Volume 30 Issue 1

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Al-Idah Title.jpg
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
DisciplineIslamic Studies, Theology
Double blind
LanguageEnglish, Urdu, Arabic
Edited byRashad Ahmad Saljoq
Publication details
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
Frequency2 issues per year
Open Access
LicenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY
ISO 4Find out here
ISSN2075-0307 (print)
2664-3375 (web)
PKR 12,000
PKR 3,000
24 Weeks

عالمی امن میں اسلام کا کردار

مصنف/مصنفین: رند، بشیر احمد، شازیہ رمضان

We live in a global village. The cyber world has brought together people and shurnk the distences, yet multi cultural, multi ethinic and multi national has become the norm of the day. There is virtually no such place, no town, no village, city or state where people from diverse backgrounds speaking diffirent lagnuages and professing diffirent creeds live. This diveristy and variety is the essence of life.  This paper analyzes various ways of establishing peace in the light of Islamic teachings. It finds out the causes of quarrels and disputes in different nations so that they may be prevented to make the world peaceful.

دینی مدارس پر انتہا پسندی اور دہشت گردی کے الزامات: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: بزدار، عبد القادر

"An analysis of the allegations of extremism and terrorism against religious institutions (Madrasas)". The priceless services done by the religious scholars for the preservation and uplift of religious and Islamic values in the subcontinent are indelible and unforgettable chapter of history. They geared up progress of religious institutions and the tilt of people towards them of the increasingly charming trend. The Heathen world is afraid of the emerging strongholds of Islam. The repercussions of this trend on society are becoming more and more prominent with the march of time. They are striving for the preservation and identity of the Islamic characteristics. After 9/11 incidents, the west is unable to understand how to detach the religious institutions from the embedded Islamic social integrity. The western media and foreign funded rulers have been endeavoring hard to defame religious institutions through there venomous propaganda against them. All this is visible to everyone. There is no parallel of the religious institutions educational boards (Wafaqs) in and outside the country even no such example is present in the whole Islamic world as well as in the subcontinent. Besides other baseless allegations, religious institutions are branded as terrorists and extremists. The west and America are much worried about the Islamic educational institutions and the Holy war (Jihad). The article encompasses the opinions of the regious as well as secular apostles. In a nutshell, all the allegations of extremism and terrorism are not only baseless but just a propaganda.

عرب اسلامی روایت کے برصغیر پاک و ہند میں تفسیر نگاری پر اثرات: عہد رسالت تا خلافت عباسیہ کے تناظر میں اختصاصی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: تبسم، میمونہ

It is an established fact that the mainthrust driving force  of all Islamic disciplines is the personality of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who appeared in the Arab Peninsula, spreading the rays of divine wisdom throughout the globe. He emerged and prevailed the Prophetic message in such a vivid style that the whole humanity confessed his lasting impressions. The Indian sub-continent has also been one of the impressed territories despite of having no direct social, cultural or religious relationships, yet some approaches from Indian sub-continental Rajas and presentations of gifts to the Prophet (PBUH) have been recorded in the history. Historians have expressed the reality that before Muhammad bin Qasim, a numbers of companions of Prophet reached India and played a pivotal role in making the suitable ground for embracing Islam. Hence, the Arab epistemological tradition engraved in the core of Indian hearts which consequently, reappeared and emerged in the classical exegetical literature of sub-continental scholars, such as Shah Waliullah and his off shoots both in India and Pakistan. This paper has been specifically articulated to explore the Arab impression on exegetical writings in the sub-continent

حضرت آدم علیہ السلام بائبل اور قرآن کى روشنى میں

مصنف/مصنفین: داد، کریم

Hazrat Sayyedna Adam (A.S) was the first man and the first prophet. Both Quran and Bible reveal that he was made from clay and was housed in Heavens. There was a most complete freedom for Sayyedna Adam (A.S) except of going near a forbidden tree. Iblees conducted an evil plan and tempted him to taste the fruit of the tree. This let to his descent on Earth. This study attempts to make a comparative analysis of Hazrat Sayyedna Adam (A.S)‘s Incident as mentioned in the Quran and the Bible.

