Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Al-Idah
Title Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective
Author(s) Nasir, Muhammad Jamal, Anwar Saeed Khan
Volume 30
Issue 1
Year 2015
Pages 43-55
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Chicago 16th Nasir, Muhammad Jamal, Anwar Saeed Khan. "Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective." Al-Idah 30, no. 1 (2015).
APA 6th Nasir, M. J., Khan, A. S. (2015). Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective. Al-Idah, 30(1).
MHRA Nasir, Muhammad Jamal, Anwar Saeed Khan. 2015. 'Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective', Al-Idah, 30.
MLA Nasir, Muhammad Jamal, Anwar Saeed Khan. "Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective." Al-Idah 30.1 (2015). Print.
Harvard NASIR, M. J., KHAN, A. S. 2015. Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective. Al-Idah, 30.
عالمی امن میں اسلام کا کردار
دینی مدارس پر انتہا پسندی اور دہشت گردی کے الزامات: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ
عرب اسلامی روایت کے برصغیر پاک و ہند میں تفسیر نگاری پر اثرات: عہد رسالت تا خلافت عباسیہ کے تناظر میں اختصاصی مطالعہ
حضرت آدم علیہ السلام بائبل اور قرآن کى روشنى میں
اسلام میں امن اور دہشت گردی کا تصور: ایک علمی اور تحقیقی جائزہ
قذف اور پاکستانی معاشرہ: اسلامی حوالے سے تنقیدی جائزہ
قانون ٹارٹ كا فقہ اسلامى كى روشنى میں جائزہ
افغانستان کی اسلامی تاریخ کے پیش رو صحابہ کرام: عہد خلافت عمر بن الخطاب رضی اللہ عنہ
حلالہ اور مروجہ حلالہ سنٹرز: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ
جنگی قیدیوں کے حقوق شریعت اسلامیہ اور بین الاقوامی قوانین کی روشنی میں
اسلام اور ہندو مت میں مادی اور روحانی طہارت کے اصول
اسلام اور جین مت میں طہارت کا تقابلی جائزہ
علاج معالجہ اور دم کی شرعی حیثیت
جنگی جرائم اسلام اور بین الاقوامی قانون کے تناظر میں
علامہ عینی اور ان کی خدمات کا علمی جائزہ
سورة الكوثر بين الإعجاز البلاغي وتحديات الترجمة
الزمخشري وموقفه من الاستشهاد بشعر المؤلدين في ضوء تفسيره الكشاف
مؤسسة الإزدواج والأسرة في ضوء الشريعة الاسلامية
ضوابط قبول التفرد في رواية الحديث دراسة مع أمثلة من تطبيقات النقاد
مميزات التشريع الجنائي في الفقه الإسلامي: دراسة تحليلية
Principles and Rules of Jihad: A Juristic Approach
Peace, the Essential Message of Islam
Orientalists on the Style of Quran: A Critical Study
The Genesis of Shi’ism in Islam
Origin of Earth: A Quranic Perspective
Rights of Non-Muslim Minorities in a Muslim Country in the Light of Qur’an and Sunnah
Pakistan’s Stance on the War on Terror: Challenging the Western Narrative
Impact of Hajj on Muslims With Special Reference to Pakistan

Abstract

The modern scientific concepts were clearly envisioned in the Qur'an date back to 7th century, when observational facilities were not available, mathematical principles were not discovered, primary principles (quarks) and fundamental forces  i.e. gravitational and electromagnetic were not identified. The word earth (أرْضَARD) appears 409 times in Quran. The number of verses in which the Earth is mentioned first is quite small, e.g. sura 2, verse 29 and sura 20, verse 4, where a reference is made to "Him Who created the earth and the high heavens". On the other hand the numbers of verses where the Heavens are mentioned before the Earth are much larger e.g. Sura-l-araf (7), Verse 54; SuraYunus (10), verse 3; SuraQaf (50), verse 38; Sura l-Hadid (79), verses 27 to 33 etc. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. Sura l-Baqarah, verse (67)[i] states:  قَالَ أعُوْذُ بِاللهِ اأنْ أَکُوْنَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِيْن He said, "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant."The Qur'an does not render a coordinated description of the Earth Creation. In lieu of a continuous story of creation, there are verses dispersed all over the Quran which deal with certain aspects of the Earth Creation. These scattered verses provide information on the sequential events marking its development with varying degrees of detail.The Quran referred toward at least five points which shed light on the creation of heaven and earth.  And these points are entirely confirmed by scientific facts.    

