The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library

From Religion
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Bibliographic Information
Journal Al-Idah
Title The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library
Author(s) Haseeb, Abdul
Volume 35
Issue 2
Year 2017
Pages 101-110
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
Chicago 16th Haseeb, Abdul. "The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library." Al-Idah 35, no. 2 (2017).
APA 6th Haseeb, A. (2017). The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library. Al-Idah, 35(2).
MHRA Haseeb, Abdul. 2017. 'The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library', Al-Idah, 35.
MLA Haseeb, Abdul. "The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library." Al-Idah 35.2 (2017). Print.
Harvard HASEEB, A. 2017. The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library. Al-Idah, 35.
جدید قانونی تصورات پر مذہب اور اخلاق کا اثر: مغربی اور اسلامی تناظر میں ایک تقابلی و تنقیدی جائزہ
معاشرتی امن و امان میں پختون روایتی مصالحت اور تحکیم کا کردار: ایک تحقیقی مطالعہ
انسانی دودھ کی خرید وفروخت اور رضاعت کے مسائل
مسائل میراث حل کرنے کے قدیم اور جدید حسابی طریقوں کا تقابلی جائزہ
عرب عہد جاہلیت میں ’’طلاق‘‘ کا تصور: تحقیقی جائزہ
مروجہ جاگیردارانہ نظام کا تاریخی ارتقاء اور اسلامی تعلیمات کی روشنی میں تقابلی جائزہ
یاسا کا تعارف اور ناقدانہ جائزہ
فقہی اختلافات کے مابین امام شعرانی اور شاہ ولی اللہ کے اسالیب تطبیق
قرائن الترجیح العامة بين الروايات المختلفة المعلة مع الأمثلة التطبيقية من كتاب العلل الواردة في الأحاديث النبوية
أهمية المنهج التطبيقي في تدريس الحديث النبوي وعلومه
ابتكارات العلامة الزمخشري في علم المعاني خلال أسلوب السؤال والجواب في تفسيره الكشاف
الروائع البلاغية للتذييل في النثر، والشعر
أوزان شعر محمود سامي البارودي وموسيقاه: دراسة تحليلية إحصائية
Antecedents of “Quality of Work” in Islamic Perspective Through Mediating Effect of Perceived Job Performance
Syed Ali Tarmizi and Akhun Darwaiza: Mughal Agents or Popular Saints
An Analysis of Prisons’ Staff Role in the Reintegration of the Prisoners
Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being Among Muslims and Christians Adolescents and Young Adults
Quran and War Media: Towards a More Constructed Approach to Conflict Reporting
Higher Education for Women in Peshawar: Barriers and Issues
Development of Kabul under Mughals 1504-1738 AD
The Status of Medical Manuscripts by Muslim Scientists at Islamia College Peshawar Library

Abstract:

The subject of Medical Science was the central part in the history of Muslim culture. The muslim scientists have produced extensive medical literature. This treasure of knowledge has been preserved in different public and private institutions throughout Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, particularly on Peshawar University Campus libraries. One among them is Islamia College Peshawar Library, which contains some of the rare medical manuscripts.  This paper will highlight the current status of these manuscripts present in Islamia College Library Peshawar. The paper will also reveal the metadata of these manuscripts.

Introduction:

The foundation of Islamia College Peshawar (now University) marked the institution of a rich library which flourished along with the College.[1] The vast and varied collection of books in this library necessitated its division into English and an oriental section, which arrangement till 1952, was under the guidance of Maulana Abdur Rahim and Ahmad Hassan. Maulana Abdur Rahim took great pains for a methodical organization of the library material which has survived to this day.[2]

The Islamia College Peshawar Library has a separate building of its own, comprising two halls and nine adjacent rooms. In the main hall, a large numbers of books on topics of varied interest and disciplines are neatly arranged. The oriental section of the library can justly boast of a rare and rich collection of books and manuscripts.[3] The manuscripts are mostly on subject of Hadith, Fiqh, Medical Science, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy etc.[4] The total collection of manuscripts in Islamia College Peshawar Library is 1216. These rare manuscripts have been donated by the family of Mulana Ghulam Jelani.[5] Among these a vast number of medical manuscripts written by Muslim scientists are currently present in the premises of the library. Unfortunately these rare medical treatises have never been properly highlighted.

