Volume 2 Issue 2

From Religion
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought 
Al-Milal- Journal of Religion and Thought.jpg
English title of the first issue of Al-Milal Journal of Religion and Thought.
DisciplineComparative Religions
Double blind
LanguageEnglish, Urdu, Arabic
Edited byBilal Ahmad Qureshi
Publication details
Pakistan Society of Religions (Pakistan)
Frequency2 issues per year
Open Access
LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. CC BY NC
ISO 4Find out here
ISSN2663-4392 (print)
2706-6436 (web)
24 Weeks

Activities of Islamic Sharī’ah Council and Muslim Arbitration Tribunal to Apply Islamic Law in England and Wales

Author: Huda, Md. Nurul
The UK is a Christian majority country with several minority religious groups like Muslims, Hindus, Jews and Sikhs who have been living there for a long time. All faith groups have their own laws. Likewise, Muslims also have their specific laws called “Sharī’ah law” or “Muslim Family Law”. This paper attempts to represent a prospect of how Islamic law deals with the issues faced by the Muslims in England and Wales. There are many “The Islamic Shari’ah Council (ISC)” and “Muslim Arbitrational Tribunal (MAT) to solve the family concerns in England and Wales, for instance, marriage, child custody, divorce and other issues related to their matrimonial life. These councils play a prime role in implementing Islamic law among Muslims in Britain. Since ISC and MAT play a crucial role in applying Islamic law, it will be the focusing component of the paper. This study examines how ISC and MAT resolve the legal problems of the Muslim families and to which extent sometimes it is allegedly not compatible with England and Wales's domestic legal settings. Moreover, the main aim and object of the paper is to find out the internal functions and the processes of the Islamic Sharī’ah Council and Muslim Arbitration Tribunal in England and Wales

Nigerian Politics and Politics in Nigeria: A Contemplation of Islamic Political Thought in Nigeria

Author: Suberu, Ibrahim, Sherif Yusuf
Democracy in Nigeria is characterised by corruption, irregularities and injustice. The level of political hostility in the country has resulted in loss of lives and properties and as a result, there have been hindrances to peace and national development to prevail in Nigeria. Hence, the ugly political developments have generated a lot of concerns and questions such as what are the causes of the political unrest in Nigeria? Is democracy really paying off as a political system in Nigeria?  What has been the result of democracy in Nigeria?  Can there be a better political system in Nigeria? If so, can Islamic political system fulfil the longing of Nigerians? Answers to these questions shall form the body of this research. The research discovers the absence of fairness in the electoral process and bad governance in Nigeria. This research reveals the flaws in effectiveness of democracy as a system of government in Nigeria. It proposes adopting an alternative model of governance. Lastly, this research contemplates the Islamic political model for a better Nigeria.

The Issue of Human Cloning: A Review in Semitic Religions’ Context

Author: Kiyani, Shazia, Yasir Munir
Human cloning has emerged as a new and innovative technology in the reproductive and therapeutic science in the recent past. So far it has not been practiced over human beings but owing to its huge potential and possible scope, it has attracted the attention of not only the masses (particularly the infertile couples and LGBTQs etc) but the other stakeholders including the religious scholars from worlds’ prominent religions have given their views on this technology in order to guide their followers. This paper examines and reviews the religious points of view on human cloning. For this purpose, three Semitic religions in the world i-e Judaism, Christianity, and Islām have been examined. As far as Islam is concerned, this portion has been divided into two broad sections elaborating the Shī‘ah and Sunnī schools’ opinions. Being an innovative topic, the religious teachings do not address it directly hence the injunctions related to the reproduction are most relevant to it. Three Semitic religions have been examined from the perspective of admissibility or non-admissibility of human cloning, the rationale behind the verdict on human cloning and the possible solutions to the issues and problems faced by the followers in the case of acceptance or rejection of this biomedical technology. Most of the religions emphasize over adaptability of the natural mode of reproduction only, where male and female genders contribute to the reproductive cycle. The Semitic religions reject the reproductive cloning generally. The religious experts need to conduct more focused and updated research before coming to any conclusion about the permissibility or non-permissibility of this technique.

