Volume 32 Issue 1
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
The Muslim religious seminaries (Jameaat-i-diniyya/dini madaris) have become a theme of the global academic agenda, particularly in the wake of the rise of political Islam and the Afghan resistance against Soviet invasion. The theme continuously looms large and has attracted reputable scholars to address the issue in a critical manner. In the present article the author describes various aspects of madrassa education and suggests a number of workable solutions including a new curriculum under the auspices of the Madrassa Education Board and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) in consultation with the traditional madaris and university scholars.
This research article discusses optimal concessions (Al-Rukhsa) in light of the views of Jursists in medical context. The study adopted an analytical method to analyze Quranic Verses, Ahadith and the principles of Fiqh and reliable classical juristic writings related to this particular topic. The study came up with several results and one of the important results is the emphasis on the permissiblity of the idea of looking for the optimal concessions to be acceptable if certain conditions and criteria are duly fulfilled. It also conclude that the reforms of islamic laws as well as juristic thoughts in the modern era can not oppose the Islamic fundamentals related to the idea of religious information as long as that refarmation does not atter the fundamentals of Islam.
Bukhari was an exemplary teacher. His teaching experiments, advices, and valuable analysis are beneficent even today. As he is famous for being expert in Ahaadeth (Muhadis) , he is being ignored in the field of education. His thoughts, described in Kitabul Ilm of Sahi Bukhari can be used to reform an education system.
According to his advices, a teacher should be vocal, should understand and consider psychology of students. He should make groups of students on the basis of their intelligence, and should assign assignments to students to make them more confident. About questions asked by students during teaching, Imam says this is not beneficial. Teachers also should not be upset with proper questions asked by students. No one can become expert with his own study without consultation with an expert of the field. Reading without the guidance of a teacher may be unhealthy. Imam stressed even beginner students to do hard work and travel for research, and academic work. To get knowledge and access to reliable teachers admission in an institution and fulfilling of all the requirements are necessary. Imam Also considered women education necessary. According to him women can get benefits only when their system is separate from men. Kitabul Ilm of Bukhari consists of advices for education system reforms. These advices can be used to reform the present education system. Purpose of this article is to analyze Imam Bukhari’s thoughts about education for understanding good and bad things in education.
This research article explores the rationale behind Islamic injunctions regarding inheritance. Unlike other Islamic injunctions, which are briefly enunciated in the Quran but elaborated in Sunnah, inheritance has been detailed in considerable length in the Quranic text itself. This coupled with numerous Prophetic traditions underpins the unique importance Islam accords to the question of inheritance. However, despite its exceptional importance, the subject of Islamic law of inheritance remains mostly a neglected one, even among the students of Islamic seminaries and Ulema. Resultantly, Islam’s brilliant system of inheritance is often not implemented by the adherents of Islam, much to the miseries and hardships of the legal heirs, especially the children and women. Thus these marginalized segments of society are deprived of their rights today just as they were treated before the advent of Islam.
This research brings home the fact that the divinely ordained Islamic injunctions of inheritance are based on sound rationale and justification in the best interest of humanity, and that the believers must adhere to these injunctions that are based on three key principles: proximity in relationship, need, and distribution of wealth. The paper explains in great length the types of relatives and legal heirs, the principles of distribution among them, the justification for such shares, and the limits imposed by Quran and Sunnah with regard to the right of the deceased, the heirs, relatives and the state. It also discusses some of the contentious issues in contemporary debate on Islam: an orphan grandson’s title to inheritance, and the philosophy behind 2:1 inheritance distribution formula between son and daughter. In doing so, the author has not only relied on the main sources of Islamic jurisprudence viz.Quran and Sunnah, in addition to classical and modern Islamic scholarship but also sound argumentation and logical exposition.
Individualism and Collectivism are two main theories discussed in contemporary Islam implies to create such social environment where both Individual and community could get strength from each other. Islam demands self surrender to Almighty Allah Ta'ala and orders to lead peaceful life, doing all good and avoiding bad deeds. So virtues get stronger and corruption is rooted out in all forms from the Community's social life. Any concept like class struggle or materialistic interpretation of history does not exist in Islam. Rather it provides such guidelines in the economic sphere which promote a healthy circulation of wealth. Islam introduced the concept of ‘Halal & Haram’and appreciated to observe ethical values in economic activities. Islam made man realize being answerable for all earnings and expenditures whether done rightly in accordance with the Orders of Allah Ta’ala or in wrong way defying Allah’s Orders. This outlook not only creates incentives for the individual but also safeguards the Community at the same time.