Introduction:

Earth, along with the other planets, is believed to have been born 4.5 billion years ago as a solidified cloud of dust and gases left over from the creation of the Sun. For almost 500 million years, the interior of Earth stayed solid and relatively cool, perhaps 2,000°F. The evidence suggests that the main elements were iron and silicates, with small amounts of other elements, some of them were radioactive. As millions of years passed, energy released by radioactive decay—mostly of uranium, thorium, and potassium - gradually heated Earth, melting some of its constituents (Dalrymple, 1991)[1]. The iron melted before the silicates, and, being heavier, sank toward the center and forced up the silicates that found there. After millions of years, the iron reached to a depth of 4,000 mile, and began to accumulate as the core. Around it, a thin but pretty stable crust of solid rock formed as Earth cooled.

Scientists have a great deal of ideas about the origin of universe, but the most widely-agreed scientific theory is the Big Bang Theory. According to this theory, the universe originated in an enormous explosion. Before the Big Bang, all of the matter and energy now in the universe was contained in a singularity. A singularity is a point with an extremely high temperature and infinite density. This singularity floated in a complete vacuum until it exploded, tossing away gas and energy in all directions, matter was thrown in all directions at tremendous speeds. This spinning cloud of dust was referred assolar nebula or molecular clouds (Montmerle et al. 2006)[2]. These clouds were vast,covering hundreds of light years in size. It was these clouds which ultimately give birth to new stars and planets. The force which drives its creation was gravity;this drove the dust particles together and starts clumping. Over the next 10 million years the molecular cloud slowly contract and collapsed under the force of its own gravity. The large clouds have a small rotation but as it cooled and shrink its rotation speeded up. As the cloud contracted the energy of the material flying in from space caused its center to heat up and this spinning ball became our sun.

The rest of the cloud was spinning so fast that it spread out into a vast disk of dust and gas this was the cradal of life, the material that form the earth and other planets(Alan & Durisen, 2005 [3]; Safronov, 1972)[4]. This widely accepted theory of planetary formation is commonly known as Solar Nebular Disk Model (SNDM). Untill recently the turn of disk into planets was a compleate mystry. In march 2003 an experiment carried out in international space station lead to the significent discovery. One of the austonuot on board filled the plastic bag with salt shake it up and than the salt particles start clumping togather. It was this experment that solved the centuries old mystery that why the dust particles clump togather to form planets. The scientist concluded that in zero gravity when the two material are rub togather few electron traded off between material and thay start clumping. Scientist believe it might happened 4.5 billion year ago. Initially 20 plants were farmed in 3 million years. They were orbiting sun. there gravity affected each other and they start colliding each other and with each collision two planets combines reduce the number to few including earth.

Origin of Earth in Hindu Mythology:

In Hindu mythology the act of creation was conceived by more than one manner. One of the oldest cosmogonic myths in the Rigveda (RV 10.121) mentions the Hiranyagarbha (golden embryo) as the source of the creation of the Universe, similar to the world egg theme found in the creation myths of many other civilizations. The PurushaSukta (RV 10.90) narrates that all things were made out of the cut up limbs of Purusha. This myth suggest that the creation develops out of the limbs of a cosmic being (the Purusha) who is sacrificed by the gods (Bremmer, 2007)[5].

Rigveda takes a skeptic viewpoint, stating that the Gods came into being after the world's creation, and nobody knows when the world first came into being (Ralph, 1999)[6]. Many Hindu texts mention the cycle of creation and destruction. The Shatapatha Brahmana states that the present human generation descends from Manu, the only man who survived a great flood after being warned by the God. This legend is comparable to the other flood legends, such as the story of the Noah's Ark cited in the Bible and the Quran (Sehgal, 1999)[7]. In Hindu mythology there seem to be no unified theory about the origin of universe and earth. Rather it gives several processes of creation of the universe.i.e. The world came into being through the dismemberment of the "cosmic man", creation originated from a cosmic egg, creation of the universe originated in a dream of Brahma, the creator god and creation formed from the tears of Prajapati etc.