The Women Activism in Pakistan: An Analysis of ‘Aurat March

Author: Khushbakht, Syeda Mehmoona, Munazza Sultana
In Pakistan, although women’s activism was initiated since the country came into existence, but a diverse activism was observed by the nation in the form of ‘Aurat March during 2018-2020. The current study examines the Western feminism, what it was initiated for and its accomplishments in the current time. By employing a discourse analysis approach to the ‘Aurat March event, this study highlights the women’s activism in Pakistan, ‘Aurat March and the antipathy faced by organizers and supporters from the public because of its strange slogans and ridiculous placards. It also observes the relationship between western feminism and ‘Aurat March activism from the perspective of the social, cultural, and religious transformation of society. The study finds the need to raise a constructive and logical voice for women’s rights with support of the public to eradicate social evils instead of focusing on insignificant matters. It has further recommended that there is a need to build a framework in which one may be able to differentiate women’s rights in the context of western feminism and the limitation of women’s emancipation in Islamic context.

Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context

Author: Akhter, Naseem, Arshad Munir
The basic characteristics and moral values of Islamic society include peace, harmony, brotherhood, equality, justice, respect and tolerance. Islam advises humans to spend their life according to the characteristics of Islamic society. The word ‘ethic’ brings harmony in the spiritual and physical attributes of a person. Islamic system preaches good moral values and indicates ways to avoid ill-mannered behavior. An individual with good moral values reflects good faith and blessings of Almighty Allah. But the studies show that Pakistani society and especially the youngsters are growing up without proper training & teachings about ethics and moral values. This research work aims to explain the need for ethical teachings in Islamic society. Quantitative method has been used in this study. Two hundred questionnaires have been filled by the three Universities’ students. The opinion of the students has been presented through SPSS in tabular forms and figures. According to this fieldwork, the majority of students had a lack of training related to ethical values from home to institutions, due to which we are facing ill-mannered behavior in Universities. This research work may be significant for its specific theme and research background; hence it can be used for the benefit of the policy makers, the scholars and the readers at large.

The Role of Money in Capitalistic and Islamic Economic Systems: A Comparative Study

Author: Yahya, Naeem ur Rahman Muhammad
Money has a great role to play in the economic system. It is a backbone of all commercial and financial transactions. Its role is well defined and established since ages; the fundamental role as a medium of exchange and standard of values. Furthermore, if the functional role of money is positive and productive, it leads to the economic growth and expansion of economic activities. Likewise, the injudicious role of money created several economic fluctuations and frequent financial distortions in the economic history. The article suggests that the injudicious role of money created economic disorder and caused financial crisis in the global economy. The research paper attempts to explore the role of money from Islamic and Capitalistic perspectives. In the capitalistic system, the money is being used as a tradable commodity in the banking and financial sector. The Islamic perspective is based on the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, and jurisdictions of Muslim scholars, in this context, money is only a means of exchange and measure of value. The qualitative research approach has been applied to the discussion and based on the literature review and available data, it is recommended that there is a dire need to review the role of money. The role of money as a tradable commodity caused distortions in the existing system.  It is recommended that the banking business needs to be operated on profit and loss sharing rather than the trading of money as a commodity.  

Discrimination against Religious Minorities in Nigeria: An Analysis with Reference to Human Development in the 21st Century

Author: Bolanle, Folami Ahmadu, Musolihu Majeed Olayori
  This study examines religious discrimination against religious minorities like Muslims living in Christian populated areas in the south east, Christians are as well living in Muslim dominated areas. Minority Traditional worshippers in either Muslim or Christian majority areas, private institution, companies owned by Christians or Muslims etc. The discrimination against religious minorities has mitigated the peaceful co-existence among religious identities and other major life events which has culminated national development in all spheres of human engagement such as economic, social, political, security, etc. The researchers have tried to provide an analytical study of the empirical data as well as of the existing literature. The result of our findings shows that many religious identities have been denied of securing job opportunities, professing religion of their choice, finding it difficult to receive health care services, managing religious institutions, denied of equal rights of citizens, get political appointments, among others. The study recommends that people of different religions should embrace and tolerate one another, avoid the use of fanaticism, allow religious minorities to practice religion of their choice in order to dislodge prejudices from the society.