Man is noblest creation in the universe. Prophets are the most honorable men among of all the human being. Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W) is most exalted in all prophets. Those who saw the countenance in belief get the blessing from the highest status. There are eleven virtuous wives of the Prophet (S.A.W) to be the mother of whole Umma e Muslim. One of them is Hazrat Ramla (R.A), daughter of Hazrat Abu Sufyan (R.A). She is known as Umme Habiba. As a Makah’s Chief daughter she enjoys every facility. After embracing Islam she showed stead fastness and consistency in Islam. Because her first husband was Christian but she protects her faith, notions and honor. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) give her honor for sending marriage proposal. The Negus recited the word of nikah of all the virtuous and chaste wives of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W).Hazrat Umm e Habeeba (R.A) was the greatest preacher and supporter of Islam. She was always ready and assiduous to follow the teachings of Islam; and she understand it her obligation to follow the tradition of Hadith. There are sixty five traditions attributed to her in the primary sources of Hadith, which have fundamental status on different topics. In the mentioned article, the investigatory and factual study of her conditions and services has been offered and displayed
Customs and traditions have a significant role in the social set up of every society. These customs project a picture of its culture, manners, beliefs, mental inclinations and life style. For social advancement, it is necessary for a nation to take reformative steps with respect to changing situations .They should adopt the customs that are productive and avoid the harmful ones. It has been a ground reality that the progressive nations have got the leading position having modifying their customs and traditions, while those who have been conservative are backward in the global race restricting on their outdated norms and so called customs.
In the prestigious age of the Holy Prophet (BPUH) and his followers, various laws and principles were formulated for the uplift of society, which provided a broad based concept of “custom”. The Islamic jurists have taken the custom as a source of Islamic legislation. In the article under reference, custom has been highlighted with respect to Islamic thoughts in various ages of Islamic history in a number of recommendations have been presented in order to uplift the society and to aware the Muslim theologians and Muftees accordingly.
Quran is the absolute and error free source of knowledge for all mankind. The words and meanings of the Quran both have been revealed by Allah and will remain unchanged for ever. The holy Quran was explained by the Holy prophet and by sahaba as well. Later on different scholars of Islam have made notable contribution in this regard. Many companions of the Holy prophet are famous in the explanation of the Holy Quran. Although Syyeda Aeshah is famous in the field of Hadith but she is one of most prominent Mufassrah of the Quran too. She has deep and correct knowledge of the Holy Quran. In this Article the status of Sayyedah Aesha in the field of tafseer has been discussed. Hopefully the readers will get useful information from this Article
Gelatin is a translucent, colorless, brittle, flavorless foodstuff, derived from collagen obtained from various animal by-products. Gelatin obtained from plants, fish or from the hides of animals lawfully slaughtered is pure, sacred and lawful. Since bones of carrion animals are pure and sacred, so gelatin obtained from them is lawful as well. Gelatin obtained from pigs is impure and unlawful. In this article, the methodology of using gelatin in foodstuffs and medicines is being discussed and its religious and lawful status is being elaborated.
Reincarnation is a basic Hindu belief according to which the soul of a person is recreated for second time in different shapes according to their different actions. It is known as the belief of Samsara or reincarnation in Hinduism. If the person who passes away is good, his soul is transferred into a beautiful and nice body like that of birds etc. But if he is an evil person, his soul is transferred into ugly insects and animals etc. According to this belief, the difference between two human beings is due to the difference in their previous action or “karma” that he has committed in his previous birth. Human actions cannot be fruitful in this world and this is why a second birth is needed.
This belief is wrong from Shariah perspective and it contradicts the basic Islamic belief of resurrection. Reincarnation assumes that there is no specific day on which actions will be rewarded; rather it is Auagun or Juni Cycle through which a human being deserves positive or negative reward. Imam Razi has refuted this belief through both logical and textual evidences. He has also replied the objections raised against the covenant of “alast”. (الست) According to Shariah, there is a second world beyond this physical for reward or punishment of deeds which is known as the Day of Judgment Doomsday. On this day, the Scale will be set and human actions will be weighed. Consequently, he will deserve either Paradise or hell. Paradise is an abode of perpetual rest and satisfaction whereas hell is a place of humiliation and degradation.