اسلام میں امن اور دہشت گردی کا تصور: ایک علمی اور تحقیقی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: شاہ، زاہد، ناصر الدین

Islam is the religion of peace as is evident from the very meaning of  the word Islam which is derived from root word \" salam\" meaning peace and obedience. The advent of Islam has been a pannaca for all humanity and, ever since its inception, it has the distinction of contributing more and more to the betterment and progress of humanity. Its statute is crystal clear over all religions and systems. But unfortunately, there has been a systematic campaign to present Islam as a religion of violence. The  orientalists who tend  to misinterpret Islam by relying on some injunctions without looking into their specific context. The international media, under the influence of Jews, is also spreading a false propaganda. Moreover, certain elements with in Islamic world are also providing ample opportunity for the same. In such circumstances there is a dire  need to present the true spirit of Islam but such attempts are lacking in the Muslim world despite that it is one  of the major concern., This research paper is an attempt to present Islam in its true spirit in light of holy Quran and Sunnah. It is hoped that it would pave way for further research in the field.

قذف اور پاکستانی معاشرہ: اسلامی حوالے سے تنقیدی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: اختر، نسیم، ارشد منیر

Arbitrariness, unpredictability and instability of the present society are the consequences of alleging and accusing each other, absurdly and misleadingly. It is crucial to stop such felony to rescue standards of living in the society and, to prevent the society from the destroyer blazing of this evil deed. Islam is a perfect religion and helps circumventing all the problems of the society. Therefore Islam is the only religion which punishes with eighty stripes for false accusation. The chastisement is ruled to prevent people from such delinquencies and to keep morality in the society. This article articulates such theme.

قانون ٹارٹ كا فقہ اسلامى كى روشنى میں جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: امین، زینب

Tort law is an umbrella term for  laws  which cover issues of civil wrongs like defamation, trespassing and the other actions involving  violation of law. In case a person has undergone a physical, legal or any economic harm then he can file a suit under the tort law. Torts are civil wrongs recognized by law as grounds for a lawsuit. It is also generally known that tort in Islamic fiqh as “Jinayet” . This paper attempts to analys  by Islamic law in thel light of the  relevant verses for the Qur’an followed by the rules stated in traditions from the Prophet (Peace by on him). Jinayat the part of Shari’a that applies to homicide or physical  injury is called jinayat and is based on the pre-Islamic rules of Arab blood feud, as modified by Prophet (Peace be on him). The punishment is either retaliation or blood money (diyat). Retaliation occurs only upon  the request of the victim, if alive, or his nearest kin if the victim is dead, and is to be inflicted by victim or kin. In the case of homicide retaliation means death, in the case of injury it means imposing an identical injury. Where retaliation is one of the options, the victim or his closest kinsman may demand blood money instead, or negotiate an out of court settlement. Jinayat, like modern tort law, is based on private action; there is no official responsible for initiating the case.

افغانستان کی اسلامی تاریخ کے پیش رو صحابہ کرام: عہد خلافت عمر بن الخطاب رضی اللہ عنہ

مصنف/مصنفین: مختیار، عباد الرحمن، محمد ایاز

The era of caliphate was the golden era of Islam.In this era the boundaries of Islamic state spread far and wide. From the caliphate of Abubakkar saddique (RA) Islamic conquest had started. At that time the Muslim armies reached Syria and Byzentine. But the first arrival of sahaba in Afghanistan was in the caliphate of Hazrat Umar (RA). The torchbearer of Islam came here for the preaching of Islam and to lead these people and turn their lives according to Quran and Sunnah. Before the advent of  Islam Afghanistan was the centre of Buddhist and other several faiths. Through the efforts of these companions of Muhammad (S.A.W) Islam got spread through the mountains and deserts of Afghanistan and all the Pathan tribes enter in the holy deen. In the following lines we will discuss thier efforts and journeys towards Afghanistan.

حلالہ اور مروجہ حلالہ سنٹرز: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: الدىن، حافظ صالح، محمد ماجد خان

Almighty Allah made marriage a source of affection and love among the human beings. He also ordered to uphold this relation as much as possible. If, on one way or the other the relationship of a couple becomes so unpleasant that their family life becomes impossible to move any more further. In this case the Islamic “Sharia’h” recommends opening of the ways for their respectable separation in the shapes of “Divorce” and “Khula’a” (divorce obtained on wife’s initiative,s). Though Islamic sharia’h has declared “Divorce” as legal act, yet marriage being a great sacred relation which is desired to be retained intact to the maximum, it has been named as the most unpleasant among the permissible acts in Islam.