Maulana Ghulam Jelani:

Mulana Ghulam Jelani was a learned and scholarly person from Peshawar. He was born in a literary family and like his forefathers, he was also very fund of collecting rare literary collections which includes printed books and manuscripts.[6] Mualana travelled a lot, particularly to the Central Asian states, Saudi Arabia and other Muslim oriented places. As a result of this, he was able to gathered treasure of unique literary works. This collection were very dear to him and only few people were allowed to see them.[7] He was approached by different institutions and intellectuals and offered him ransom amount for the rare collection of manuscripts but he denied to sell it. After his death this unique literacy collection was inherited by his wife and daughter as he had no sons. When the idea of Islamia College was materialized, his family was approached by Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan[8] and requested to donate this rich collection to Darul ul uloom Islamia which they agreed on one condition that this collection will be properly arranged and will remain under the title of Mulana Ghulam Jelani. Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum agreed and engaged Abdul Rahim Kulachvi as the first librarian. Abdul Rahim Kulachvi was given the task of arranging these manuscripts[9].

Scope of the Study:

The study will highlight the rich treasury collection of literary work in the field of Medical Sciences by Muslim Scientists. It will also not enable the professionals to use it as a source of reference and a tool for access, but will also generate a new sense in the future investigation in the related field of manuscripts.

Research Methodology:

Demarcated lines were required to tackle the problem. In this connection, historical (documentary) and survey research methods were used. However, different methods of data collection have been utilized to strengthen the techniques of data collection for more accurate results.

Findings:

Hamiyat-I- Qanoon, by Hussain Bin Abdullah Bin Sina Abu Ali (Ibn Sina), 1274 AH/1857 AD, in Arabic language. It is a part of another manuscript written by the same author title “Qanoon e Shiekh”.Thisdeals with types of fever and types of tuberculosis its symptoms and medication.[10]

Arjozia Sinayia by Ibn Sina, in Arabic language. This manuscript is written in the form of rhyme on medicine. It is also called Arjozia Sinayia Fil Tibb. This rhyme is specifically composed on Pulse, Urine, Eyes and Fever.[11]

Qanoon Sheikh by Ibn Sina (1080 AH/ 1669 AD), in Arabic language. This manuscript is a very informative medical treatise and one of the rare works on the subject. It is a part of a large collection which is in 13 volumes under the title Al-Qanoon[12].

Qanoon Sheikh Ruba-Maal-E-Jat by Ibn Sina written in the year 1243 AH/1827AD is in Arabic language. This manuscript is an important medical treatise taken from a huge volume which is available in six volumes; this is the third volume among all.[13] It deals with pharmacy and human anatomy.

Tashreeh Al Aaza by Ibn Sina, dated 1251 AH/ 1835 AD written in Arabic language. It is a part of Kitab Ul Qanon, a huge collection of the same author and focuses on anatomy of the original work[14].

Ilm Al Adwiyah Qanon Skeikh by Ibn Sina. It is another effort, in the field of medical science. This work contains an introduction, a conclusion and three commentaries with regard to the related works at the end. It deals with different diseases and its medication. [15]

Zubda- Tul Tibb, Abu Ibrahim Ismail Bin Al Hussain wrote on Greek medicine, diseases and treatment in Arabic language. He was a prolific writer and famous physician of his times. He remained a student of well known physician, Ibn Sadiq al Nishapuri, who followed the teachings of Ibn Sina[16]. It deals with the analysis of urine and pulse rate. The author also elucidated various other diseases such as fever, tumor, sexual intercourse and sexually transmittable illness.[17]

Sharh Hayakal-Al-Noor by Shihab al Din Yahya Ibn Habash Ibn Amirak Abul Futuh Al Suhrawardi dated 1014 AH/1605 AD in Arabic language. The author was well known for his literary and teaching potentials during his times and worked for numerous years at the court of the Timurid rulers. It is a commentary on the original work of the author which thoroughly explains the formation of different medicine in the text. [18]