Aristotle’s Virtue of Justice as an Ethical Solution to Political Corruption: Analysis and Reflection

Author: Kuhumba, Kevin Shijja
This paper attempts to discuss Aristotle’s concept of justice as an ethical solution to political corruption. The goal of this paper is to present corruption as a form of injustice that deprives the majority from a common good. This paper is very important because it provides ethical solution to grand corruption whereby unscrupulous individuals divert funds meant for development of the entire society into private hands. Due to grand corruption the poor masses are deprived of quality basic needs. The paper focuses on corruption as an immoral act through the lens of Aristotle’s ethical and political insights. The virtue of justice in Aristotle’s ethical and political works are spelled out. The methodology used in this paper is analytical and applied. It is analytical because it analyses Aristotle’s understanding of virtue of justice in his moral theory especially in his book entitled Nicomachean Ethics and justice in his political theory. Finally, the paper makes subsequent applications of Aristotle’s virtue of justice in the realm of ethical solutions to the problem of corruption.

Islāmic Perspective of Inter-Religious Dialogue: A Study of Faith Based Reconciliation

Author: Hussain, Ashaq
This paper intends to discuss the inter-religious dialogue and the Prophet’s engagement with the ‘Other’. Both dialogue and faith-based reconciliation provide a way to mankind by which the world will become peaceful place to live. In this violence torn world, reconciliation on the basis of faith is needed, so that unity may be created out of diversity. This paper argues that interfaith dialogical theory profits from a deep understanding of moral psychology and social learning theory. The paper highlights that reconciliation belongs to Abrahamic legacy, and also focuses on how Islam established and come up with advanced civilizations characterized by relatively harmonious co-existence between Muslims, Christians and Jews. It is through reconciliation that we regain our humanity. To work for reconciliation is to live and to show others what their humanity is. The paper also shed light on faith-based reconciliation in its Islamic perspective. It is this context the present paper has been drafted.

حديث "أُمرت أن أقاتل الناس حتى يشهدوا..": دراسة في حرية الاعتقاد والفعل

Author: Mohamed, Nabil Fouly
One of the greatest epistemological accomplishments that Muslims have achieved is the establishment of an accurate system of deriving rulings from Sharia texts, which is known as ‘principles of jurisprudence’ or Usūl ul Fiq. Among the significant contents of these subject is dealing with the text which apparently contradicts to other basic principles of Islam or objectives of Sharī’ah. The job of a jurist becomes more significant and difficult in devising the judgments and interpreting the texts as reported by the fundamentalists: inquiring the validity of the texts, finding its weakness with respect to strong argument, and comparing them in terms of authenticity. Other times, he tries to reconcile between the contradictions by keeping in view a meaning consistent with Sharī’ah. The application of these principles gave birth to the variety and diversity of opinions on account of Ijtihād. Keeping in view the above preamble, the author addressed one of the famous Ahadith of Holy Prophet PBUH: “I have been ordered to fight against the people until they testify...”. This saying of Holy Prophet PBUH attracted Muslim thinkers in past and present to address its meanings and application. Likewise some related debate has emerged in the modern period as regards whether the term "people" in the hadith is used generically or specifically - forcing these people to Islam after defeating? The author in this context, addressed the terminology of hadith, its apparent contradiction with the principles of Sharī’ah, legal maxims, provisions, diverse interpretations, and added his own opinion. Descriptive and qualitative research approach was employed for the collection, demonstration and analysis of data.