Some human beings very abruptly break the same relation (Nikah) without proper consideration. Some of these persons later on repent on what they have done. Allah Almighty  therefore, very affectionately has allowed men after uttering two times the words, ‘Divorcee (Talaq) at different times to reconcile with their wives. But if he disrespecting this great relation stress-passes the final time and utters the word “Divorce” (Talaq) for the third time in his life so the religion has fixed certain punishment for his this very irresponsible act as a punishment that though, both spouses may agree to continue their married life, Islam does not allow them to do so, prior to undergoing the process of re-marrying  the woman with another person to fulfill the condition of her reunion with her first husband. This process is called “Halala”  In the article under reference side by side with presenting the literal meaning and idiomatic definitions of Halala, its Shari status has also been elaborated. Efforts  have been intensified to recollect the different views of all jurists  regarding this practice and examine the same analytically. In addition to that with the help of irrefutable proofs, the adverse effects of the so called “Halala,s centers” have been proved to warn the people to stay away from them.

جنگی قیدیوں کے حقوق شریعت اسلامیہ اور بین الاقوامی قوانین کی روشنی میں

مصنف/مصنفین: شاہ، سید مبارک، عبد الوہاب مفتی

Islam encourages treating war-prisoners positively. The prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) showed it by his conduct as he never mal  treated any war-prisinor. Quran also teaches it as Allah describes the qualities of true believers as “and they give food, inspite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to the Miskīn (the poor), the orphan, and the captive. [Al-Dahar; 8]

The same teachings are in practice in the international law. The present article dicusses the rights of war-prisoners both in the light of Islamic and international law.   

اسلام اور ہندو مت میں مادی اور روحانی طہارت کے اصول

مصنف/مصنفین: فاروق، حسین، حافظ حفاظت اللہ

Spiritual/physical cleanliness/purification has always been man's concern and it is more so with religions. Concepts and procedures of the same have always been derived and framed according to the basic teachings of these religions. Islam and Hinduism, basically two different religions, have different theoretical assumptions about this issue. The study below critically examines these concepts as put forward by the two religions. 


اسلام اور جین مت میں طہارت کا تقابلی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: الازہری، محمد ریاض خان، عبد الرحمن

      Allah created all the required things fo the world since the world was given existence. Human was made its tenant and was equipped with art of living and eversince human life exists in all the corners of the world whatsoever religion they follow, but  they do follow a set of social principles in life.and literal meaning of those principles is called religion, because religion literally mean"way of living or manner of living".and contextually religion may be defined as the principles followed to live life.

      In the light of this definition of religion some people have been confronted having no concept  of  religion , they are called Communists. But anyone who does not believe in Allah and the Prophet PBUH are termed Communists.In the following dissertation a comparison has been drawn between Islam and jeen Mat to show that no religion can compete Islam in terms of Clarity or cleanliness.

علاج معالجہ اور دم کی شرعی حیثیت

مصنف/مصنفین: شبنم، زاہدہ، عتیق امجد

Islam lays much stress on the physical, spiritual and metal health of human beings. For the spiritual wellbeing of mankind Allah sent the Prophets and revealed divine books. The process of physical cure is called Tababat. Although it stands for the physical cure but is used as a spiritual cure as well. Five different methods of cure are found in the traditions of our Prophet  (SAAW) and these have been discussed in this article. Whether a person should go for remedy of disease or not, both of these views are found in Ahadith, which is apparently a contradiction. In the following article an attempt has been made toreconcile these apparently different views. The views of Islamic Scholars have also been mentioned regarding this issue. Different methods of cure remained in use in different periods of time that have also been analyzed in this article. The prohibition and permission of the use of spiritual methods of cure such as Dumm, Ta’weez and magic have also been discussed and an attempt has also been made to find the reasons of two different existing extremes in Muslim nation regarding this matter.

