Volume 28 Issue 1
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Hafiz Ibn-e-Kaseer’s ‘Al-Bidaya Wan-Nehaya’ maintains a remarkable position in the field of historiography. In this valuable book, he has described the occurrences of the important nations of the past and the epochs of the previous Prophets up to his own era. Although ‘Al-Bidaya Wan-Nehaya’ is basically a book of ‘History’, yet the worthy author has referred to numerous salient events pertaining to the life and mission of the holy Prophet (SAW). A considerable portion of the book, about two thousand pages, relates to the biograph of the Holy Prophet (SAW).
Hafiz Ibn-e-Kaseer’s mode of ‘Seerah-writing’ differs from all other biographers in certain aspects. There are some distinctive marks which distinguish his biography from others. The following Article is an analytic account of the characteristic features and merits as well as deficiencies and shortcomings of ‘Al-Bidaya wan-Nehaya’ with special reference to the science ‘Seerat-Writing’ and it aims at determining its credibility as a source of Prophetic Biography
Islam is a religion of peace and values the sanctity of life and blood. It clearly prohibits unlawful killing. However, it is also a fact that observing this rule is very difficult during an armed conflict but still Islam has laid down clear injunctions about this. It has divided the belligerent groups into combatants and non-combatants and the rights of each one has been mentioned. In this article the later has been discussed. In this regard verses from the Holy Qura’n , Traditions of the Prophet (PBUH) and views of the jurists have been quoted. All of them guarantee sanctity of life of non-combatants. At the end, relevant articles of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) have also been quoted, which are in consonance with the teachings of Islam.
Both Zainuddin Ibn Nujaim (d. 970HJ) and Herbert Broom (d. 1882CE) are famous for the arrangement, interpretations and for sound applications of juristico-legal maxims and rules respectively in Muslim and western world of law and jurisprudence. The al-Ashbah wa-Al-Nazair of Ibn Nujaim and Broom’s Legal Maxims of Herbert Broom speak of their deep approach to the concerned discipline. This article provides a general analysis of the juristico-legal interpretations regarding the elementary maxim of hardship and injuria remedium (hardship and harm remission) as made by Ibn Nujaim (d.970HJ) and Herbert Broom(d.1882CE) in their aforesaid books.
In the Holy Quran several names of different colours have been described, denoting various meanings. Colour is the natural phenomenon of the universal power. To understand the colours properly, Our ancestors have undertaken their deep observation vehemently and passionately. Each colour has its own distinctive feature. The Yellow colour has been interpreted as a pleasure giving one. Similarly, if white colour, on the one hand is the metaphor for the dawn’s light, on the other hand it gives the meaning of happiness and on turning of one blind. Black colour is the natural phenomenon of the darkness of night and mourning same in the case of Green, which are used in the Holy Quran for denoting different meaning. White colour is the colour which possesses peculiarities greater in quantity than all of the other colours followed by the derivation of some Islamic Provisions also.
In this article efforts have been made to present a discourse regarding the various kinds of colours discussed in the Holy Quran diagnosing the same from different angles.
Dr. Israr Ahmed was a great thinker, intellectual and a reformer.He was diverse scholar and took inspiration from a great and diverse spectrum of sholars like Dr. Allama Iqbal and Dr. Rafiuddin; Abul Aa’la Maoudoodi and Abul Kalam Azad; Hameed uddin Farahi and Amin Ahsan Islahi and Sheikh ul Hind Maulana Mahmood ul Hasan and Shiekh ul Islam Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani. His thought and wisdom was quite influenced by these people.We trace out this remarkable and renowned sholar’s rendered his educational, authorial and religious services. For this purpose Dr. Israr Ahmed started his mission with lecture of Quran. Soon, his lectures were well known throughout the country. He established a great institute namely ‘Markazi Anjuman e Khudaam ul Quran’ in Lahore in order to render educational, authorial and religious services in an organized manner. To spread reformative and preaching services in a better way, he established a party with the name of ‘Tanzeem e Islam Pakistan’In view of his great services, especially in the field of Holy Quran, we may mark him as great scholar of twentieth centur
The history of the prisoners of war is as old as the history of wars. The prisoners of war have been kept since old times. Before Islam there were only two kinds of treatment of prisoners of war. Either they were killed or made slaves. But Islam created many new ways for them which include: exchange of prisoners, ransom, gratuitous release and making them tax payers. And these options were used so as to allow them greater chance of winning freedom. All these options were being opted during the era of Holy Prophet SAW and later on carried out by Khulafa e Rashideen (RA) and other Muslim rulers. Whereas the killing of prisoners of war was limited to solid and irrefutable causes as exceptional cases. Furthermore the enslavement of prisoners was only opted as reciprocity. Both the above mentioned situations are not established rule in Islam. That's why there is no mention of these two options in Holy Quran. In this research paper all these options have been critically examined and researched. The arguments and references have been taken from Holy Quran and Hadith along with the sayings of Sahaba (RA), the practices of Muslim rulers and the judgments of Islamic jurists in this regard.