Origin of Earth a Bible account:

One of the important themes of bible is creation; a number of biblical beliefs try to explain the origin of universe and earth. The “chaos” theory proposed that God created the materials of the universe and then waited a very long time before organizing them into their present arrangement. According to bible the earth was created out of nothing about six thousand years ago. Another theory known as Theistic evolution suggested that God used evolution as the means of creation. Another view, called “progressive creationism,” suggested that the days of Genesis chapter one was actually long periods in which God executed his work of creation.The bible is certain about the time period of creation. According to bible The God created heaven in six days and the seventh (Sabbath' in Hebrew means 'to rest') day was rest day (http://www.biblicalreader.com/btr/creation_theories.htm).

“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light”(Genesis 1-2:3, New International Version (NIV).

“By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done” (Genesis 2:3, New International Version (NIV).

Origin of earth the Quarnic Perspective:

Most of western reviewers are of the opinion that the statement of the Bible regarding the origin of the universe and earth is similar to the one describing by the Quran. But there seem some obvious discrepancies. These modern geographical concepts were clearly envisioned in the Qur'an dated back to 7th century, when observational facilities were not available, mathematical principles were not discoveredand fundamental forces (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear and strong nuclear) were not identified by the scientist which shed light on the origin of universe (Alam, 2010)[8] .

The Qur'an does not render a coordinated description of the Earth Creation. In lieu of a continuous story, there are passages dispersed all over the Quran which address certain aspects of the Earth Creation. These scattered verses render information on the successive events regarding origin of earth and other celestial bodies with varying detail. To gain a clear idea of how these events are presented, the fragments scattered verses have to be brought together. Referring the Creation the Quran there seem to be five main points which shed light on the origin of universe and earth i.e.

  1. The creation of universe and earth from “smoke/Origin of Earth from singularity
  2. Formation of the heavenly bodies and the Earth in two phases
  3. The six periods of the Creation
  4. The plurality of the heavens
  5. Expansion of Universe
  6. The creation of universe and earth from “smoke/Origin of Earth from singularity

The science of modern cosmology clearly indicates (i.e. a highly dense and hot gaseous composition). This is one of the unquestioned principles of standard modern cosmology. Scientists now can observe new stars forming out of the remnants of that ‘smoke’ (see figures 1). God has said in the Quran:

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاء وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ 

Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, "Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion." They said, "We have come willingly." (SuraFussilat , Verse (11)[9] Sahih International)

Before the Big Bang, all of the matter and energy now in the universe was contained in a singularity. A singularity was a point with an extremely high temperature and infinite density.

This singularity exploded, throwing away gas and energy in all directions. This spinning cloud of dust called a solar nebula or molecular clouds. The earth, the sun, the moon, stars; planets, galaxies, etc. have been formed from this singularity (homogeneous smoke). The Quran clearly pointed towards this scientific fact in Sura l-Anbiyaa: Verse (30).

أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاء كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe? (Sural-Anbiyaa:Verse (30[10]),Sahih International).

These verses reveal the fact that earth and the heavens were once joined together in the form of smoke (referred as solar nebula or molecular clouds or singularity by modern science). Then out of this homogeneous ‘smoke,’ they formed and separated from each other.

  1. Formation of the heavenly bodies and the Earth in two phases

This concept of creation of earth in two distinct periods is unique to Quran.Referring toward the creation of universe and earth Quran state in SuraFussilat (41) verse 9:

قُلْ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَكْفُرُونَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَرْضَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَتَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ أَندَادًا ذَلِكَ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Say, "Do you really disbelieve in the One Who created the earth in two days? Do you consider things equal to Him? He is the Lord of the Universe. (SuraFussilat (41) verse 9 [11]. Muhammad Sarwar)

As far as the sequence is concerned the astronomers are certain that before the creation of earth in almost 10 million years the molecular cloud contracted and that become the origin of sun. This concept of modern astronomy is clearly mentioned in Quran.The word (أرضARD) earth appears 409 time in Quran. The number of verses in which the Earth is mentioned first are quite few, e.g. Sura-l-Baqarah (2,)Verse:29, and Sura-ṭa-Ha(20), Verse 4) where a reference is made to "Him Who created the earth and the high heavens". On the other hand the number of verses where the Heavens are mentioned before the Earth are much larger: Sura l-araf (7),Verse 54; SuraYunus (10), verse 3; SuraHud (11), verse 7; Sura l-Furqan (25), verse 59; Sura l-Sajdah(32), verse 4; SuraQaf (50), verse 38; sura 57, verse 4; Sura l-Hadid (79), verses 27 to 33; Sura l-Shams (91), verses 5 to 10.