Nafeesi Sharaha Asbak Wal Alaamat by Nafees Bin Aud Karmani dated 827 AH/ 1423 AD in Arabic. This manuscript is a commentary on work entitled: “Al Asbab Wal Alamat” of Nagib ul Din Abu Hameed Muhammad Bin Ali Samarqandi. It was written on the causes, symptoms and treatment of different diseases at Samarqand. [19]

Mughni Sharh Mujiz by Sadid ud Din Muhammad Ibn Masud Al Kazaruni Gazroni is in Arabic language. The author was a very well known physician from Kazerun. This work is a commentary on Ibn Nafis work ‘Muziz’.[20]

Kitab-al-Iqna by Abu al Hassan Saeed Bin HibatUllah Alfalsfi. This manuscript was written in 481AH . The author was a surgeon of great stature and remained at the court of Bamir Ullah as his court physician.[21] . It is a comprehensive study of both minor and major surgeries.[22]

Qanoon Cha by Muhammad Bin Umar Chaghmini written in Arabic language. This work was written in the era of Ahmad Shah Abdali. The author is also known as Sharaf ul Din Muhammand Ibn Muhammad Ibn Umar Al Chagmini al Khwarizmi, a Muslim physician born in Chagmini in a village near Kharazm (Khiva), now Uzbekistan. The work deals with some famous diseases mentioned by Ibn e Sina in his work Al Qanoon. Furthermore the work is also written in Persian language by the author. [23]

Tibb-E-Yousafi by Abu Al Hassan M. Ibn Yousuf Al Amiri, dated 1164 AH/ 1750 AD written in Arabic language. The author is also known as Abu Al Hassan Muhammad Ibn Yousaf Al Amiri Nishapuri, born in Nishspur, Khorasan (Iran). He shared his own experiences in this work. He was a prolific writer. His main works are: Kitab Al Amad Ala I-Abad, Al Taqir Liawjuh Al Taqdir, Inqadh Al Basher Min-Al Jahr Wal Qadar.[24]

Hashia Sharh Asbab Wal Alamat is a dictionary cum commentary written by Burhan Ud Din Kirmani who is also known as Burhan Ud Din Nafis Ibn Iwad Kirmani commonly known as Hakim Nafis[25]. This is written on the original work of Najib Uddin Hamid Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Umar titled Asbabul Wa Alamat[26].

Behrul Jawahir by Yousaf Bin Muhammad al-Harwi is written in Arabic language. The manuscript is a dictionary and encyclopedia. The work has been divided in three different sections. It is a detailed work by the author in which he explained all the diseases from head to toe[27].

Anwar- Ul- Wahshi Hashiyah Nafis by Anwar- ul- Wahshi Hasiyah Nafis is written in Arabic language. Ala Al Din Abu Al Hasan Ali Ibn Hazn Al Qarhi Al Dimashaqi was an Arab physician. He is commonly known as Ibn Nafees among Muslim physicians of his time. He was also a philosopher and a Sufi figure.[28] The said work is written in Samarqand. It is huge encyclopedia a medical treatise which has been divided into 17 different sections including an introduction and a natija. The author has very deeply explained different diseases, its drugs and process of formation of the drugs[29].

Maqalat Abi by Abu Mansur B. Nooh Al Qamari Al Bukhari is in Arabic language. Abu Mansur Hassan Ibn Nooh Al Qamari was a Persian physician. He remained the court physician during the regime of Al Mansur, to whom he also dedicated his work Al- Shamsiyah, Al Mansuriyah. The said work deals with author’s own experiences. He also appreciated the efforts of other muslim physicians.[30].

