Volume 4 Issue 2
Title Page of Journal of Islamic and Religious Studies
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Religious Studies|
|Double Blind Peer Review|
|Language||Urdu, Arabic, English|
|Edited by||Junaid Akbar|
The University of Haripur (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Healthy nourishment depends on healthy food. General consideration of people is of being the food safe and edible for human consumption not its effect on their spiritual selves but the Islamic terms Ḥalāl and Ḥarām emphasis on both physical and internal safety. Islam commands to avoid doubtful and dubious things rather than to use Ḥarām. The unprecedented evolution and advancement of science and technology caused a revolution in the food-science and technology as well. Many new and innovative flavors etc. took place of organic and natural consumables. Accordingly, the Muslims were in dire need of a robust system which would be able to convince them of the Ḥalāl status of the daily consumables. The article investigates the Sharī’ah stand on the issue of blood in the light of Qur’ān, Sunnah and comparative jurisprudence study, and modern sciences related to blood. Keeping in mind the Globalized Halal Industry all the researched is coupled with combined comparative study of all Schools of Islamic Fiqh, to make easy the way of Unified Halaal Standard regarding the blood. Under the main title The paper comprises subtopics of an introduction and few chapters, which deal with definition and functions of blood, types of blood, difference between blood of aquatic and land animals, comparative study of modern sciences related to blood and Shariah status of use of the blood in various industries in term of Halal and Haram.
Qur’ān is the Words of Allah (SWT). Its interpretation is very difficult job because of the concept that how one can understand the will of Creator. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was the first exegete of Qur’ān. His companions were the next one. This chain is continuously running till now. In subcontinent, translations of Qur’ān and its exegesis work started in third century Hijrah. Hundreds and Thousands of Qur’ānic exegeses exist in subcontinent in Arabic, Persian, English and Urdu languages. In subcontinent Sir Syed, Modūdī, Farahī, Shabir Uthmānī, are the big names of the field. Everyone has chosen a secluded methodology/principle to interpret the Qur’ān. These principles are known as Usūl-e-Tafsīr. There are many differences among these Usūl, due to personnel mindset and social scenario of different era. The questions that why much diversity exists in these and what are its causes, are being addressed here in this article. On the basis of analytical study, it is found that reason behind this diversity is the concept that exegesis of Quran is based on verbal traditions instead intellectual. Secondly, no one compiled these principles/methods for interpretation of Qur’ān in early centuries. In ninetieth century, due to the challenge of science and Orientalism, some scholars compiled Usūl-e-Tafsīr according to their own understanding and some insisted on traditional continuity.
Allah (SWT) dignified human beings among all the creatures and made these (creatures) all subjugated to men. Allah says in the Holy Qur’ān: (He is such a Lord who has created all the things in the universe for you). The beginning of human generation is traced back to the miraculous birth of Adam (A.S), and Allah entrusted their survival in their physical bodies in the process of fusing the male and female gametes in the womb of mother. And new offspring are born undergoing many developmental stages. The Holy Qur’ān has mentioned all the stages of the human being like: its creation started from dust, then from seamen, then a clot, then from a flesh (Al- Qur’ān, 22:5). The same are described by modern medical sciences. The medical sciences also describes it in details that how a “fetus” is created and the process which it passes through. This article discusses how the “Fetus” is described in Islamic Sources, modern medical sciences and what are the similarities between these two?
Qara’in - usually translated as circumstantial evidence - is a derived form of Arabic word " " قر ن which literally means a fact associated or accompanied with an event or circumstances. But when an event or circumstances discloses such associated or accompanied fact then such a fact becomes circumstantial evidence. Both proto-juristic and modern legal terms held circumstantial evidence for an evidence which is offered to prove certain attendant circumstances from which the existence of the fact at issue may be inferred. In Islamic Law, majority of jurists do not endorse Qara’in as an authoritative evidence, particularly, in offences leading to corporal punishments. On the other side, Ibn Farhun from Malikites and Ibn Qayyem from Hanbalites terms it equal to the direct evidence of Iqrar and Shahadah. It is not very strange that Dr. Anwarullah, a prominent Muslim scholar and Prof. Robert Preach are of the opinion that circumstantial evidence is, after all, more authentic even than the aforesaid two evidences. Herbert Broom- a western legal expert- also says that certain hidden facts can be deducted from the mode of a relevant act or to some extent it is modus operandi which gives birth to a circumstantial evidence. In this shortened article the juristic opinion of some early and contemporary legal experts has been discussed as to judge the legal mode and authenticity of circumstantial evidence.