The Six Periods of the Creation:

With this age of technology the scientist are not certain about the exact age of the earth. Effort have been made to calculate the age by studying the oldest rocks found on the earth surface but the problem is that as soon as the rocks form, it expose and destroyed by to the exogenatic geomorphic processes. The calculated age of oldest rocks found in the Minnesota River Valley and northern Michigan (3.5-3.7 billion years), in Swaziland (3.4-3.5 billion years), and in Western Australia (3.4-3.6 billion years). The age of oldest rock found on moon is between 4.4 and 4.5 billion years and provide a minimum age for the formation of our nearest planetary neighbor. These calculations result in an age for the Earth and the Solar System, of 4.54 billion years with an uncertainty of less than 1 percent (Brent, 1991)[12].

As for as Bible is concerned several Christian ministries promote the idea that the earth is less than 10,000 years old, which they believe is a concept of Bible. In reality, the Bible makes no claim regarding the age of the earth. James Ussher (1581-1656), Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, and Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin established the first day of creation of earth as Sunday 23 October, 4004 BC, thus making earth only 6000 year old.

In contrast the Quran states that "Allah created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in six days" Sura l-araf (7) Verse, 54[13] describe this:

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلاَ لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالأَمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Indeed, your Lord is Allah , who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He covers the night with the day, [another night] chasing it rapidly; and [He created] the sun, the moon, and the stars, subjected by His command. Unquestionably, His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah , Lord of the worlds. (Sura l-araf (7) Verse (54)Sahih International)

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ مَا مِن شَفِيعٍ إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ إِذْنِهِ ذَلِكُمُ اللّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ أَفَلاَ تَذَكَّرُونَ

Indeed, your Lord is Allah , who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation]. There is no intercessor except after His permission. That is Allah , your Lord, so worship Him. Then will you not remember?(SuraYunus (10) Verse (3[14]) Sahih International)

وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَق السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَكَانَ عَرْشُهُ عَلَى الْمَاء لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلاً وَلَئِن قُلْتَ إِنَّكُم مَّبْعُوثُونَ مِن بَعْدِ الْمَوْتِ لَيَقُولَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ إِنْ هَذَا إِلاَّ سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ

And it is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days - and His Throne had been upon water - that He might test you as to which of you is best in deed. But if you say, "Indeed, you are resurrected after death," those who disbelieve will surely say, "This is not but obvious magic." (SuraHud (11), Verse (7)[15]Sahih International) 

أَلَّذِیْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِيْ سِتَّتةِأَيامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَی عَلى الْعَرْشِ الرَّحْمَنُ فَاسْأَلْ بِهِ خَبِيراً

He who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days and then established Himself above the Throne - the Most Merciful, so ask about Him one well informed. (Sura-l-Furqan (25) verse (59)[16] Sahih International)

It is Allah who created the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them in six days; then He established Himself above the Throne. You have not besides Him any protector or any

الله الَّذِیْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَينَهُمَا فِی سِتَّةِأَيامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَی عَلَی الْعَرْشِ مَالَکُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِي وَلَاشَفِيعٍ أَفَلَا تَتَذَکَّرُونَ

intercessor; so will you not be reminded? (Sura L-Sajdah(32), Verse (4)[17] Sahih International)

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَينَهُمَا فِيْ سِتَّةِأَيامٍ وَمَامَسَّنَامِن لُّغُوب 
And We did certainly create the heavens and earth and what is between them in six days, and there touched Us no weariness. (SuraQaf (50),Verse (38)[18] ,Sahih International) 

This Quranic concept of “six day” is also elaborated in the “Bible” that the world was created out of nothing about six thousand years ago or “progressive creationism,” which suggest that the days mentioned in the “book of Genesis” chapter one was actually long ages in which God created earth. While this unified concept of “six days” is seem to be comparable to biblical belief, there are some important differentiations.