جنگی جرائم اسلام اور بین الاقوامی قانون کے تناظر میں

مصنف/مصنفین: کھوکھر، محمود سلطان، محمد حسین آزاد

In ancient and modern era wars, such war crimes are committed which are against humanity and peace. The war crimes committed were only for power pelf  and pomp. The  continuation of those war crimes is still present in modern time wars. Islam has introduced a very civilized, meaningful and judicious  way for war fare  against enemy and also eradicated all kind of  war crimes.

علامہ عینی اور ان کی خدمات کا علمی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: خان، کریم، حافظ ظفر حسین

Allama Badr_ul_Din Al-Aaini was a distinguished Islamic Scholar of 8 A.H. He was at the same time an interpreter, Muhadis, a Jurist, and a Historian. He was recognized to be a great Jurist, a Muhadis and a praise worthy man by his contemporary scholars and Jurists. His contributions towards the Muslim Ummah are very comprehensive and valuable. In the below mentioned Article contains a comprehensive view of Al-Aaini`s name and lineage, birth, his teachers, pupils,his works, contributions and his prominent position among the scholars of his age. 

سورة الكوثر بين الإعجاز البلاغي وتحديات الترجمة

مصنف/مصنفین: الله، فضل

Since the inception of Islam, the translation of Quran’s meanings into other languages has always been an incessant need of the non-Arab Muslims. Although there are contrast views of Muslim scholars about the translatability and untranslatability of Quran into other languages for its innate miraculous meanings, tremendous efforts have been made, throughout the history, to make Quran easy for general public. Urdu is one of those languages in which Quran has been translated since Islam has brightened horizon of the sub-Continent. This research deals with the shortest Surah of Quran that contains plethora of meanings and rhetorical secrets with least letters, words and sentences.

The research paper comprises of:

Eloquence of al-Kawthar hinting the hidden semantic meanings. The problems of translating this chapter keeping in view to encompass the meanings of semantic eloquence during its translation.

The researcher has confined the study to four Urdu Translations: 

Translation of Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Translation of Sheikh Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Translation of Sheikh Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Translation of Sheikh Abdul Majid Derya Abadi).

The article deals with highlighting the difference between rhetorical miracles in the Qur’anic text and the shortcomings of its translations in an explanatory table and the research work comes to end with valuable results and suggestions.

الزمخشري وموقفه من الاستشهاد بشعر المؤلدين في ضوء تفسيره الكشاف

مصنف/مصنفین: جان، احمد سعيد

Allama Jarullah Al-Zemakhshari was a great scholar, linguistic, and a man of letters. His book,Tafseer al- Kasshaaf ‘an- Haqaiq et-Tanzeel, is one of the most famous and universally acknowledged book in which he has discussed Arabic grammar, literature and rhetoric. It is an extremely important  Tafseer and  is considered a primary source by all great scholars. It is famous for its deep linguistic analysis, rhetoric and grammatical issues. Allama Al-Zemakhshari has cited many poets’ poetry both from Pre-Islamic era and Islamic era as a proof to support his arguments. In this article the researcher has cited Al-Zemakhshari’s attitude towards Quoting the Poetry of Mowalldeen (postclassical poets) and to point out those places where he has quoted Mowalldeens’ (postclassical poets) poetry for proof in his Tafseer  Al-kasshaff.  

مؤسسة الإزدواج والأسرة في ضوء الشريعة الاسلامية

مصنف/مصنفین: اسلام، صاحب، ضياء الحق

Allah Almighty has created everything in pairs. It is a scientific fact that these pairs exist in all things, in vegetable kingdom, even in inorganic matters. There is no doubt that these elements do not exist by themselves. The Holy Quran has mentioned repeatedly this fact in different verses. Marriage in Islam is a divine bond between husband and wife to enjoy the social relationship with each other and is a basic unit of Islamic  family system. This article presents the structure of a Muslim Family in the light Islamic teachings.