Sabab al-Nuzūl (cause of revelation) in Qur'anic studies means the time, context, cause, and the situation in which Allah has revealed verses. Cause of revelation has an important role in the interpretation of Qur’ān. Nevertheless,most of the verses and suras of Qur’ān are revealed independent of events, these verses are revealed to fulfill the general aim of Waḥī which is the guidance of people. Such knowledge is an invaluable tool for grasping the meaning of this type of Qur’ānic verse. Many Muslim scholars consider the studying of Asbāb alNuzūl and their related discussions as necessary. Some exegetes have written books studying the subject. The earliest and the most important work in this genre is undoubtedly Kitab Asbāb al-Nuzūl (Book of Occasions of Revelation) of ‘Alī bin Aḥmad al-Wāḥidī (d. 1075 CE). Another important work is by al-Suyūṭī (d. 1505 CE) which is a slight improvement of al-Wāḥidī’s book. In this paper descriptive method and comparative study are used to analysis traditions of revelation and their effects on Tafsīr literature. This paper proves the value of the causes of revelation in Qur’ānic Interptation and their effects on Tafsīr Literature, so that verification and authencity of traditions of causes of revelation are mandatory for Tafsīr.
Muḥadithīn have played a dynamic role in the preservation and compilation of Ḥadīth of the Prophet (SAW). Among them the contribution of Imam Bukhārī is unavoidable and remarkable in the field of Ḥadīth and its sciences. Since, he is known “Hafiz and Compiler” and considered as “Imam” and “authority” in the field of both higher and lower criticism. His book "Al-Tārīkh al Kabīr" (08 volumes) is considered as one of the ancient books in field of Ḥadīth and its sciences. This paper aims to describe the methodology of Imam Bukhārī in Al-Tārīkh al Kabīr. He described the biography of thirteen thousand seven hundred and seventy nine only (13779) in alphabetic order. Although his methodology was to mention names of the narrators alphabetically, but in respect with the Prophet (SAW), he gave place to eleven narrators among the companion whom names were started with the names of “Muhammad”. In the Methodology of Imam Bukhārī (RA), it is found that either the narrators are rejected or given authenticity, on the basis of not only his own examinations but he relied on the sayings of other Muḥadithīn as well. It is also pertinent to mention that he awarded degree to a little number of the narrators while left over most of the narrators undecided, because the main objective of the book was to portray the biographies of the narrators rather to make analysis of all the narrators.
Today, the whole world is facing the dangerious issues of environmental pollution. There is a lot of piles of garbage, plastic bags and waste are found in common routes and streets, the use of bacterial and antiseptic chemicals, smoking as well as the excessives use of machinery causes the abundance of smoke and due to the noise of vehicles, rugs, motorcycles, factories and airplanes, our daily pollution is increasing daily. As a result, many problems including various types of illness and seasonal variations are becoming a major challenge for today's modern era. In order to deal with it, it is important for us to study and follow the instructions of the Prophet (PBUH). Prophet (PBUH) has taken important measures to protect environmental pollution. He has prescribed some precautionary measures to prevent the spreading of dirt in society and keeping the environment clean to avert the soil pollution. For the purpose of aviation of air pollution, the prophet has ordered to populate it with the livestock andplantation. To cope with water pollution, it was emphasized to keep water clean and cleaness of air from odor and dirt. In this modern era, prevention of environmental pollution without following these instructions is impossible. This article has invesitaged on prevention of enviromental pollution and cleanliness of enviroment in the light of Sīrah.
A group of contemporary rationalists have repeatedly maintained that the rulings derived from the Sunnah have a historical framework that does not transcend them. After being proved, they must remain locked in the time in which they were said, and we are not obliged to follow them. The prophetic interpretation of the Qur'anic text is not the only interpretation, Is one possible form of interpretation. The rationalists market some evidence of this, including: copies, reasons for descent and causes of roses, and the language of some Koranic verses. In this research we will discuss the issue of this issue, and the statements of the parties and their evidence.
