of the unique nature, but unfortunalety he has quotedsomefabricated narrations in his Tafseer. This article deals with belowpoints: Introductions ofJalal-al-Din al Suyuti Deflnation offabricated Narration Introduction ofAl-Durr Al-Ma'thurfi al-Tafsir Al-Ma'thur Technical analysis offabricated narrations Outputs ofthe research based article. The aim ofthe article is to protect the great narrations ofProphet (SA W) not to devalue the great work ofImam al-Suyutti.
Islamophobia is a term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam and Muslim. The roots ofIslamophobia can be traced back to the distant past. Hypocrate Abd Ullah b. Ubbay Al-Salul was the first Islamophobic person in the era of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and thenfarther Abd Ullah b. Saba in the era of The Rashidun Khalips. They can be considered as the precursor ofIslamophobia.
Tafsir (al-Durr al-Manthur) was authored by Jalal al-Din Suyuti, a scholar of the 9th century A. H. He is well known fo outstanding contribution towards various Islamic sciences. In tafsir, he has accumulated a big treasure of explanatory tradit which he extracted from many books. He however, did authenticate the mentioned reports and did not cross examine narrators. As a result many weak, fabricated and unauthe traditions chipped into this tafseer which caused doubts abou validity and status of his commentary. In this article s fabricated reports have been discussed.
Sinlessness is the hallmark ofthe Characters ofProphets (Peace he Upon them) . There is not an iota ofsin in the words and deeds of the prophets (Peace be Upon them) . As a matter offact absolute pretty and sinlessness are part and paral of their character yet there are some traditions in which exhibit deviation from the collective stance of the Ummah regarding prophets. There is a narration about the interpretation ofsura Hajj. verse No 51. This narration contains disgusting things about Muhammad (SA IV) . This research article examines and analyses all the charges leveled against Muhammad (SA W) and by proofs and evidences exonerate himfrom the same.
Hadith is verbal and practical interpretation of the Holy Quran and the second great source of Islamic jurisdiction. A misunderstanding about Hadith was propagated that it was compiled in Third Century. The scholars of the sub-continent shook off those doubts raised against Hadith with lucid arguments. The personality who got the honour of writing on Hadith with intellectual evidence and deep research pattern was Dr. Hameed Ullah. Dr. Hameed Ullah proved with research that the work of compilation of Hadith started in the era of the Prophet (PBUH) and that of his companions (RA) . It further expended in the era ofthe disciples ofthe Prophet's companions. This basic service ofHadith by these people strengthens the rule that compilation of Hadith was started in Prophet's era. The documents of the Prophet's regign and those of his companions and their disciples prove it that latter is sufficient reply to reject the claims of those who don't trust in Hadith and those of the Orientialists that the writing of Hadith is the phenomenon two
This article highlights the religious, literary and political work of Moulana ShÉista Gul famous by the name of Mathe Mulla of Khyber Puktun Khawa (1303 A. H-1401A. H. 1886A. D-1981A. D MardÉn) He was well-known scholar of Qura’n, ×adith and Fiqah, his great contribution was to promote political awareness in the community with the concept ofTwo Nations Theory by his affiliation with Muslim League under the leadership of Quaid-eAÐam Muhammad Ali JinnaÍ. He was the convener of Jamiat ul AÎfia which was organized by the eminent religious leaders of that time to implement Sharia law in Pakistan. He was devoted to make Islam a living reality during his life time, his literary work is aimed to improve human communication and develop a better understanding among the people of this region. His monumental work was originally in Pashto widely spoken and understood in the North West of Pakistan. He was teaching and preaching Islam nearly in a span of seventy years. The main objective was to alleviate the deteriorating conditions of the Muslim society and to defend it from external threats. He emphasized to bring change and correct the wrong believes and detrimental actions. His theological doctrines influenced his followers and decedents who promoted his mission in the light of writings and ideas expressed by him.