Islam offers a complete code of conduct. Its instructions are not limited to some fields of life. Islam guides all those things to his followers which are necessary for the well-being of mankind. The modern age is the age of science and technology, it has created some modern issues to Muslims scholars, like Test Tube baby, cloning and some different kind of surgical operation. This article deals with the status of Surgery in Islamic Shariah.
مصنف/مصنفین: الازہری، عبد الوہاب جان
The issue of the source and origin of Sufism in Islam is a complex one. A number of scholars, since the latter half of the nineteenth century have put forward conflicting claims. Earlier Orientalists thought that a Sufism developed from a single source while the latter scholars think a number of different sources should be considered as origin of Sufism. Both groups agree, however, in maintaining that Sufism is an addition to Islam and did not originally belong to Islam. Different opinions have been presented regarding the true source of Sufism, for example, Persian, Indian, Christian, Jewish and Neo-Platonic philosophies. The present paper intends to refute these charges of external influences on Islamic Sufism and attempts to show that the real origin of Islamic Sufism lies nowhere but in the teachings of the Holy Qur’an, Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and lives of the blessed companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Purpose of the study was to reflect great contributions of Dar ul Uloom Deouband. After the end of Independence War 1857, three factors endangered the Muslims of India religiously and educationally. Firstly, the Christian missionaries who thought that after the political downfall Muslims would convert themselves to Christianity. Secondly, the missionaries were proclaiming blasphemy about Islam and the Holy Prophet Muhammad Sallalaho Alaha Wasalam. In this regard, William Mure wrote a notorious blasphemous book about which Sir Syed said, “Alas! We like to die.” Thirdly, in these circumstances the doubts of Muslims were increasing that Muslim may not be converted to Christianity but it may create hatred from Islamic ideology. Just to cope up with these dangers, various educational movements came into being; one of them is Deouband Movement. As a result of the efforts by Dar ul Uloom Deouband, Muslims were able to save their Din and eman.
مصنف/مصنفین: آغا، سید عبد المالک
The word corruption is very comprehensive. It is the synonym of bribery, demoralization, sinfulness, wickedness, impurity, dishonesty, fraud, falsehood, embezzlement, illegal and criminal, etc. Currently in pakistan government & private sectors, high rank government employees, bureaucracy and political institutions, are involved in different kinds of corruption. Consequently, the economy of the courntry has been effected extremly. Therefore, there is no peace in the counrtry.
CALVIN COOLIDGE said in his speech, in 1923: "Economy is always a guarantee of peace". (1) In this research article it would be searched that how the corruption in the country could be eradicated, in the light of Islamic teachings. So that the economy of the the country can make progress smoothly and easily.
After the Incident of 9/11 Pakistan decided to become the ally of America and play an important role in fighting terrorism on both domestic and global fronts. This war has destroyed the peace of Pakistan and has affected the Economy of Pakistan desperately. The decision of Pakistani government to fight the so called war on terror with America only to get the financial and political support of America was clearly against the teachings of Islam. However, Pakistan did receive financial benefits in this war. The important development in the wake of 9/11 is that Pakistan became the biggest beneficiary of US economic aid in the South Asian region. Despite the GDP growth, foreign aid, foreign investment, better record of foreign exchange reserve, worker remittances and debt rescheduling Pakistan’s economy did not show the desired results. The change in the Pakistan’s economy during this period is not sustainable in economic term. Due to the war on terror law and order situation has become worst. At present Pakistan is facing most unique, difficult and gruesome faces of terrorism. In this situation fiscal policy in Islamic perspective is prerequisite for the peace and economic development of Pakistan.
a great deal of research work has been done upon the differences present in the Muslim Umm’ah and for its dissolution. Hence, scholars like Ashari, Baghdadi, Ibn al- Hazm and Shehristani has produced great critical and analytical studies, however the sect proclaiming on “Rah-e –Haq" (the truly guided path) needs critical review. In this article, a scholarly analysis and estimation of the "Rah-e-Haq"sect (the guided ones) is being attempted in the light of the relevant traditions.