Islam is a comprehensive code of conduct which encompasses to each sphere of human life. This also owns and endorses those manmade rules which serve the cause of humanity and not entering to its fundamentals. Adherence to Pakistani Traffic rules also falls under the preview of the same doctrine. It is very pertinent to note here, that the same traffic rules such as fastening of seat built, proper use of indicators, speed control etc. have been devised to ensure the safety which starts from a pedestrian and ends up to a rider of any vehicle class. Any violation of traffic rules is an indirect breech of divine discipline imposed by Allah the Almighty. If the violation costs any damage, injury or fatal accident, this will directly be dealt under the principles set by Islam. This study aims at highlighting the significance of adherence to traffic rules which is directly linked to the ground safety. This ultimately serves the main purpose of saving any precious human life. If the same is ensured, no doubt the purpose of the holy verse would be fulfilled
This research article is based on contribution of sub-continent’s outstanding Islamic personalities and their leading role which they have played in establishing and strengthening linguistically, literarily and cultural links between Arabs and non-Arabs Various Arabic cultured institutions of higher learning under the personal guidance and scholarly interest Sultans setups which produced a good number of writers, Islamic thinkers, commentators of the holy Quran, scholars of hadith and understanding of language and literature. Moreover, their nobal work can be composed to any great arab scholar. The work, personalities and their extra ordinary Arabic books including literature in sub-continent is key part of this research. These personalities are Ameer Ali, Mohammad Aizaz Ali, Allama Syed Abu-Alhasan Ali Al-Nadvi, Shah Waliullah Dehlvi, Mahmmod Bin Muhammad Al Janfori, Shaikh Nizamuddin Lakhnavi, Al-Hindi Saffiduddin and Hazarat Shah Ismail Shaeed Brailvi.
It is obvious to everyone who has associated with Arabic and Urdu literature that both Mahmood Sami al Baroodi and Allma Muhammad Iqbal are the shining stars in the orbit of Arabic and Urdu literature, because each of them made the world busy by his literature, and tied to blow the spirit of innovation in the style of poetry and made free it from affectation and returned it to sincerity and integrity of expression ,and each of them developed his political and cultural thought by traveling to Europe.
In this article we have tried to highlight the political and literary life of Iqbal and al Barood, we also tried to analyze their efforts in the field of literature and their stand on the politics
There is no doubt that Ahadiths (sayings) of the prophet (PBUH) have the great importance in the Islamic Jurisprudence because it is the second source of Islamic law after the Holy Quran. Due to the immense importance of Ahadith, the religious and research Scholars have paid a close attention to emerge and highlight the all aspects of Ahadith regarding Islamic Jurisprudence, Arabic Literatures and Rhetorical peculiarities etc. Therefore I have tried my best in this article to discuss the Rhetorical peculiarities of the Ahadith from Kital ul Paraidh as well as, I have analyses the definition of Rhetoric in line with different ancient modern scholars.
The Mohkam and Mutashabeh is a renowned terminology of the Quranic Sciences and commentators of the Holy Quran described it in details, according to root words of Mohkam, it means Stopping and perfecting the things, this basic meaning can be seen in all the types and variations of this word. On the other hand we have the word Mutashabeh which root meaning is complication and unclearness. If we discuss both of the words as a terminology of the Quranic sciences, we can define Mohkam as “one which define itself without any other thing” or “one which has no need to be defined by something else” and Mutashabeh is “one which can’t define itself and need to be explained by someone else”. We will move on to discuss both terms in Holy Quran as a terminology to describe its multiple variations in the Holy Quran, its types and further we will discuss that why the Holy Quran contains both terms, in other words, we can say which are the logics and reasons of including Mutashabeh verses in the Holy Quran. In addition, we will mention the point of views of various renowned commentators and fields experts which give us a clear and sound concept about both of the terms.
This study aims to prove that the Parenthetical Sentences in the Quran are not a way to improve the beauty of literature, but if they appeared in a convenient location they became the requirements of the text. The main findings of this study include the parenthetical sentences in the Holy Quran characterized by specific semantics which is known by the context of Ayat and not only because of assertion, embellishment or clarification. These sentences would inspire the attention from the reciter of Quran to think of the underlying meaning. The parenthetical sentences in Quran cannot be nullified as this will divert the true meaning of Ayat e Kareemas.