The article deals with the life and contribution ofNaseem Hijazi towards reconstruction ofIslamic thought through his historical novels in New Muslim generation. As a novel writer < Naseem Hijazi is regarded as one of thefinest writers of Urdu language especially in the later 20th century. Among his popular contemporaries were Ibn-e-Safh Saadat Hasan Manto< and Shqfiq-ur-Rehman< all having their particular line ofliterature. Naseem Hijazi is knownfor his potent and romantic description of history. There are only two writers prior to Hijazi who wrote history novels in Urdu: Abdul Haleem Sharar and Sadiq sardhunwi < but Hijazi’s writing is most credible in terms of historical description and accuracy. He exercised extra care to back his study of history by through research and to cite his sources whenever possible. Hijazi creates his powerful expression by blending this study of history with fairytale romanticism. The story usually revolves around characters who were related to< and shown present at the actual historical event that wishes tofocus on. Naseem Hijazi bases most ofhis work in Islamic history. In dealing with this history' he shows both the rise and fall of the Islamic Empire. This writer seems to have been inspired a lot by Allama Muhammad Iqbal's poetry. He tries, not very unlike Iqbal, to remind his readers of the lost glory of the Muslims and in a way inspire them to work with commitment to achieve lost glory in all walks of life. Naseem Hijazi has immensely influenced his readers both in and out of Pakistan. He has been one of the key sources of Islamist ideologies in Pakistan and worked as a key ideology and valour builder during the Soviet-Afghan War. Many Pakistani educated Youngsters throughout 1950s till today are believed to have been emotionally and ideologically inspired by his writings. He enjoys a very large reader base even after his death.
Born in 1894 in "Darb Sadah" of Cairo < Mehmood Taimur has attained a distinguishedplace in the world ofliterature. Besides writing literature < he has also written many essays/articles. He has highlighted social problems in his social essays and has become a social reformer. He has pinpointed the following social issues in these essays: (1) He has exposed the social ills like class distinction < sexual deprivation < destitute and ignorance. (2) He has also acquainted the people about the causes of polygamy and divorce in the light of Shariat and rejects the contention with the solid argument that woman is a weak creature subjected to all kind of wrong treatment. Every person has a right to lead a peaceful life in this world and no one has the right to deprive him of this privilege except owing to some Islamic law. Most of the people were unaware of the rights of woman granted by Islam or they were not accepting thenu but Mehmood Taimur has presented all those rights in a beautiful way before society that is why on reading his social essays < man reaches the conclusion that he was a social reformer.
An Introduction to Islamic Modes of Financing for Elimination of Interest Based Transactions in Banking Sector of Pakistan
Author: Ahmad, Rashid, Ata ur Rahman
The Economic system ofIslam is very balanced one. Islam does not deprive a person to take benefit of all halal (permissible) things, while it has banned all illegal means of earning like deceit, corruption, gambling, etc. Among all evils, interest/usury is the worst form of earning and those who are involved in transactions based on it, they have been threatened with hell. While on the other hand, in most banks and other financial institutions, transactions are carried out on the basis ofinterest. This is why Muslim scholars worked out alternative modes based on Islamic financing to replace interest-based transactions. In this article six modes of financing i. e. Musharakah. , Mudharabah, Murabahah, Ijarah, Salam and Istisnah have been discussed. If these Islamic inodes of financing are adopted in banking sector and in otherfinancial institutions, then it is hoped that in a very short span of time elimination ofriba would be possible.
Author: Farooq, Muhammad, Naila Nazir
Zakat is although a compulsory obligation in Islam but is not paid compulsorily by the people. There are two main reasons; one is the ignorance about many things on which zakat is due, for example non-agricultural land and commercial plots etc. andsecond, ignorance about the mechanism through which it is paid. Thefirst aspect is related to public awareness and second aspect is related to the fiscal policy being enforced by the government collecting property and wealth taxes thus putting heavyfinancial pressure on the owners of real estate so as to compel them to avoid zakat andpay taxes. The paper explores the level of awareness among the general public about the payment ofzakat on non-agricultural land. Itfurther addresses the question that how the existing revenue structure need to be changed. For thefirst aspect, primary data with n=33 has been collected from the capital city of the province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. For the second aspect the revenue structure of the government is reviewed tofind out the number of taxes on the possession, sale and purchase of commercial or nonagricultural land plots. Since taxes are in no way a substitute of zakat so it is further explored that if the existing taxes are replaced and zakat system would be properly enforced then how much is the net return. In order to estimate this net return, an interview has been conducted from the property dealers and also the figures are taken from government accounts to calculate a sample for the study area that is then generalized for the government returns at large. The results of the study show a high level ofignorance about zakat obligation on plots in the study area. The verdicts of the Islamic scholars also create difference of opinion, however, majority have approved the case in favor of payment. Since there is ignorance and people have to pay taxes so they avoid zakat and just pay taxes. A mechanism is needed for fiscal reforms to ensure the payment of zakat and to stop its substitution against taxes on land plots.