Dastoor-Al-Ajaaib by Daud Bin Umer Al Antaki dated 1171AH/1757AD is written in Arabic language. Daud Bin Umer Al Antaki was a blind physician of his time. Owing to his blindness; he was nick named Al Basir (the non-seeing). This work is also an encyclopedia about the Unani medicine.[31] His other works areTazyim Al Awaq Bi Tafsil Ashwaq Al Ushshaq, Tadhkirat Uli Al Albab Wa Al Jamil Lil Ajab Al Ujab, Nuzhat Al Adhan Fi Islah Al Abdan, Majmd Al Manfi Al Badanuyah Wa Yalihi Al Mufid Fi Al Tibb, Wa Yalihi Al Malaki Fi Al Tibb, Al Nawadir, Tazyin Al Aswaq Fi Akhbar Al Ushshaq.[32]

Fatahi Sharah Qanon Cha by Yahah Mullah Nisapuri Fatahi dated 1086 AH/1675 AD is written in Arabic language. Fatahi Haqeem Nisaburi Muhamamd Bin Yahaha Sibak was a Persian poet born in Nisapur during the Tamurid era. [33]It is a commentary on Qanon Cha of Muhammad Bin Umar Chagmini. He not only produced commentary on Qanon Cha, however, he also expressed his views on works of relevant authors in the field of medicine.[34]

Jezya Tul Ramooz by Hakeem Shah M. Bin Sheikh M. Azam dated 1293 AH/ 1876 AD in Arabic language. Other known works of the author are Ramuz-E-Azam, Qarabadin-E- Azam, Naiier Azam an Eksir Azam.[35] In this collection the author generally introduced different heart diseases, their symptoms and drugs used to overcome these diseases. The author also emphasized on the importance of pulse reading for physicians.[36]

Jamma Tul Fawaid by Yousaf Bin Muhammad (Yousafi) written in Persian language. It is a medical discourse which deals with the prescription of various disease of human body mostly related to head injuries. It is an extension of the author’s own work entitled: Alaj ul Amraz, which was an immense volume of the eleventh century.[37]

Shifa-Al-Halal (Tuhafa-e- Khani ) by Muhammad Bin Muhammad Abdullah in Persian Language. Tuhfa-A-Khani-Fil-Tibb, has been divided in four parts along with preface at the preliminary pages and a nateja at the end of the work. It is a voluminous work which provides prescriptions over one hundred seventy diseases[38], [39]. This work of the author is an authentic approach of the author, which has later on been taught as text at various maktabs and madrassas.[40]

Zakhira Khawarzin Shahi by Zain Ud Din Ismail Bin Hussain 1034 AH/ 1625 AD in Persian language. The author was a contemporary of the famous poet Khaqani. He was a Persian physician, born in Gorgan (Iran). Apart from his command on the subject of medicine he also learned theological philosophical and ethical sciences.[41] It is a part of an encyclopaedia which aims to deal with different diseases with a special focus on the eyes. This work is based on Ibn Sina works entitled: Al-Qanon together with the author’s own experience.[42]

Qaraleadeen Kaseer (Zakhair Al-Tar) by Hakeem Muhammad Alvi Syed Muhammad Hassan in 1199AH/1785 AD Persian, Zakhair Al Tar is a commentary by Hakim Mohammad Hashim Alvi Khan on a well known work, Zakhira-Khawazimi Shahi of Zain Uddin bin Hussain Jurjani. The author was a known Greek Physician. [43]The author has stressed upon mostly diseases related to head. The work also contains an introduction and a Natija.[44] Later on, the work has been translated in different languages and has been published in parts by different publisher.[45]

Taleef Sharafi by Hakim Muhammad Sharaf Khan is in Persian language. Hakim Muhammad Sharif Khan was commonly known as Sharif Khan Tabeeb and Tabeeb Sharif. He gained his initial education from his uncle and then from a known tabeeb of the time, “Hakim Masud”. He has command on Arabic, Persian and Turkish Language.[46] He also remained a court physician in Shah Alam II and his son Akbar II. He is very well known for his works which he has written on the Indian drugs[47]. This work deals with the author’s own experiences in the field of medical sciences which includes formation of medicine too. [48]