حقوق الإنسان المدنية من خلال وثيقة المدينة: دراسة مقارنة بالمواثيق الدولية

Author: Bakar, Abdullah Abu, Rafiullah Qureshi
حقوق الإنسان المدنية من خلال وثيقة المدينة: دراسة مقارنة بالمواثيق الدولية This research aims to give the reader a comprehensive view of civil human rights through a comparative study of the Charter of Medina and international conventions. The Charter of Medina designed the foundation of a multi-religious Islamic state in Medina, as it was signed to end the rancorous intertribal aggression among the opposing tribes of Banu ’Aws and Banu Khazraj in Medina and to uphold harmony and co-operation among all Medinan groups. Its major accomplishment was fetching confrontational clans together to form a community and inaugurating long term peace among them. It put an end to the predominant disorder and sheltered the life, self-determination, property and religious freedom for all people. The paper highlights the relevance and importance of civil human rights through the Charter of Medina as well as international conventions in the up-to-date worldwide civilization. The present research examines the historical document of Charter of Medina and elucidates it through examples from Quran and Sunnah as well as compares its core values with international conventions. In this regard the views of the past and contemporary scholarship are also discussed to analyze the challenges and issues of current time. In recent times the efforts and implications of civil human rights have unfolded in many different ways so it is very important for Muslims to know and to relate the Sharī’ah ruling regarding it. The research concludes that as compare to the international convections the system of justice in the Islamic Sharī’ah ensures all rights and with liabilities.

أفكار أرنولد توينبي عن الحضارة الإسلامية ومدى تأثره برؤية ابن خلدون: دراسة وصفية و تحليلية

Author: Ali, Muzaffar
Ibn e Khaldun (1406 C.E.) has been an imminent scholar and well known for his work in the study of civilization. His vision regarding Civilization holds the significant place according to the philosophers of history. Arnold J. Toynbee (1975 C.E.) is one such prominent thinker who not only applauded the thoughts of Ibn e Khaldun but was influenced by Ibn e Khaldun’s views as it can be seen in Toynbee’s book: “A Study of History”. As a philosopher of history, he has much contribution in the field; He interlinks History with civilization. He presented a thoughtful book surrounding his civilizational vision; which explains the causes of world’s ups and downs. Although he presented a quality research about the division of the civilizations in the light of religion, many aspects of his work need to be reassessed. As per his understanding of world civilizations, he represents twenty-one civilizations, but with the passage of time, the number reduces and now only five are left in the contemporary epoch. According to him, religion has played significant role in the rise and fall of civilizations through their various stages. This research will highlight his thought about Islam through a comparison between Toynbee and Ibn e Khaldun’s Islamic civilizational thoughts. The study will also mention several problems in his approach to the Islamic Civilization. Furthermore, along with due importance of both scholars in the subject of history, their authoritative status will be stated. This research aims to discuss some misconceptions of the West that are based on Toynbee's understating of Islamic civilization and history. And, consequently, it intends to improve relations between people of the west and east.

مستشرقین کے مصحفِ عثمانی پر شبہات کا تنقیدی مطالعہ: علامہ شمس الحق افغانیؒ کے افکار کی روشنی میں

Author: Jadoon, Saeed ul Haq, Salih ud Din
مستشرقین کے مصحفِ عثمانی پر  شبہات کا تنقیدی مطالعہ: علامہ شمس الحق افغانیؒ کے افکار کی روشنی  میں Orientalists have paid much attention to the studies of Quran, in this regard the first target of Orientalists is Quranic Codification and its Historical position, for which they tried their best to object the Historical background of Mushaf -e Usmani and its validity. While Islamic History bears an ample testimony to the validity of this Manuscript, a general trend of the orientalists has been to question the validity of such a core Islamic ideal. Maulana Shamsulhaq Afghani was a famous and great scholar of subcontinent, belonged to District Charssada Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, who wrote critical evaluations on Orientalist’s Quranic objections.  He served on many important designations’ like ministry of Baluchistan Qalat, President of wifaq ul madaris al Arabia Pakistan, Vice Chancellor of Islamia University of Bahawalpur and member of Islamic ideology Council Pakistan. Among his contiribution there are works that deal with the criticism of the orientalists’ approaches to the study of Islam in general and Quran in particular. In his book”Uloom- ul- Quran” he criticize orientalist’s trends about the codification of Mushaf-e-Usmani. In this research paper some selected objections of orientalists related to the codification of Mushaf-e-Usmani, and their critical evaluation in the light of Shamsulhaq Afghani's Thoughts has been discussed.