Author: Nazir, Naila, Abdul Qayum Khan
The Islamic Environmental market is a new avenue in Islamic finance. So far no practical effort has been made to integrate emission market and Islamic finance. Carbon trading is a billion dollar market but working under conventional finance system. The present research is an attempt to calculate the doubling time ofgrowth ofselected Islamicfinancial segments inclusive of carbon trading growth in selected regions. It discusses the reformative course for Islamic capital market to accommodate carbon trading. For this purpose an average growth rate ofcarbon market is selected and infused in Islamic capital market to forecast Islamic capita! market growth. Further growth rates of Islamic banking, takdful and Sukuk market is taken from different regions of the world and doubling time ofgrowth ofIslamic capital market is calculated with the inclusion ofaverage growth rale ofcarbon trade. The methodology includes Rule 70 to calculate doubling time. The results show that Asia with carbon trading in Islamic finance has more scope with high effects on reducing time to gain the required worth and Islamic finance growth requires one year less time to gain the double worth.
Author: Ramzan, Shazia, Ainee Rabab
In the wake of terrorist attacks in Pakistan and other parts of the world, especially the Deoband Madrassas have come under deep criticism andscrutiny and they are quite often criticizedas sanctuaries of terrorism. The authors hold that this notion is somewhat misleading. This research paper critically examines the educative role of madrassas in the Sub-Continent. Tracing the evolution of madrassa education system in India, an effort has been made to build the thesis that these educational institutions have made a pivotal role in the social and political up-lift ofthe Muslims and even in the today Pakistan, they are the source of education for thousands of children, who are otherwise denied of public sector schooling, especially in the remote areas.
Author: Islam, Fakhr ul, Muhammad Iqbal
After the creation of Pakistan the most important task was the making ofconstitution. There were many hurdles in the way of constitution making. The status ofIslam in the state affairs was one among them. During the Pakistan movement the name of Islam was excessively used. But when the country was created the westernized leadership of Muslim League started lobbying to make Pakistan a secular state. The Ulama roused to the occasion and demanded Islamic constitution. It was known to them in advance that westernized intelligentsia will separate state and religionfrom each other. Maulana Maudoodi among the religious intelligentsia played an active role in Islamizing the constitution. He rendered remarkable services for this purpose. The paper is an attempt to highlight valuable services ofMaulana Maudoodi briefly andconcisely. Key Words: Pakistan, Islam, Constitution, Westernized Leadership, Ulama, Maulana Maudoodi.
Author: Saleem, Muhammad Tahir
The paper discusses the needfor translating the Qur 'an in other languages, particularly English into meet today's needs. It points out the difficulties and pitfalls encounted in translating the Untranslatable Word of Allah - the Qur 'an. The it reviews critically various version of the English translations of the Qur'an, both by non-Muslim and Muslims. While English translations of the Qur 'an were embarked upon in Latin and Frenchfrom the 16, h century onwards, it was only in 1649 that thefirst English versionfrom French appeared. It wasfollowed by translations from the original Qur'anic text in the 18"' and 1 9lh century. However, Muslims embarked on translations only in the 2tfh century, and a number of versions have appeared so far. They have been critically examined, with concrete examples from the Qur 'anic verses to show their strengths and weaknesses. In the final analysis no one meets the ideal translations and there is a need to take up the task afresh.