Firstly the verses in Quran that mention "six days" use the Arabic word "youm" (day). This word appears several other times in the Quran, each denoting a different measurement of time. In one case, the measure of a day is equated with 50,000 years:

تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ

The angels and the Spirit will ascend to Him during a Day the extent of which is fifty thousand years.(Sura l-Maarij (70) Verse 4)[19] Sahih International.

Another verse of Quran state:

يدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَی الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يعْرُجُ إِلَيه فِیْ يوْمٍ کَانَ مِقْدَارُه أَلْفَ سَنة مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَ(۵)

He arranges [each] matter from the heaven to the earth; then it will ascend to Him in a Day, the extent of which is a thousand years of those which you count. (Sura l-sajdah: Verse (32:5)[20]Sahih International 

Whereas another verse states that

يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاء إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَ

"And they urge you to hasten the punishment. But Allah will never fail in His promise. And indeed, a day with your Lord is like a thousand years of those which you count.Sura l-Haj (22): Verse (47)[21] Sahih International.

Secondly Yusuf Ali (1934), in his commentary on each of the verses that deals with the stages in the Creation, insists on a very long periods, or ages, or aeons (The longest division of geological time scale). The word "youm" is thus understood, within the Qur'an, to be a long period of time -- an era or eon. Therefore, Muslim commentators interpret the description of a "six day" creation as six distinct periods or eons. The length of these periods is not precisely defined, nor is the specific evolutions that took place during each period.

  1. The plurality of the heavens

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا

Explaining the number of heavens Allah states in Sura l-Talaq (65) verse 12:[22] 

It is God who has created the seven heavens and a like number of earths. His commandments are sent between them, so that you would know that God has power over all things and that His knowledge encompasses all. (Muhammad Sarwar).

الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا مَّا تَرَى فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَنِ مِن تَفَاوُتٍ فَارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَى مِن فُطُورٍ(3)

It is He who has created seven heavens, one above the other. You can see no flaw in the creation of the Beneficent God. Look again. Can you see faults? (Muhammad Sarwar)

These verses suggest that the Earth is not the only planets, other planets like earth might exist it is just we cannot see them though we can feel their gravity. Another explanation may be it refers toward the layers of the earth. According to the field of geomorphology and plate tectonics the Earth's interior is divided into different layers by their chemical or physical (rheological) properties. The outer layer of the Earth is a chemically distinct silicate solid crust, which is underlain by a highly viscous solid mantle. The thickness of the crust varies: averaging 6 km (kilometers) under the oceans and 30-50 km on the continents. The crust and the upper mantle are collectively known as the lithosphere, and the tectonic plates are comprised of the lithosphere. Beneath the lithosphere is the asthenosphere, a relatively low-viscosity layer on which the lithosphere rides. Beneath the mantle, an extremely low viscosity liquid outer core lies above a solid inner core (Toshiro, 1995 [23];Anderson, 1989 [24]; Jordan, 1979 [25]).

File:Picture 0.png Depth in Km Component layer
0-35 Lithosphere Crust
35-60 Upper Mantle
35-2890 Asthenosphere Mantle
2890-5100

Core

Outer Core
5100-6378 Inner core

Source: Toshiro, 1995; Anderson, 1989.,Jordan, 1979.

SuraFussilat (41) verse 12 state that Allah almighty decorated the lower heaven with lamp (الشَّمْسُ ضِیَا ) which mean that only lower haven has visible light.

فَقَضَاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَأَوْحَى فِي كُلِّ سَمَاء أَمْرَهَا وَزَيَّنَّا السَّمَاء الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ وَحِفْظًا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ (۱۴)

And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing. (Sahih International)

Dark matter is a hypotheticalmatter used in astronomy and cosmology to describethe large part of the mass that seems missing from the universe.FritzZwicky (1933) was the first who pointed out toward the existence of unseen matter, which he referred to as “dark matter” this makes up about 26.8% of the universe.(Trimble, 1987 [26]; Copi et al.1995[27]). The above verse of Quran might refer toward that “dark matter” because it neither emits nor absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation. It’s only the lower heaven with visible light rest of the havens have neither light nor it visible.