Tuhfat Ul Mumineen by Hakeem Muhammad Momin Khan in Persian. Momin Khan Momin is also known as Hakeem Khan. He was born in Delhi (India) in a Kashmiri family. His father by profession, was a physician who also served in the Mughal court as a physician. The author himself was a physician and gained his initial education from his father.[49] Apart from medical sciences he has also command on other subjects such as mathematics, geometry, astronomy, algebra, physics, music and philosophy.[50] He used the word Momin as a takhallus. This work of his, is a literary contribution in the field of pharmacy. This work includes a dictionary, an introduction and a nateja. The author has very elegantly described different diseases in detailed form.[51]

Tuhfat Ul Mumineen (part I) by Hakeem Muhammad Momin Khan is in Persian. Tuhfat Ul Mumineen a Persian language treatise on the subject of medicine is dedicated to the Shah Sulayman who was the Safauid ruler of Persia in the period of 1666-1694. This is a summary of the original work written by the same author.[52] As mentioned in the text by the author that both the manuscripts have been written at the same time. In the said work the author has added a dictionary of medical terms which has been used in the large treatise[53].

Kitab Majul Al Isam Dar Allam by Mansoor Ibn Ilyas in Persian language. Mansur Ibn Ilyas whose real name was Mansur Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yousaf Ibn Ilyas was a Persian physician born in Shiraz in late 14th century.[54]The author is very well known for his colored atlas of the human body which is commonly known as “Mansur anatomy”.[55] This manuscript is an analysis of his work Mansur’s anatomy. The author described the human body chart.[56] Works of other muslim scientists has been also appreciated in the text. The uniqueness of the work can be seen in a way that after thoroughly search other copy of the same manuscript has not been found anywhere.

Akhatayarat-e-Badleai by Sheikh Ali Ibn Husain Al-Ansari dated 770 AH is in Persian language. Ali Ibn Hussain Al-Ansari who is commonly known as Haji Zain Atar, was a great physician of his time.[57] He had also served in the court of Shah Shuja. This manuscript deals with different diseases of his time, The author also added a dictionary in the preliminary pages which includes all those technical terms which are used in the text.

Rubaiyat Yusufi by Yousaf Bin Muhammad Bin Yousaf Tuyab Heravi dated 944 AH/1537 AD written in Persian language. He was a known physician who was born in Khorasan. He also remained a court physician with Zahir Ud Din.[58] The very well known Yousafi Risala has been originated by him. His other known works are Risala Mozlom Elaj Ul Amraz (Persian) which deals with the treatment of different diseases. His Jamail Fawaid Ya Tibb Yusafi is an analytical approach towards the already available works on the subject of medical by different Muslim scholars of the time.[59] He is very well known for composing an alphabetical dictionary and encyclopedia. Rubaiyat Yusufi deals with different children diseases and its treatment.[60]

Farahang Sarury by M. Bin Qasim Bin Haji M. Kashan dated 1095 AH/ 1684 AD is written in the Persian language. The author was a known figure in the field of medicine, philosophy, Sufism and poetry. Sururi was his famous work.[61] It is also called as Majma-Ul-Furs and dedicated to Shah Abbas the Great.[62] This work of the author is basically a dictionary in the field of medical sciences.[63]

Qarab-Din-Qadari by Hakim Muhammad Arzani dated 1126 AH/ 1811 AD is written in Persian language. Muhammad Akbar Ibn Mir Haji Muhammad Muqim Arzani was a well known physician, . He had several written contributions in different fields especially to sciences.[64]. Despite his popularity as a writer and physician, he was also a prominent Sufi of his time.[65]

It is a comprehensive treatise of all the parts and limbs of human body. It is arranged alphabetically, by the name of the compound; however, a medical dictionary has also been added at the end to facilitate the readers with regard to its significance.[66] This work was subsequently published in India and Iran.[67]

Alfaz-Ul-Adwiyah by Nur-ud din M. Abdullah Bin Hakim Ain Ul Mulk Sherazi dated 1166 AH/1753 AD is written in Persian. Nur-ud din Muhammad Abdullah Bin Hakim Ain Ul Mulk born in Shiraz was commonly known as Nur-ud din Muhammad Abdullah Bin Hakim Ain Ul Mulk of Shiraz. . He remained under the guidance of his father who was also a physician.[68] The said work is a description of drugs. It is divided into a “Mukaddimah” and four faidas (Chapters). The work also contains a list of physicians and surgeons of his time and their biography along with their works.[69] The author has also added his own personal experiences in the field.

