Volume 1 Issue 2

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Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought 
Al-Milal- Journal of Religion and Thought.jpg
English title of the first issue of Al-Milal Journal of Religion and Thought.
DisciplineComparative Religions
Double blind
LanguageEnglish, Urdu, Arabic
Edited byBilal Ahmad Qureshi
Publication details
Pakistan Society of Religions (Pakistan)
Frequency2 issues per year
Open Access
LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. CC BY NC
ISO 4Find out here
ISSN2663-4392 (print)
2706-6436 (web)
24 Weeks

The world has compressed into a global village. Muslim and non Muslim societies are equally interacting not only in diaspora or emigrantion, but also via digital world, where the distances are reduced to one click. Thus, the sharing of views and beliefs has become more spontaneous and impulsive than ever. The multifaceted venues of interaction are also complex as regards to their impact, and have resulted into variety of issues and debates that need to be sorted out in the light of Divine guidance. Al-Milal aspires for solution to such issues that are surfacing as a result of these interactions and contacts among various religions and cultures. Alhamdulillah, after much appreciated reception of its first issue, the second issue of Al-Milal is presented here. The current issue covers diverse range of topics. Initially, we had received 19 articles within the due date. The articles were chosen for their relevance with the scope of journal after the desk review process, and then these were forwarded for the final review for publishing. The 10 articles included in this volume are selected after the due improvements and feed back of two national and one international referees. We are grateful to our fellow researchers who contributed with their valuable research and hope that their cooperation will continue in future. Al-Milal, notably, is moving forward without compromising the quality of its content as the articles are published after blind peer review as per HEC criteria. We are indebted to our scholars who have contributed through their suggestions and feedback in making Al-Milal a success. We hope and pray that their cooperation will remain with us for the years to come. Lastly, we ask Allah subhānahủ wa t’ālā to be our constant protector and supporter in this uphill endeavor and to guide us to live together with peace and prosperity.

Chief Editor

Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought

December, 2019 AD, Rabī’ al-Thānī, 1441 AH

زر اور معاوضۂ زر: سرمایہ دارانہ اور اسلامی نظام معیشت کے تناظر میں تجزیاتی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: علی، حافظ راؤ فرحان

In trade and commerce, money has remained the backbone of the business and trade. From the beginning to the end, money is an indispensable part of every economic activity. For this importance, money is treated as a factor of production. But the question is what is meant by money and whether the value of money can be recognized as a land, house, shop, car, bungalow and merchandise goods? And then what is the status if it is in the form of interest and it is linked to inflation? The research article underlines the key aspect regarding money and its compensation in the perspective of capitalistic and Islamic economic system. The qualitative and analytical approach was applied in this article. A literature review concluded that time value of money in capitalistic economy is unlimited while the Islamic economic system does not recognize its value in form of interest and with the association of inflation rate. It is recommended that business to be done on a profit and loss basis, rather than on debt and interest and instead of linking money to the inflation rate, alternatives should be proposed, for example if a person wants to take the loan, he should be given what he needs on cost plus profit basis.

اسلام اور یہودیت میں تصور طلاق کا تقابلی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: اورنگزیب، امان اللہ

The theme of exchange among religions and similar investigation of religions has turned out to be significant in the current time. Many religious scholars have presented a comparative overview of the subject of many commandments and beliefs in religions, but the issue of divorce in Jews and Islam as a regular subject is almost never discussed. Although it is mentioned as an ancillary subject, such books were written on the topics of marriage and divorce in world religions. But question is, why is divorce comparative review important in Judaism and Islam? Because most of the believers in Islam and Judaism are based on their religious teachings and worried about the problem of rising numbers of divorces. According to the principles of comparative study the researchers have tried to do work on this topic in an objective manner. Finally, it has been concluded that the teachings of these two religions are in principle quite alike. While there is some disagreement on the side issues that open the door to mutual dialogue, it is possible that through comparative research on other topics between these two religions is conducted it will provide further avenues of dialogue and mutual understanding between two major revealed religious traditions.

یاجوج ماجوج: جدید تعبیرات اور معاصر اقوام پر اطلاق و انطباق: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: لطیف، حافظ زاہد

According to the Islamic point of view Gog and Magog (Ya’jūj Ma’jūj), are two such supernatural and aggressive powers that will reveal from some unknown place. According to Islamic sources the two disbelieving powers (tribes) are the children of Yāfith son of Noah. Humanity will affect badly at their severely harmful activities on the earth. In the beginning they were free into some unknown place. The famous king Dhulqarnayn imprisoned them behind an unknown thick wall in human history. There are many conjectures regarding the wall, and it is sometimes considered in any Norwegian country because of too long duration of sunrise in these countries. Their population will be 10 times more than the World’s populations. They will be so much trouble creating nation from the race of Noah (A.S) even Isa (Christ) will take refuge on the mountain of Toor and Muslims will pray Allah to get rid of them. Today some modern Islamic researchers have been claiming that they are in fact, Chines or Russians as we find their resemblance in prophet's traditions. In this article, an attempt has been made to unveil the disputed matter that either they exist in current age in form of living peoples or some hidden which will be revealed before the end of time. The purpose of this research is to revisit different speculations about Gog and Magog as we find them also into the Bible. Many Muslims research took effect from Bible’s concept ignoring the traditions of the prophet and find out many different solutions which, according to me are to be seen into the true and clear facts by Quran and Sunnah.