The comparative study of civilizations, their conflicts, clashes and their harmony are the significant issues of this era. It's a reality that in the present clash of civilizations, Islam is being pushed to a tight corner. The Islamic world today is facing severe challenges and odd circumstances in maintaining their vital values and re-establishing their identity and gaining their due place in the modern world because some of the western thinkers believe that after demolishing the Soviet Union, their next encounter would be with the ideology of Islam. In this situation, the comparison of civilizations and their comprehension has acquired a significant place and it is necessary to highlight the essential elements of various civilizations in such a way that they can sustain their individuality and the misunderstandings among them may be removed to create a peaceful atmosphere which is based on love, mutual tolerance, co-existence and the supremacy of basic human rights so that the world may return to the merger of various civilizations and harmony among different religions.
Allama Iqbal is the thinker who has shown extraordinary depth in his approach towards the study of Islam and the western world, highlighting their differences and the traditions, points and levels of their merger and harmony with a balanced and impartial approach. It's necessary to comprehend Iqbal's ideas keeping in view the history of Islam and the western world, the current demands of the present age and considering organized, solid, argumentative analysis in an objective way revealing the soul of Islam and the spirit of the west in context of Iqbal's philosophy so that the modern world can move towards a peaceful and creative situation. Dr. Mehmood Ahmad Ghazi was the realization of Iqbal's dream. He is simultaneously an educationist, a great researcher and an illustrator and interpreter of the Holy Quran and narrator of Hadiths. His personality was equally well versed in Islamic art and learning and all their offshoot disciplines. It's the trait of his personality that in spite of travelling far and wide and having done a vast study, he is not impressed at all except by the ideology of Islam. He has very successfully passed on the ancient heritage to its modern heirs with honesty, skill and sagacity. Here an effort has been made to present a review of his views where he has propounded a critical, analytical and scholarly analysis of the western world.
According to traditional-religious-culture the early age marriages are very common custom especially in rural areas. The act of marring girls in early ages is considered to be a good practice in these constituencies; in contrast, the holy Quran has provided some logical guidelines to reject this idea. In the holy Quran “men” are instructed to marry as per their choice, which reveals, it is necessary for a “man” to be adult (Baligh) for marriage. Considering this fact, how it is possible that a man can be permitted to have a non-adult (Nabaligh) life partner?
In this regard, marriages between Adult and Non-adult, Non-adult and Non-adult are not permitted because it is against the right of equality. Further, the holy Quran instructs the guardians of the orphans to return them their valuables when reach to the age of Nikah; which reveals that there is a particular standard of age set for Nikah, if it is not so, why the holy Quran has made this bounding for the guardians of the orphans? As per the guidance of the holy Quran, it is clear that Nikah requires both man and women not only to be physically adult/mature but also mentally adult/mature. In this connection, it has been highlighted that Nikah which is a physical contract requires a particular age for man and woman which however cannot be an age of Non-adult.
ALLAH has created the mankind as a rational being. He created mankind and Jinns for His worship and He sent mankind upon Earth so that they inhabit it with the complicated tangle of faithfulness in God and yet do the worldly deeds. He will hold accountable each individual for what he did.
This test would not remain valid if not accompanied with necessary freedom of action and belief. Freedom is actually bestowed upon mankind by God Himself and it will be totally wrong to maintain it as a modern achievement that came after western, or any other enlightenment. It is not that a human or a group of them or any constitution or charter can truly give or grant freedom. Most important of all this is freedom of Religion. There is no compulsion in Religion, 2:256.
The early Muslims remained steadfast to this principle in all of their Ghazvat and they granted freedom of religious belief to their subjects. Religious sites and houses of worship were safeguarded against any harm. Islam and religious freedom are not put together. The following article will examine the Issue of Freedom of Religion in Islam and will try to remove misunderstandings regarding the issue.
The phenomenon of unemployment is one of the problems, which affects the development of individuals and society. Total unemployment or underemployment may be permanent or temporary. Its negative and damaging effects lay an everlasting result especially in times of economic recession. The importance of this study is to explore the role of individual, and methods of solution in the light of Sunnah.
Hadith and Sunnah clearly mark the virtues of work and its value and positive impact on the community. Thus we see the greatness of our religion in this concern for human beings and preserving their dignity, and to find ways to ensure decent life, where there is neither no vacuum, nor unemployment.