مصنف/مصنفین: Hammad، Nafiz Husain
The research reveals significant insights cited by Ibn Al ‘Irāqī in his book "Toḥfah Al Taḥṣīl" on the illusions of Al-‘Alā'ī in his book "Jāmi Al Taḥṣīl". It highlights the scientific value of those illusions that Ibn Al-‘Irāqī pointed out. Several of them are related to narrators of hadith and their issues of hearing from their sheikhs. Many of those illusions are related to the chain narrators (isnad), the main text of the report (matn), or their position in the books of sunnah. There are no previous studies on this subject. I put the sequential insights I revel under headlines through which one can realize the illusions that Al-Ala'i fell in. I conclude with the perceptions that both Ibn Al-‘Iraqī and Al-‘Alā’ī have shared. I don’t mention my opinion after each insight for Ibn Al-‘Iraqī; however, my silence is an approval to what he said. When I went against him or it was important to mention any comment or information, I openly said my opinion and explained the reasons for my opposition. Some of the research findings are: Al-Ala'i ignores mentioning the narrator's gap (irsal), although Al-Mizzī mentions it in his book "Tahdhīb", or the scholars mention it before both of them. He describes the narrator having a gap (irsāl) and attributes it to Al-Mizzī. He added notes like "he didn't encounter him" and formulated expressions that weren’t mentioned by neither Al Dhahabī nor Al-Mizzī. He references a Ḥadīth to a book that it is not included in.
مصنف/مصنفین: Abdulrahman، Mariah Bassam Mohammed
The importance of this study is to reveal the truth of the case of the response of Imam Malik (179 e) - the leader of the School of Archeology - the story of the atheists by violating the work of the people of the city; The study resulted in the results of the most important response of this lawsuit for several reasons, the first of which is that the work of the people of the city is a frequent occurrence, Rather, the imam has an approach based on the introduction of the frequent on the individual, and that many of the issues of work are supported by the correct hadeeth, and the one that is contrary to it is apparent, and it is permissible to combine or say the copies when proven.
After reading the whole books and find out the interpretation, there were various sayings, the meanings and interpretations of the verses of Quran. The reader does not have the capability to select correct and incorrect. He does not know what to do about the various interpretations. At first the people of Mecca knew the status of Revelation; they do not need to explain that revelation, because it was their native language while the Prophet (S.A.W) explains it in detail. After the earlier periods, it was necessary to adapt some rules to know the correct sayings, that rules were already include the Quran itself, in the Sunnah, in the Quranic Sciences, in the books of fundamentals of Jurisprudence, and in the books of Quranic Sciences. Later on, however, wrote the books as contemporary independent science as such as book of Husain Al Ḥarbī named (قواعد الترجيح عند المفسرين) and book written by Khalid Al Sabbath named (قواعد التفسير جمعاً ودراسةً).These rules of preference are most important as with the help of these rules, the books of interpretation can be clarified from incorrect sayings. These rules are various, including, related to Quranic text, Sunnah, the views of Companions, the evidence, or related to the linguistics of Arabs. The preference proves the strength of a saying or strengthens an aspect than others through rules of preference. One of the objectives of this research is that the rules of preference can distinguish between correct and incorrect interpretation. The researcher recommended attention to these rules of preference and to study it as a separate subject to get full benefit from the books of interpretation.
Author: Abbasi, Ambreen, Mudasra Sabreen
This paper deals with the rights of abandoned children in the context of Pakistani society. The main issue is regarding legal status of such children which results in violation of their rights. Islamic law provides for rules for abandoned children which can be provided as a source for legislation in Pakistan. The paper argues that there is a need to formulate a clear legislation to ensure rights and protection of abandoned children. Currently the laws enacted in Pakistan lack provisions related to abandoned children. On the one hand the solutions like adoption/kafalah should be channelized and regularized and on the other hand serious efforts should be made to create awareness regarding rights of abandoned children among the masses. This is a comparative study which discusses and analyses relevant provisions in Islamic as well as Pakistani law.
Exploring the Role of Female Successor “Amrah Bint Abd Al-Raḥmān” in Narration of Prophetic Traditions
Author: Mehfooz, Musferah, Razia Shabana
Although several studies have investigated the contribution of Muslim women about their lives and works in large corpus of the ḥadīth sciences until now, but much are needed to be explored. Doubtlessly 'Amrah bint 'Abd al-Raḥmān had contributed to the large corpus of the ḥadīth sciences and also the core of Islamic knowledge parallel to her male counterparts. By highlighting her efforts for learning and her struggle for transmission of fundamental text, reveals how a female successor acquired exemplary reputations in her era. Particularly, her rich insight, deep knowledge in ḥadīth sciences and exemplary piety attracted students and placed parallel to her male counterparts in Islamic knowledge of her time. In sum, this study not merely sheds light upon the prolific contribution of an eminent female successor 'Amrah bint 'Abd al-Raḥmān in ḥadīth narrations, but argues that these scholarly females should be given more credit for being interacting educators and not just transmitters. Doubtlewssly, the study would be helpful to revise our understandings of Islamic knowledge during early period of Islam regarding gendered dynamics and their great contribution to dissemination and transmission of classical text and Islamic knowledge.