اسلامی ریاست کے خلاف سازشوں کے سدباب کے لئے راہنما اصول

مصنف/مصنفین: جدون، سعید الحق، زینب معین

Now a day the conspiracy against the leading countries of the Islamic world has become a tragedy under a plan. The examples of Iraq, Lebia, Palestine, and Syria are before us and now these kinds of events are also made against Saudi Arab and Pakistan. So, the protection of every country and its state for preventing conspiracies against it in an effective and successful policy should be adopted, in this aspect there is a great deal of leading can be handed. In the field from the life of the Holy Prophet (saw), we can get an effective policy, to solve the important issues of the modern era about the protection of the state. Our Holy Prophet (saw) adopted the arrangements for the protection of Islamic State of Madinah. One such example is the demolishing of Masjid al-Dirār. Which was conspiracy against the Islamic State of Madinah and completion of hypocritic agenda. Many principles of fiqh-us sīrah are drawn from this incident about the state protection. In this article, we discuss the principles of the protection of Islamic State in the light of Masjid al-Dirār incident and Modern National and international laws.

اسلامی اور مغربی تناظر میں آزادی اظہار رائے کا تقابلی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: خان، نور حیات

Freedom of Expression: A Comparative Study from Islamic & Western Perspective

Living on the earth is all about freedom and as we know that the first man on the earth Adam was sent on the earth with the freedom to worship only to Allah. This freedom is a blessing of Allah and the value of it would only be judged in the era of slavery. It is an ultimate principle in Islam that the total submission is to be Allah alone. Thus, a man would never be a slave of any other person and whenever they become a slave to any other authority they are treated inhumanly. Allah (SW) made this glorious world for human beings and granted them the status of Ashraf ul Makhlūq. Human has such value which can be testified by this reason that everything is tightened to them and the world is only created for them. But human can only be benefited from the world till they are better for them and others, living friendly and create atmosphere of peace. So, till the end they will be benefited and blessed. They will also be in peace and freedom if they take care and have the respect for humanity. As man is a social animal and doesn’t live without his community. Sometimes due to controversy in thinking and other routes fall in conflicts, for which a proper law is administered. The differences in views are not forbidden. It is important, not to cross limits and to create peaceful atmosphere in order to rest humanity in peace and make the world peaceful. This article deals with the comparison of Islamic freedom of expression and the modern Western criterion of freedom of speech. The study concludes that the Islamic and western thought on freedom is different from each other. In this study comparative and critical approach is adopted.

قیام امن کے لئےخواجہ عبید اللہ ملتانی کے صوفیانہ اسلوب تبلیغ کی عصری معنویت: تجزیاتی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: محمود، حافظ محمد حسن، اللہ دتہ

A Sufi, literally practically in denotation and connotation is such a figure whose heart is naturally and habitually free of pollution of pride, prejudice, sectarianism, ethnicity, linguicism, and hatred for animate and inanimate things on any ground. This purity of sentiments and sanctity of thoughts of Sufis of Islam have always influenced not only the morality of the Muslims but also attracted the people of anti-Islamic faiths. Human history in general and Islamic history, in particular, is replete with such instances as prove that where logistics and warring tactics of the Muslims failed to produce any positive and healthy effects, these were the unseen swords of Sufis' unmatched conduct and exceedingly supreme love for humanity which bore results of ever-lasting magnitude. Due to the safe and unbiased style of the preaching of Sufis of Islam, foes became friends, twisted pathways became straight high ways of peace and prosperity, the grieved became happy, the downtrodden became the champions and the rejected ones became the accepted ones. Sufis have always been the torchlight and beacon-house equally for the believers and the non-believers. Sufis’ preaching style has been the epitome of the style of Prophet of Islam.