The Analytical Study of Well Thought-Out Legitimate Pakhtun’s Trends Regarding Marriage Binding Shariah Perspective
Author: Muhammad, Niaz, Qaisar Bilal
Indeed, nobody can deny the role and importance of women in any peaceful society. Their contribution is not only essential to enhance the living standard but also they are life blood of prosperity and beauty of this universe. In each & every field of life their need is felt but regrettably, it is not realized by all that how much women have experienced discrimination and deprivation of their rights and freedom. Many of restrictions and limitations faced by them are due to culture and tradition. Although women play an important role in the development and success of men, but do not get any reward for their allegiance, loyalty and devotion. Islam acknowledged equality of women with men in a great way. In Islam women get a praiseworthy and admirable position which no religion ever gave them. Islam defined their duties and ordered to treat them equally but in spite of all that the woman of today’s Muslim world in general and Pakhtun society in particular is not entertaining their rights and status. This study specifically focusses on highlighting one of the Pakhtun customs and its aspects that badly violate the religious teachings regarding the Women marriage Status and there will also be some recommendations in order to eradicate these unlawful trends from society as to empower the women in real sense.
Author: Ashraf, Muhammad, Muhammad Ayub Siddiqui
This report is principally intended to ascertain out the result of the lunar calendar with special focus on the holy month of Ramadan on the operation of Islamic mutual funds in Pakistan. Economic activity in Pakistan demands a different turn due to observation of fast and short working hours in the country in the month of Ramadan. This work utilizes the logit model to investigate the impact of lunar calendar generally and the holy month of Ramadan, specifically along the net asset values of the mutual fund. This study confirms lower expected growth of net asset value in the month of Ramadan and the other stages of the religious sentiment. Economic activity regains pace after Ramadan and Zulhajjah as evident from the probable increase of net asset value of the Islamic mutual funds in the month of Shawwal & Moharram following months of the Ramadan and Zulhajjah respectively.
Author: Bhutto, Sanaullah, Arshad Munir
The research paper aims at to analyze and determine the role and scope of religion for maintaining peace and harmony all across the world. We can state without exaggeration that Religion is positive factor for it goes a long way to maintain peace and invoke harmony and integration for humanity. A brief glance at the religions of the world reveals that all religions of the world have their own rights and stand for the peace in the world. Buddhist moral and spiritual teachings to great extent stand for brotherhood and harmony throughout the world. Similarly, Islam recognizes the fact that each religious teacher has faith in his own mission and wants to establish peace for mankind. Both religions are a living organization of peace and harmony for humanity. Hence in the light of religions and their teachings, both are aim at for betterment of humanity as well as propagate the message of love, equality, brotherhood, justice and equity.
Author: Jan, Faizullah
The Internet and social media are part of today’s battlefield between the forces of liberalism and those of extremism, at least in Pakistan. Both forces are jostling for using—and controlling—the Internet and social media to make themselves heard and silence the opposition. This paper looks into how extremist forces appropriate the Internet and social media to get their message out, sway public opinion in their favor and seek new recruits. It also examines the potentials of social media for civic activism in Pakistan and how the misuse of blasphemy laws in Pakistan’s constitution stifles liberal voices on the Internet and social media. This paper discusses the concept of blasphemy in Islam, their incorporation in the legal system of Pakistan and their impact on the freedom of expression. This paper concludes that an effective use of social media is contingent on at least three things: 1) Literacy 2) access to the Internet and social media tools and 3) media laws and policies that guarantee freedom of expression and access to information. These are essential for the creation of a vibrant public sphere, which can then be strengthened by using social media as a long-term tool. Without freedom of expression, liberal forces cannot make full use of social media for promoting democracy and rights of minority groups.
Author: Basri, Eshrat Hussain
The question of economic facilities for non-Muslims in a Muslim country has been one of the most important questions in the Muslim and non-Muslim world. It has been highlighted by some economists and jurists about their economic facilities. This paper is intended to discuss the economic facilities for non-Muslims in a Muslim country in the light of Quran and Sunnah and the Islamic history. It is the topmost responsibility of the Islamic state/Muslim country to fulfill the basic needs of human life and to encourage voluntary services for the welfare of the poor, to promote equal opportunities in a Muslim country, to enforce social and economic justice in Islam, to provide social security and basic economic facilities, and to give a fair share of economic rights to all citizens. The Government should also provide employment (services), Jizyah and to impose tax on non-Muslims. It will be shown that in Muslim countries, all non-Muslims have equal economic opportunities and rights as other Islamic citizens and also the same status in terms of Islamic economy. This paper may also throw some light on the Islamic Philosophy of economy in the contemporary Muslim world and explore the constituents and effects of an Islamic/Muslim anti-economy policy. This paper will conclude by providing some suggestions on ways of solving contemporary non–Muslim economic problems in Muslim countries nowadays.