Expansion of Universe:

Second distinction between Bible and Quran is that Quran state in Sura L-ḥadīd: Verse (57:4)[28]

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يَعْلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا وَمَا يَنزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَاء وَمَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ.

==== It is He who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne. He knows what penetrates into the earth and what emerges from it and what descends from the heaven and what ascends therein; and He is with you wherever you are. And Allah , of what you do, is Seeing. (Sahih International)

This verse of Quran clearly indicate that after the creation Allah "settled Himself upon the Throne" and constantly watching his creation. This is adistinguishablepoint,which is in contrast to the Biblical idea of a day of rest. In Book of Geneses theCreation is described in Genesis 1:1 to 2:3 as occurring in six "days": which state that “God created the materials of the universe and then waited a very long time beforecoordinating them into their present shape” (Kee, et al., 1997[29]).

This is understandable by the fact that universe is expanding and Allah is never "done" with His work, because the process of creation is ongoing. The Quran also does not reject the idea that the universe is continuing to expand. Quran state

وَالسَّمَاء بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لموسعون

SahihInternational:And the heaven We constructed with powe,r and indeed, We are [its] expanding it. Sura l-Dhariyat (The Wind that Scatter)(51): verse 47 [30].

In this verse Quran points toward the fact that universe is expanding. This concept of expanding universe is unique to Quran; it is not mentioned in any of the so called divine books. Astronomer Edwin P. Hubble made a remarkable discovery in 1920’s by affirming that our universe is expanding since it came into being 13.7 billion year ago. (Clavin&Harrington, 2012[31]). There has been some historical argumentation among Muslim scholars about the precise meaning of this verse, since knowledge of the universe's expansion was only recently discovered.

Conclusion:

The Quranic account of creation of universe is perfectly in line with modern scientific thought about the development of the universe. Descriptions of creation in the Quran are set in context to remind the readers of Allah's majesty and wisdom.In Hindu mythology the Creation is the representation of art but in Islam the Creation is representing the command and supremacy of God almighty.أَلشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُوْمَ مُسَخَّرَتِم بِأَمْرِہٖ۔“The sun, the moon, and the stars, subjected by His command” (Sura l-a-Raf(7) verse 54. In Sura l-Baqarah (2), verse 117 [32], Allah almighty express his domination and supremacy in the creation of heaven and earth, Quran state

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, "Be," and it is. (Sura l-Baqarah (2), verse 117Sahih International).

At another verse Quran state:

فَيَكُونُ وَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن

He creates what He wills. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, 'Be,' and it is. (Sura al Imran (3)verse 47[33] Sahih International).

There seem to be following main points in Quran whichshed light and provide information about the Creation of heaven and earth.

  1. While describing the origin of heavens and earth the Quran state that God almighty created them in six periods.The verses in Quran that mention "six days" use the Arabic word "youm" (day). This word appears in several other places in the Quran, each denoting a different measurement of time. In one case, the measure of a day is equated with 50,000 years. Quran state in Sura l-Maarij, verses 4.The angels and the Spirit will ascend to Him during a Day the extent of which is fifty thousand years.

2.Quran clearly describe that formation of the heavenly bodies and the Earth take place in two phases, as explained in, Sura Fussilat , verses 9 to 12,Quran Say, "Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds." According to modern science the formation of sun and earth happened by a process of contraction and collapsed molecular cloud “Dukhan”. First the sun has been formed and then the earth and other planets. This is exactly what the Qur'an expresses very clearly. Hence there is complete agreement between the facts of the Qur'an and the facts of science.

3) The creation of universe and earth from “smoke” as Quran state inSuraFussilat, Verse:11 “Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, "Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion”.

This concept of Quran is evidently tallies to the concept of the molecular cloud put forward by modern science.