[[{{{journal}}}/سامی ادیان میں جانوروں کی حلت و حرمت کےمتعلق احکامات کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ|سامی ادیان میں جانوروں کی حلت و حرمت کےمتعلق احکامات کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ]]

Author: Razzaq, Tayyaba
سامی ادیان میں جانوروں کی حلت و حرمت کےمتعلق احکامات کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may also be associated with special events. Dietary Laws are grounded into the religious thought, and anyone expects logical clarifications for the continuation and determination of these rules in light of the respective religious tradition. The Semitic religions: orthodox Jews, Christians and Muslims have undoubtedly directed their adherents about the foodstuff “meat” with particular terms and conditions. This study attempts to define the similarities and differences between Halal and Kashrut (Kosher) in the light of their religion's commandments. The study confined to the Holy Scriptures. A comparative approach has been applied to these dietary practices. Moreover, it was found that Halal constitutes a different dietary law (Shariah) than Kashrut and vice versa. Even though similarities are found but it does not permit for the statutes to be usually supposed as reflection of each other. This analytical work will provide theoretical orientation; make reference to relevant theoretical and empirical literature for adequate clarification and comprehension where needed. To avoid pointless details, only the verse number mentioned in footnotes and extracted commands are just mentioned in the article. Qualitative research methodology has been adopted about the dietary laws about animals in Semitic Religions.

غیر مسلموں کے حقوق اور انسانی جان کی حرمت : عہدِ نبویﷺ و خلفائے راشدین کی روشنی میں

Author: Nasir, Muhammad Suleman
غیر مسلموں کے حقوق  اور انسانی جان کی حرمت : عہدِنبویﷺو خلفائےراشدین کی روشنی میں Islam guarantees the protection of life, property, honour, and dignity of all the members of society, regardless of their religion, colour, race or ethnicity. Sanctity of human life is the fundamental issue and Islam emphasized on it the most. Holy Quran declared the murder of a single person as the killing of all humanity. Islam always secured the rights of non-Muslims. Protecting the lives, dignity and property of non-Muslim living in an Islamic state is a duty of a Muslims in general and the Islamic State in particular. The manner in which the rights of non-Muslims were protected in the era of the Prophet (S.A.W) and the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs is unprecedented. The Prophet (S.A.W) gave this protection constitutional and legal status through his teachings and practice. Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) declared that “The one who killed any Dhmmī would not get the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be sensed at a distance of forty years journey”. In the era of the righteous caliphs, the rights of non-Muslims were also safeguarded. This article is a description of the rights of non-Muslims with reference to the sanctity of human life in Islam. It also throws light on the unique teachings of Islam regarding the fundamental rights of minorities in the period of the Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs. A descriptive and analytical research methodology will be used in this research to obtain results and recommendations. The expected results and recommendations of the study will guide the Muslims and non-Muslims to harmonize the social set up around the globe.

حروف مقطعات کے حوالے سے مستشرق نولڈ یکے اور آٹو لوتھ کی آراء کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ

Author: Rabia, Sumera, Syeda Sadia
حروف مقطعات کے حوالے سے مستشرق نولڈ یکے اور آٹو لوتھ کی آراء کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ Mystical letters are among the miracles of Quran. These mystical letters are present at the start of Quranic Surah’s (Chapters). These are among the mutashabihat (Analogies) of Quran. Muslim scholars tried to define their meanings. Like other aspects of Quran and Hadith orientalists talk about mystical letters of the Quran. This article analyses the theories of Noldeke and Otto Loth regarding mysterious letters of Quran. What are their views about mystical letters of the Quran? Are their views according to the Islamic point of view of mystical letters? What are the deviations and differences as compared to traditional Islamic point of view of mystical letters? This research has been analytical by nature, both qualitative and analytical methods have been implemented.  Analyses of the views of both of the scholars in the light of traditional Islamic concept of mystical letters, shows that Orientalists including Noldeke and Otto Loth thought that mystical letters are not the part of revelation. According to them these are the names of the sources from which different chapters of the Quran had been taken during its compilation. These are on the same pattern as mystical letters are present in the Jewish books. Holy Prophet had copied them. The present study argues that Quran being the book of Lord is unchanged and mystical letters are a part of it. It is further highlighted that even some orientalists argue that the opinion of Noldeke and Otto Loth is not correct.