Author: Khan, Zahoor, Muhammad Farooq
Impact assessment of microfinance programs have been remained the foremost concern of microfinance stakeholders for optimal policy measures. The existing literature regarding the impact assessment varies from parametric to experimental methods to evaluate the performance of microfinance programs across the world however; the literature is lacking a single measure to reveal maximum possible changes in socioeconomic variables resulting from microfinance institutions’ intervention. This study aims to develop a composite index for evaluating the performance of microfinance programs in multi-dimensional contexts. The study exposes a set of eight “diverse indicators” to evaluate the performance of a microfinance program on a wider socioeconomic scale. The dimensions of the index are consist of economic (Income, saving) and socioeconomic (poverty, access to basic facilities, family empowerment) indicators. The changes in deprivations of household, based on the selected indicators, reveal the intensity of success of a microfinance program towards their goals. Finally, we have developed an index by the interaction of incidence and intensity of socioeconomic deprivations. The index is named as “Multidimensional Microfinance Deprivation Index”. This is an index developed in the same line as multidimensional poverty index. The implications of this study are three folds; firstly, it will open up a new dimension of literature in the field of microfinance including Islamic microfinance by instigating an important area. Secondly, it may provide a better alternative to microfinance’s stakeholders to investigate the impact assessment of microfinance programs on a wider socioeconomic scale rather than a few economic. Last but not the least, the study integrates diverse socioeconomic indicators, after assigning weights and adjustment to portray an overall picture of the performance of microfinance in terms of uplifting the socioeconomic conditions of the poor and financially marginalized people.
Relationship Between Quality Culture and Organizational Performance With Mediating Effect of Competitive Advantage
Author: Ullah, Assad, Naveed Akhtar, Muhammad Tahir Malik
Quality culture and performance of the organizations has become matter of concentration and interest for the researchers and practitioners since the last few decades. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between quality culture and organizational performance with mediating effect of competitive advantage. Data was collected from telecommunication companies operating in Pakistan and analyzed for Cronbach’s Alpha reliability, factor validity, correlation, and multiple regressions to test the stated hypotheses. Results revealed that there is positive and significant association between quality culture and organizational performance and that this relationship is significantly mediated by the competitive advantage
Author: Buzdar, Abdul Qadir, Khalil Ahmed, Turab ul Hassan Sargana
Allama Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani was one of the prominent religious personalities who made efforts for islamization in Pakistan. So far as the major slogan in 1946 elections were to have a separate homeland of the Muslims where they may be able to live according to the Islamic values. It means Islam was the real power behind the struggle for Pakistan in 1947.After the making of Pakistan a religious scholar Allama Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani presented his services for isalmization in Pakistan as in this respect he had a unique role for the enforcement of Islamic system in Pakistan. Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani wants to see the constitution of Pakistan to be the leading document towards religious state. In this respect Allama Shabbir Ahmed Uthmani made critical efforts for designing the constitution of Pakistan which was finally approved by the Constitutional Assembly of Pakistan.
Author: Razi, Shama
The concept of time management is practice from decades. Time management has grabbed the attention of many scholars and there were many writings and analysis made. Time management is an important issue of human life as you cannot add more hours in a day, you have to plan yourself with the limitation of time. Islam focuses on the time management so that a believer should balance his life (spiritually, socially and economically). Islamic teachings are dynamic in their approach, they teach Muslim from every aspect of life and allow them to spend their time productively. Islam’s main focus is on the planning and organizing the time and our main focus is to depict what Islam teaches about time management and how it is practiced in the world. Then conventional methods of management are similar to the Islamic teachings.
Author: Ahmad, Riaz, Abdul Rauf Zafar
The question of the status of Prophet Muhammad has been one of the most crucial and controversial issue of Muslims-Christian relations since the advent of Islam. In almost every Muslim-Christian encounter, the question of Christian acknowledgement of prophet-hood of Muhammad has been raised. Muslim ask, when we accept and regard Jesus as a prophet, why you (Christian) do not recipro-cate by giving the same status to prophet Muhammad.The present study is an attempt to analyze the points which Kenneth Cragg has raised, In response of the Muslims, who say, why the Christian don’t give such respect to Muhammad(SAW) as the Muslim give to Jesus. In this study I proved that Cragg’s answer is not only against the Holy Quran but also against The teachings of Gospel and the only reason for this disregard Is prejudicial and polemical.