Conclusion:

Muslim scientists contributed a great deal in various branches of sciences, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, animal sciences and others. They contributed to win the glorious period of Muslim civilization.[70] A large number of manuscripts on these subjects are available on campus, written both in Arabic and Persian. Though a large number of them have been later printed specially in India. Many important manuscripts are in verse form. Equally important are commentaries and glossaries on them. Some of these manuscripts of the 12th / 13th century A.D are pieces of work of art.[71] The Islamia college Peshawar library is in possession of one of the finest and richest collection of manuscripts on the subject of medical Science in the country. Some of the manuscripts and books are so rare that these are not available anywhere. Hakim Ajmal Khan during his visit to the Islamia College termed this collection as DURR-E-NAYAB.[72]

References:

  1. Khan.A.,Islamia College Peshawar : An Overview. The Times. 2nd October, 1975
  2. Rahmin, A Muslim contribution to science and Culture; A Brief Survey: Lahore: S.M. Ashraf, 1969.
  3. Rahim, A., L ubab-al-Maarif al-Ilmiyah: Maktabah Ulum-e-Mashriqia Darul Ulum Islamia, Lahore 1937, Vol II
  4. Kulachvi, A.R., Lubab-al-Maarif al-Ilmiyah. Peshawar 1971, p 9
  5. Khan, A., History of Islamia College. In Islamia College Library
  6. Khan, Maulvi Abdur Rahman.Musalmanoo Ki Ilmi Khidmat. Madan Mohin Press: Delhi 1950, vol II.
  7. Khan, Y. A., History of University of Peshawar-1950-1988. Khyber Printers, Peshawar, p11
  8. Ahmad, S., Sir sahibzada abdul qayyum khan , life and work: Islamia college Peshawar , 1989.
  9. Kulachvi, A.R., Lubab-al-Maarif al-Ilmiyah. Peshawar 1971
  10. Shaik ur Raees Bu Ali Sina., Hamiyat-I- Qanon (Urdu Version) translated by H.K. Kabeeruddin, Sheikh Mohammad Basheer & Sons, Lahore 1930
  11. Fazil, M., Nikhat, S., & Akram, M., Diabetes: From Ancient To Modern Era. Journal of International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine (ISHIM). April/oct 2013-2014, p 164
  12. Sarton, G. Avicenna; Physician, Scientist, Philosopher. Bull. New Academy of Medicine, 1955, pp. 31:307-317
  13. Kahya, E., Avicenna. Evaluation of Avicenna’s Anatomical Studies, 1(4), 2000, p 49
  14. Ergin, O., Ibn Sina Bibliography: In the Great Turk and Medicine Master Ibn Sina. Istanbul 1937
  15. Jun, E.I.,Akpin,C.,& Izgi,C., A Catalogue of Islamic Medical Manuscripts in the Libraries of Turkey: Arabic, Turkish and Persian. Islamic History, Art and Culture Research Center Istanbul, Turkey 1984
  16. Iskander, A.Z., A Descriptive List of Arabic Manuscript on Medicine and Science at the University of California. E.J. Brill, Los Angles 1984
  17. Nawshahi, A., Fihrist-i Nushkhah ha-yi khatti-i Farsi-i Muzah-i Milli-i Pakistan. Nigashtah -i Sayyid. Markaz-i Tahqiqat-i Farsi-i Iran va Pakistan in Islamabad, Karachi 1983
  18. Meili, A., Al-Naggar, A.H., & Mosa, M.Y. (trans.)., Arab Science and Its Importance in the Development of World Science. Dar Al-Qalam, Cairo 1962
  19. Smet, D.D., The Harmony of Intellect: Neo-Platonism and Gnosticism Ismaili in the work of Hamid ad-Din al-Kirmani, Louvain, 1995
  20. Kabiruddin, M., Kulliyat Nafeesi Mukammil. Idara Matbuaate Sulaimani, Lahore 1934