Author: Muhammad, Niaz, Syed Mehboob ur Rehman
Islamic history reveals that Muslim rulers had taken keen interest to establish educational institutions during their rule. To keep going on this legacy of the Muslim rulers, various governments in Pakistan, since its creation, has announced a number of educational policies. Besides suggestions for Islamic education, a concept of Model Madaris at federal level was introduced for the first time during Musharraf’s regime [1999-2008]. Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA) was made responsible to develop the curriculum for these Madaris from middle to master levels; however, as per constitution the Education Act 1976, it is the responsibility of Curriculum Wing, Ministry of Education to develop the curriculum up to higher secondary level with pre-framed objectives. While at graduate and post graduate level, it is the responsibility of the universities to develop curriculum through their statutory bodies i.e. Board of Studies, Board of Faculty and Academic Council as per guide lines set by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. This study is an effort to explore the main objectives of Model Madaris curriculum. Moreover, it will be cross checked with course contents from middle to bachelor levels and policy suggestions will be directed that how these objectives and course contents can be amalgamated in one line.
The Social and Financial Performance of Conventional and Islamic Microfinance Institutions in Pakistan
Author: Farooq, Muhammad, Zahoor Khan
The financing operations of conventional microfinance institutions are usually based on interest (Usury/Riba) which is strictly prohibited by the Shariah of Islam, therefore, some Islamic microfinance institutions were set up in Pakistan to provide micro credit and other financial help to the deserving people based on Shariah compliant mechanism. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the social and financial performance of these microfinance institutions in Pakistan. Two separate samples containing two microfinance institutions each, representing conventional and Islamic microfinance institutions has been selected for this study. Four stars, Wasil Foundation and Akhuwat from Islamic microfinance institutions while Asasah and Community Support Concern (CSC) from conventional microfinance institutions, rated by Mix market have been selected for this research paper. The social and financial performance based on outreach, profitability, efficiency/productivity, and portfolio quality of both these microfinance institutions were studied and compared. The study revealed that Islamic MFIs were more cost effective compared to conventional MFIs based on cost per borrower (CPB) and operating expenses to assets (OEA), while on the basis of financial efficiency conventional MFIs performed well. Though the financial and social performance of both Islamic and conventional MFIs have improved over the passage of time, still they have to struggle hard on various fronts especially to improve their profitability based on ROA and ROE measures to make the institutions profitable and sustainable. This study reveals that the successful operation of Akhuwat and Wasil Foundation for the last more than a decade latterly proves that Islamic MFIs are viable and sustainable even in the absence of charging interest from their clients. So, the society and the government should encourage and promote these Shariah compliant organizations in order to help the extremely marginalized people of the society.
Author: Bašić, Nedžad
Globalization is slowly changing life and traditions of many people over the World, dramatically seeking changes in the traditional relationship between the community and people, creating a new sensibility and creativity in relationships between social groups. These changes necessarily require a new social and political model of organization for community, reorganizing and changing the nature of relationship between states. Effort to protect identity of people usually convey in the form of the fear of the subservient economic, cultural and political position in the process of globalization. This fear frequently produces powerful vibrations indicating the need of integration of social groups with the same or similar cultural identity, what opens up a new dimension of the internal political crisis between government and society. This crisis will produce particularly dramatic changes in Islamic world generating a powerful conflict between state and society in Islamic world, with unpredictable development of relations between Islam and West.
Author: Shah, Jehangir, Hafiz Muhammad Inamullah
The present article aims to analyze bullying behavior in the light of the Holy Quran and the Sayings of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Quran and Hadiths were used for the collection of data. The data collected from the original text was verified/ screened by the researchers
Author: Saeed, Riaz Ahmad, Tahira Basharat
Throughout history, Interfaith Dialogue has been a continuous activity in Muslims and Christians alike. According to the historian, incident of Wafad-e-Najran[i] (Najran’s Delegation) was the first ever regular interaction between Muslims and Christians. Therefore, this incident has an academic and historic importance in Muslim -Christian perspectives. The Holy Quran describes this incident in detail. First 80 verses of Surah Ale-Imran were revealed in this context. Further information is found in the books of Hadith, Seerah and Islamic History. This incident can become a base for modern Muslim- Christian Dialogue and we can derive from it some basic principles of Dialogue. This article elaborates the incident of Wafad-e-Najran, its importance and also derives some important rules from it. These principles are: interfaith tolerance, harmony, communication, understandings, peaceful co-existence, honour and respect, wisdom and beautiful reasoning, common basis for interfaith dialogue, Daw’ah and perfection of Hujjah. This article also describes its applications in the Present Dialogue. [i] Wafad-e-Najran: It is an Arabic word, used in Hadith History and other Islamic literature. It is meant by Najran’s Delegation and I shall use throughout the article as Wafad-e-Najran.