الأسس الفلسفية لأسلوب الحياة الإسلامية وغير الإسلامية وأثرها فى المجتمع: دراسة مقارنة

مصنف/مصنفین: ذوالقرنین، محمد

It is self-evident that human beliefs had great influence on character, actions, ethics, behavior and way of life. The possessors of correct belief produced positive effects and those who possessed incorrect belief promoted negative values in the community. Undoubtedly, the diversity in belief produced diverse ethics, actions, behaviour which gave birth to the different patterns of life in society. Regardless of subdivisions, by looking towards the philosophical foundations, these patterns of life could be divided into four categories in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah. These lifestyles (also mentioned by Abū ’l-A‘lā Maudūdī in Tajdīd wa Iḥyā-i Dīn) are: Atheistic pattern of life, Polytheistic pattern of life, Monastic pattern of life and Islamic pattern of life. As each pattern had its particular tenets, therefore it formed a particular way of life by leaving its effects upon individual, social, political, economic, cultural and civilizational life. This research work aimed to explain the basic mechanism of these four patterns and their impact on human life. The method used for the collection and analysis of data was descriptive and analytical. The research concluded that three patterns of life (except Islamic pattern of life) produced harmful and negative effects into the society whereas the only Islamic pattern of life ensured the peace and prosperity. Moreover, Islamic pattern of life played a vital role in growth of all disciplines including political social, and economic system. It is therefore suggested that Islamic scholars should uncover the hollowness of Un-Islamic life style and present Islamic pattern of life in logical and systematic way. On one hand, this exercise will encounter the evils and on the other hand would promote good into the society.

The Role of Ubuntu Ethics in Promoting Citizenship Values: An Investigation into the Foundations of Social Harmony

Author: Kuhumba, Kevin Shijja
This paper investigates how Ubuntu ethics can contribute as foundation for social harmony. Ubuntu is a concept in African philosophy which defends the intrinsic values of relationships. This sense of relationships further fosters harmonious co-existence in society. In reference to Ubuntu values, citizens ought to be educated in order to have respect for others and be more responsible for the well-being of others. In this paper, it has been argued that the African philosophy of Ubuntu ethics is an all-encompassing concept that revolves around some key values. It is contended here that these key values namely, solidarity, hospitality, and beneficence are the fundamentals of social harmony. Here we shall address two issues: first, implication of Ubuntu ethics as articulated in African philosophy, second, a proposal that how through imparting Ubuntu values as part and parcel of the citizens’ education an atmosphere of social harmony and co-existence can be promoted in a given society.

Muslim-Christian Relations in the Era of Prophet Muhammad: Review of Najrān Delegation’s Case in Modern Context

Author: Saeed, Riaz Ahmad
Muslim–Christian relations are as mature as Islamic history itself. Historical evidences state the first interaction of Muslims and Christians occurred in 5th year after nabuwwah (615 AD) when Muslims migrated to Ḥabshah (Abyssinia) and second contact was established after immigration of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to Madinah. After getting socio-political stability in 8th hijrī (629 AD), Muhammad (PBUH) sent letters and ambassadors to different statesmen and religious leaders to spread the Islamic Mission and Message globally. One letter was also sent to the chief Bishop of Najrān. In response, the chief Bishop of Najrān accepted the invitation and personally came to meet the Prophet (PBUH) with his reputed delegation. The beloved Messenger (PBUH) warmly welcomed this delegation. As a result, the peace agreement was reached after some theological debate and discussion. Later on, throughout history, the relations between Muslims and Christians have been in situation of up and down. It’s also a fact that over the centuries, the Muslims-Christians relations had sometimes been one of enmity, sometimes one of rivalry, competition, and encounter. In spite of it, the Najrān’s delegation case has a historical significance in Muslim-Christian relations in the literature of both religions. Therefore, in this study efforts were made to explore the event of Najrān delegation as theological foundations for Muslim-Christian relations in times of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and how can we get benefit from it in modern era. Moreover, this study perceives that the case of Najrān delegation was the first practical interaction between Muslims and Christians of that age. Hence, we could get benefit from it with its modern applications and interpretations. The analytical, comparative and historical approaches have been adopted in this study with qualitative paradigm. I compared and analysed the case in Islamic and Christian context and then gave recommendation for its application.

Religiosity for Promotion of Behavior: Role of Islamic Worships in Moral Development of Muslim Youth

Author: Nisar, Farhat, Aasia Rashid
The question of moral rectitude and upbringing of youth in the current social arena is the contemporary discovery attributed to social and family norms that also undergo change due to social and economic reasons. Consequently, deferring levels of piety become more or less acceptable according to an individual’s surroundings and age. The study was done to determine the association between religiosity and behaviors likely to improve the moral, social and psychological habits of young Muslims. The discussion of the article contextualizes the effects of observing practices of Islam on a larger scale. A sample study of this research can be used as evidence to counter the contemporary environment which inevitably generates contradictions for young people. The contradictions result in uncertainty and materialistic atmosphere which does not cater to their spiritual needs and the requirements to develop as the youth of Ummah. Yet, we cannot stop or avoid the negative channels and their effects prevailing on the internet. We can; however, extend the positive spiritual energy in youth that is only possible through careful observance of religious practices comprising regular prayers, fasting, charity and pilgrimage (Hajj). The current apathy of our youth towards the religious injunctions may be attributed to social and family norms that are in some cases relative to the economic conditions and social backup. This will evaluate and assess the way and means of effective inlaying of moral fields where our young people can improve their moral aptitude and rectitude. The impasse of current moral turpitude can be shattered with the bounding relation of human activity and Islamic ritual.