  21. Iskandar, A.Z., A Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts on Medicine and Science in the Welcome Historical Library. Welcome Historical Medical Library, London 1967
  22. Ibid.
  23. Iskander, A.Z., A Descriptive List of Arabic Manuscript on Medicine and Science at the University of California. E.J. Brill, Los Angles1984
  24. Youssefi, Tibb-E-Yousafi. Youssefi’s Medicine, Lahore 1927
  25. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/EP2_EP5.html
  26. Daftary, F., The Ismailis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge 1990, p 113
  27. Youseef. M. H., The Behrool Jawahir: A Medical Dictionary. In The Physician of Herat edited by Hakeem Abdul Mujeeb. Hakeem Abdul Mujeeb’s Medical Press, Taltahhah. Calcutta1830. Retrieved from www.al-mostafa.com, accessed on November 11, 2015
  28. Lakhtakia, R., A Trio Of Examples Of Medieval Islamic Medicine ; Al Razi, Avicenna And Ibn Nafis. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 2014,14(4): 457. Epub 2014 oct 14. US National Library Of Medicine National Institute Of Health.
  29. Ala Al Din Abu Al Hasan Ali Ibn Hazn Al Qarhi Al Dimashaqi, Anwar- Ul- Wahshi Hasiyah Nafis. Manuscript
  30. Elgood, C., A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate: From the Earliest Times until the Year A.D. 1932. Cambridge University Press, 1951, p 185
  31. Hamarneh,S.K., Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts on Medicine and Pharmacy at the British Library. University of Egypt, Cairo 1975, pp 234-237
  32. Daud Bin Umer Al Antaki, Dastoor-Al-Ajaaib. Manuscript. Egypt 1757
  33. ==Bijli, S. M., Early Muslims and their Contribution to Science: Ninth to Fourteenth Century. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli Delhi 2004, p 44==
  34. Hamidullah, M., Tareekh-E-Musanifin. Makataba-E-Ibrahimia, Deccan, p 33
  35. Khan, M.,A. Eksir Azam. Matba Nizami, Kanpur 1289 (AH), p 4
  36. Khan, A., Azam, N., Muslim Sciences. Al- Maa, Tehran 1854/2010
  37. Pormann,P. E., Smith. E., Medieval Islamic Medicine. Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C 2007
  38. Muhammad Bin Muhammad Abdullah, Shifa-Al-Halal (Tuhafa-e- Khani ). Manuscript Afghanistan 1627.
  39. Robinson, F.,Ottomans-Safavids-Mughals: Shared knowledge and connective Systems.
  40. Shoja, M.M., Tubbs, R.S., The history of anatomy in Persia. Journal of Anatomy 2007, pp 210, 360
  41. Jorjani, I., Zakhira Khawarzin Shahi. (Manuscript dated 1206). Facsimile of manuscript Iran Cultural Foundation, Tehran 1976
  42. Jurjani, A.H., Zakhira Khwar-zam Shahi (H. H. Khan, trans.)., India, Lucknow: Munshi Nawal Kishore. Tehran 1903, pp 23-24, 171
  43. Bender, C. A. Great Moments in Pharmacy: A history of pharmacy in pictures. Nortwood Institute Press, Detriot 1967
  44. Shoja, M.M., Tubbs, R.S., The History of Anatomy in Persia. Journal of Anatomy, 210(361), 2007
  45. Albatshan,E.M., Rare Arabic Manuscripts In India. Manuscripts In India, 93 (2-3), pp. 391-428
  46. Axworthy, M., A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind. 2008, p 104
  47. Wadood, A., Hamary Ullama Shahi. Haderabad 1907, p 29
  48. Brockelmann, C., History of Arabic literature, vol. 2. Brill, Leiden 1937-1942, p 864