An Analytical Study of the Outcomes and Impacts of Religious Education of Pakistan, the Challenges and Opportunities
Author: Muhaimin, Abdul, Attaullah, Muhammad Hayat Khan
This study focuses on the impact of Religious Education in Pakistan at individual and collective levels. The research discusses the educational basis for the study of religion and analyzes the contribution of religious education towards the intellectual growth of individuals. The study raises few questions regarding religious education in Pakistan such as; why has our education system been divided into religious and secular education system. Whether the existing religious education is able to create a linkage between religion and society or not, if not what are the areas which need to be focused. What are the possibilities of sidelining the religious education and what could be its effects. The research focuses on the aims and objectives or religious education in Pakistan by analyzing the nature of curriculums of religious education at various levels. This study highlights the deficiency of the inclusion of the teachings of other religions in our religious education. The research consists of a current survey of the said topic, some findings and conclusions on the issue and few recommendations as well.
Author: Qureshi, Hafsah Ayaz, Syed Abdul Ghaffar Bukhari
The individual’s personality, character, thinking, skills and habits depends upon education. Education helps in the growth and boost the qualities of an individual such as physical, mental and emotional make-up as well as temperament and character. This paper enlightens the significant role of education in developing and mounting the personality of ‘Omar Ibn alKhattāb (R.A). He was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs. His vibrant ideology of superiority of principles and laws made him eminent among his acquaintances. He was a man of determination and a mission, therefore, he thought, evaluated and acted according to it. He established a system of justice, morality, education and training. He was born as an ordinary‘Omar but education and guidance of Islam made him “‘Omar The Great”. This paper ends with the note that a balanced, successful and well-adjusted personality can be designed only by educating the individuals. Educational institutions, religious organizations and enrich culture play an important role in shaping the sturdy personality as is evident in case of ‘Omar(R.A).
Islam and Woman in the Contemporary Arab World: An Interpretation of Rajaa Al-Sanea’s Girls of Riyadh from Islamic Feminist Perspective
Author: Khan, Tariq, Aziz Ahmad, Zulfiqar Ali
The present position paper explores to examine Rajaa al-Sanea’s“Girls of Riyadh” (2005) from the Islamic feminist perspective. Also, the study highlights the model of western feminism epitomised in the narrative under reference, vis-à-vis the Islamic concept of feminism. Islamic feminism grants equal rights to women and ensures its implementation in the Islamic state and society, whereas Western-sponsored feminism dwells on the archetype of women’s liberalism. That, in turn, leads to an anarchic and chaotic society, because of its believing in bringing women not only equal to men but superseding them in socio-cultural positioning. In the existing situation, the novel decries phallocentric society of Saudi Arabia and aiming at replacing it by the sensate-secular feminism that believes in the undue autonomy of the women. In order to investigate the presence of overwhelming patrilineal mores, the study pursues Islamic feminism as a theoretical model and employs reader’s response technique as a methodology. More far the findings of the research are concerned, the researchers conclude that replacing the patriarchal autonomy in the said society by Islamic feminism is befitting and benefitting than to replace it by the western feminism.
Author: Khan, Sardaraz, Syed Naeem Badshah, Irfan Ullah
The preposition ‘min’ is semantically more complex than what the traditional lexicaAl-syntactic approaches held it to be adverb or adverbial of place and time. This paper attempts to investigate the semantic complexity of the preposition ‘min’ from cognitive linguistic perspective to find out its semantic classification and linguistic symmetric patterns. Data has been taken from the Quran to investigate the claim of conceptual metaphor theory that sensorimotor neural structures generates the preposition ‘min’ on the image schema of source-path-goal. The findings reveal that the source-pathgoal image schema is not only at work in the use of preposition ‘min’ in spatio-geometric sense, but also to map the abstract concepts, emotional states and relationship with supernatural entities in spatial terms in the Quran. However, the data also show idiosyncratic behaviour of preposition, attaining different semantic arguments in different linguistic contexts, which strengthen the argument that language use cannot be abridged to static mapping in the human conceptual system. This paper recommends future research on the same preposition or other prepositions to investigate further the source-path-goal image schema in the Quran and Arabic language.