4) The plurality of the heavens, expressed in the Qur'an by the number 7, of Sura-l-ṭalaq: Verse 12, does however predict the following: "God is the One Who created seven heavens and of the earth (ard) a similar number. The Command descends among them so that you know that God has power over all things and comprehends all things in His knowledge." The observation made by astronomers suggests the presence of a number of galaxies. On the other hand the plurality of earths as describe by Quran is not yet beenestablished to be true by science; but Geologist and Geomorphalogist consider this to be quiteviable.

In conclusion it is obvious that although not all the questions raised by the descriptions in the Qur'an have been completely supported by scientific ideas, there is in any case absolutely no opposition between the concepts of Qur'an on the Creation and Science on the formation of the Universe.


References

  1. Dalrymple, G.B. (1991). The Age of the Earth. California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1569-6.
  2. Thierry Montmerle, Jean-Charles Augereau, Marc Chaussidon (2006). "Solar System Formation and Early Evolution: the First 100 Million Years". Earth, Moon, and Planets (Spinger) 98 (1–4): 39–95.
  3. Alan. P. Boss, R. H. Durisen (2005). Chondrule-forming Shock Fronts in the Solar Nebula: A Possible Unified Scenario for Planet and Chondrite Formation. The Astrophysical Journal 621 (2):
  4. Safronov, Viktor Sergeevich (1972) Evolution of the Protoplanetary Cloud and Formation of the Earth and the Planets.Israel Program for Scientific Translations.ISBN 0-7065-1225-1.
  5. Jan N. Bremmer (2007). The Strange World of Human Sacrifice. PeetersPublishers.pp. 170–.ISBN 978-90-429-1843-6.Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  6. Griffith, Ralph T.H. (1999) (Transl.): Rigveda Hymn CXXIX. Creation in Hymns of the Rgveda, Vol. II, 1889-92. MunshiramManoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  7. Sunil Sehgal (1999). Encyclopaedia of Hinduism: C-G. Sarup&Sons.p. 401.ISBN 978-81-7625-064-1. Retrieved 15 December 2012http://books.google.com.pk/books?id =zWG64bgtf3sC&pg=PA401&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  8. Shah ManzoorAlam (2010) Creation of Universe; Quranic Concepts and Scientific Theories http://corpus.quran.com/qurandictionary.jsp?q=stt#(7:54:9)
  9. Surah fuṣṣilat, Verse (11)
  10. Surah al-Anbiyaa: Verse (30)
  11. Surah Fuṣṣilat (41) verse .
  12. G. Brent Dalrymple's (1991) The Age of the Earth, published by the Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif. USA. (492 p.)
  13. Sura l-araf (7) Verse (54)
  14. SuraYunus (10) Verse (3)
  15. SuraHud (11), Verse (7)
  16. Sura-l-Furqan (25) verse (59)
  17. Sura L-Sajdah (32), Verse (4)
  18. Sura L-Sajdah (32), Verse (4)
  19. Sura l-Maarij (70) Verse (4)
  20. Sura l-sajdah: (32) Verse (5)
  21. Sura l-Haj (22): Verse (47)
  22. Sura l-Talaq (65) verse 12
  23. Tanimoto, Toshiro (1995). "Crustal Structure of the Earth" In Thomas J. Ahrens. Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. ISBN 0-87590-851-9. Retrieved 20014-05-07.
  24. Anderson, D.L. (1989) Theory of the Earth: Boston, Blackwell Publications, 366 pages.
  25. Jordan, T. H. (1979). "Structural geology of the Earth's interior". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America76 (9): 4192–4200.
  26. Trimble, V. (1987)."Existence and nature of dark matter in the universe". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 25: 425–472.
  27. Copi, C. J.; Schramm, D. N.; Turner, M. S. (1995). "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Baryon Density of the Universe". Science 267 (5195):192-199.http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A3&version=NIV
  28. Sura al-ḥadīd (57) Verse (4)
  29. H.C. Kee; E. M. Meyers, J. Rogerson (1997) "The Cambridge Companion to the Bible", Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, Page 45 to 46
  30. Sura l-Dhariyat (The Wind that Scatter) (51) verse(47).
  31. Whitney Clavin and J.D. Harrington (2012) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Retrieved on 12-06-2013http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/ spitzer/ news/ spitzer20121003.html
  32. Sura l-Baqarah (2), verse (117)
  33. Sura al Imran (3)verse (47)