  49. Zouelm, A. & Sadiqqi, Z.A., Iran Shenasi. Quarterly Journal on Persian Studies,3(11), Tehran 1995, p 17
  50. Ghori, S. A.K., Siddiqui, T. & Ali, S.A., A Catalogue of Arabic and Persian Medical Manuscript in the Library of Institute Of History of Medical and Medical Research, vol. 1. Institute of History of Medicine and Medical Research, New Dehli
  51. Khan, H.M., Tuhfat Ul Mumineen. Manuscript.
  52. ==Razvi, S. A. H., A History of Science, Technology, and Culture in Central Asia, Vol-1. University of Peshawar, Peshawar 1991, p 352==
  53. Ahmad, I., Tareek-Kay-Aoraq. Muhammad Ashraf, Lahore 1982, p15
  54. Zarshenas, M.M., Zargaran, A., Mehdizadeh, A. & Mohagheghzadeh, A. Mansur Ibn Ilyas (1380-1422 AD): A Persian Anatomist and His Book of Anatonomy, Tashrih-I-Mansuri. Journal of Medical Biography, 24(1), 2016, pp 67-71
  55. J. Newman, A., Tashrīḥ-i Manṣūr-i: Human Anatomy between the Galen and Prophetical Medical Traditions. French Research Institute in Iran, Tehran 1998, pp. 253–271.
  56. Russell, G., & Elyas,E., Encyclopeadia Iranica. vol. 8, pp 16–20
  57. Ramezany,F., & Ardakani, M.R., Ali Ibn Hosein Ansari ( 1330-1401): A Persian Pharmacist and his Pharmacoedia Ektiyarat-I-Bad-I. Journal of Medical Biography, 19(2), 2011, pp 80-83
  58. Razvi, S. A. H., A History of Science, Technology, and Culture in Central Asia, Vol-1. University of Peshawar, Peshawar 1991, p 353
  59. Catalogue of Persian Medical Manuscript in Istanbul. University Department of Library and Documentation Istanbul. Retrieved from http://katalog.istanbul.edu.
  60. Yousaf Bin Muhammad Bin Yousaf Tuyab Heravi, Rubaiyat Yusuf. Manuscript. 1537
  61. (n.n)Contribution to Persian lexicography. Journal of Asiatic society of Bengal, 37 (1), p 16
  62. (n.n)Contribution to Persian lexicography. Journal of Asiatic society of Bengal, 37 (1), p 17
  63. Muhammad Qasim Bin Haji Muhammad Kashan, Farahang Sarury. Manuscript. Peshawar, 1684
  64. Aggarwal, N. K., Muhammad Akbar Arzani (1772): Mughal physician and translator. Med Biography 20 (65), 2012, p 68
  65. ==Nawshahi, A., Fihrist-i Nushkhah Ha-Yi Khatti-I Farsi-i. Muzah-i Milli-i Pakistan, Karachi nigashtah -i Sayyid. Markaz-i Tahqiqat-i Farsi-i Iran va Pakistan in Islamabad, 1983. (Translated into English) Catalogue of the Persian manuscripts in the National Museum of Pakistan at Karachi December 10, 2009==
  66. Shabadi, M. H. A. K., Mizan ut Tib, (Ist Ed.). National Council for the Promotion of Urdu Language, New Delhi 1992
  67. Richter-Bernburg, L., Persian Medical Manuscripts at the University of California, Los Angeles: A Descriptive Catalogue, vol. 4, Udena Publications, Malibu 1978, pp 151-155
  68. ==Storey, C.A., Persian Literature: A Bio-Bibliographical Survey, Vol. II, Part 2. Royal Asiatic Society, London 1971, p 255==
  69. An English translation of the treatise was published in Calcutta in 1793: Ulfaz udwiyeh, or The Materia Medica, in the Arabic, Persian, and Hindevy languages. Compiled by Noureddeen Mohammad Abdullah Shirazy ,with an English translation. F. Gladwin, Calcutta 1793
  70. Khan, A., Central Asian Manuscripts in Pakistan. The Times, 15th February 1976.
  71. Khan, M. A.R.,. Muslim Contribution to Science and Culture: A Brief Survey. S.M. Ashraf, Lahore 1969, p 46.
  72. Ibid., p 64.