ضوابط قبول التفرد في رواية الحديث دراسة مع أمثلة من تطبيقات النقاد

مصنف/مصنفین: شاه، مير اكبر، عبد الرحمن

Tafarrud (Strangeness) of a Hadith means reporting by only a single narrator at some stage of the Isnad. This is not necessary that any Tafarrud (Strangeness) of a Hadith should be weak (Da’if) , because the narrator of such & nbsp; Hadith may make mistake in reporting and may be right. The authenticity of such Hadith rather depends on other factors such as: The reliability of the narrator of Strange Hadith. The earlier stage of the Isnad where Tafarrud (Strangeness) is founded. Close relation of the narrator with the teacher (sheikh) . Acceptance of Strange Hadith by renowned authorities in Hadeeth. Another narrator authenticating the first narrator’s account of the strange hadith. Therefore Tafarrud& nbsp; (Strangeness) of a Hadith should be studied in the light of these factors that determines acceptability. This paper studies Tafarrud (Strangeness) of a Hadith in the light of these factors.

مميزات التشريع الجنائي في الفقه الإسلامي: دراسة تحليلية

مصنف/مصنفین: طاہر، محمد، ابظاہر خان

Occidentals, in antagonism to Islam, propagate that Law of Jinai is too stringent and rigid. For the reason that in Islam, a living human being is stoned to death, his hands and legs are cut into pieces, and that he is hanged. Some of our modern Muslims have been impressed of the same propaganda and are trying to alter the Islamic set of laws; they further misinterpret the laws ordained in this regard. The fact is that every Islamic law, especially the law of Jinai, is in favour of human beings, having such qualities which laws of the other religions lack. For example, Islam has provided clear distinction between Had and penalty. In Islam, the purpose of punishment is to reform and these Hadoods are not enforced unless the doubts are cleared. This comprehensive provisionary role of Islam is over sighted by the occidental Scholars. & nbsp;

Principles and Rules of Jihad: A Juristic Approach

Author: Ahmed, Rashid
Jihad is a sacred term and a sacred endeavor as well, but unfortunately it has been misunderstood and misused in many cases, therefore its elaboration and explanation is needed from various aspects . This article deals with the principles and rules of Jihad. At the beginning, the concept of jihad has been expounded, then motivations of war of the period of ignorance have been discussed. Those  motivations have been brought in to focus which Islam has recognized. For instance defending of religion and faith, safeguarding the territory of Muslims, eradication of persecution, eradication of Internal enemies, support for the oppressed Muslims etc. The purpose of jihad has also been discussed, while principles and rules of jihad make the next part of the article. In this regard views of a well-known medieval Hanafi jurist Imam Hasan al- Shaybani   with  the commentary of contemporary  scholars have been produced.

Peace, the Essential Message of Islam

Author: Khalil, Jehanzeb, Saima Perveen
Abstract: This research has been conducted with purpose to erase misunderstanding of Westerner about Islam. Islam originates from the word "Salam" which means peace, submission and tolerance. Islam has never preached for intolerance, hatred and violence. It has despised violence and bloodshed and having no place for extremism. Islam is a religion of moderation rather than extremism. The Holy Quran enshrines benign treatment and attitude even towards non-believers, who are residing in Muslim state and to guarantee them all their basic rights of life and property. It negates hatred and fundamentalism and stands for universality. There arises question that how this situation has been muddled and the real soul of Islam is distorted? How incendiary norms have been infested in federally administered tribal areas of Pakistan? There is a need for implementation of anti-terror laws and to condemn terrorism in all its manifestations.

Orientalists on the Style of Quran: A Critical Study

Author: Akhtar, Saeed, Ata ur Rahman
The literary grandeur of the Quranic style is simply inimitable. It treats diverse subjects in such a unique and exalted manner as is nowhere to be found in any genre of Arabic literature. But in spite of its astounding sublimity, some orientalists have bitterly criticized the literary style of the Holy Quran. The following paper is an academic attempt to prove their fallacy and failure to appreciate the incomparable style of the Holy Quran. It includes the representative views of those orientalists who made a scathing criticism as well the ideas of those orientalists who generously acknowledged the exceptional eloquence of the Holy Quran.

The Genesis of Shi’ism in Islam

Author: Farmanullah, Fakhr ul Islam
Like other major religions of the world, sectarian division took place in Islam too. The major cause of this sectarian division was political in its nature rather than religious. Immediately after the demise of the Holy Prophet (SAW) , believers were divided over the question of succession to the Prophet (SAW) which later on culminated in the shape of two sectarian factions i. e. Sunni and Shi‘ah. The present paper will give a complete account of the genesis of Islamic sects including the events that directly intensified shi’ism& nbsp; in Islam.

Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective

Author: Nasir, Muhammad Jamal, Anwar Saeed Khan
The modern scientific concepts were clearly envisioned in the Qur'an date back to 7th century, when observational facilities were not available, mathematical principles were not discovered, primary principles (quarks) and fundamental forces  i.e. gravitational and electromagnetic were not identified. The word earth (أرْضَARD) appears 409 times in Quran. The number of verses in which the Earth is mentioned first is quite small, e.g. sura 2, verse 29 and sura 20, verse 4, where a reference is made to "Him Who created the earth and the high heavens". On the other hand the numbers of verses where the Heavens are mentioned before the Earth are much larger e.g. Sura-l-araf (7), Verse 54; SuraYunus (10), verse 3; SuraQaf (50), verse 38; Sura l-Hadid (79), verses 27 to 33 etc. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. Sura l-Baqarah, verse (67)[i] states:  قَالَ أعُوْذُ بِاللهِ اأنْ أَکُوْنَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِيْن He said, "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant."The Qur'an does not render a coordinated description of the Earth Creation. In lieu of a continuous story of creation, there are verses dispersed all over the Quran which deal with certain aspects of the Earth Creation. These scattered verses provide information on the sequential events marking its development with varying degrees of detail.The Quran referred toward at least five points which shed light on the creation of heaven and earth.  And these points are entirely confirmed by scientific facts.    

Rights of Non-Muslim Minorities in a Muslim Country in the Light of Qur’an and Sunnah

Author: Basri, Eshrat Hussain
The Issue of the rights of non-Muslim minorities in Muslim countries has been one of the most burning issues in this era. It has been highlighted by both Muslim and non-Muslim writers that they are mistreated in Muslim countries. This paper discusses the rights of non-Muslims in a Muslim country in the light of Quran, Sunnah and Islamic history. These rights are the protection of rights and freedom of belief, right to protection of property, honour, assurance of disability, poverty and old age, right of freedom in religion, language and culture, work and profession in government services, equal rights in the society and justice. It will be shown that in Muslim countries, all non-Muslim minorities have their equal rights and same citizen status. This paper ends by providing some suggestions in solving contemporary non-Muslim problems in Muslim countries.

Pakistan’s Stance on the War on Terror: Challenging the Western Narrative

Author: Bashir, Sadaf
The tragic events of 11 September 2001 allowed the United States to reframe its pursuit of global hegemony as ‘War on Terror’ which is styled on Islamophobic rhetoric and action. To counter this campaign of Islamophobia, Pakistan has adopted a consistent and well-planned stance. The essential contours of Pakistan’s stance on the ‘War on Terror’ are the need to: condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations; defend Islam and Muslims; support the right of self-determination of oppressed people particularly, Palestinians and Kashmiris; respect international law; address the root causes of terrorism; and promote peace and harmony among cultures, civilizations and followers of diverse religions all over the world through promotion of a robust dialogue and  criminalization of  defamation of religions.

Impact of Hajj on Muslims With Special Reference to Pakistan

Author: Malik, Nasreen Tahir, Mohammad Tahir Malik
Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and is obligatory, once in life time, on adult Muslims having physical and financial capacity. Historically, ‘Hajj’ has been a rigorous undertaking. Although technological advancement has made it easier in many ways, yet there are hardships owing to ever increasing number of pilgrims visiting Makkah Mukkaramah i.e. a city with finite resources including all available resources. The Government of Pakistan, being a facilitator, endeavors to make the Hajj experience as comfortable as is possible within the resources available and standards affordable by Pakistani Hujjaj by making extensive arrangements, through a transparent process, so that the pilgrims could perform their manasik-e-Hajj as enshrined in Quran and Sunnah. The Pilgrim accounts stress that the Hajj leads to a feeling of unity with fellow Muslims.  It increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favorable attitudes toward all the people of Pakistan including   women with greater acceptance of female education and employment. Hajjis show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions. The evidence suggests that these changes are more a result of exposure to and interaction with Hajjis from around the world, rather than religious instruction or a changed social role of pilgrims upon their return to Pakistan.