Volume 35 Issue 2
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
مصنف/مصنفین: الرحمن، حافظ حبیب
Authority is the centerpiece of the law as well as legal system. It cannot be properly understood without adequate understanding of the structure of authority that underlies it. The role of moral and religious values in the law has been a vital issue in classical as well as contemporary legal philosophy. Discussion about the theoretical foundation of the law remains a key issue in the modern legal thinking as a legal system is considered to have emerged from cultural contexts. Western legal systems are broadly grounded in to the Judo-Christian and Greco-Roman cultures. Though a fundamental change took place in the Western Europe as cultural traditions which affected the very nature of law both as a political institution and as an intellectual concept. The creation of modern legal systems was, in the first instance, a response to revolutionary change within the church and its relation with the secular authority. It led to bifurcation of social morality and religion in the modern law. Now most of the modern theories are based on this concept. The present paper presents a study of the origins of the Islamic law as well as the contemporary western legal thought in connection with religion and ethics. The conflict about moral and religious values reflects their code of life and concept of religions. In Islamic law authority-which is at once religious and moral is the will of the creator which is basic source of Islamic law, However, Fuqahᾱ differentiate between legal and moral values
To maintain and enhance social peace and mutual interaction among people it is mandatory to resolve their mutual conflicts. The eradication of mutual conflicts and working for reconciliation is obligatory on the Muslims. Al-mighty Allah has declared reconciliation and resolution of conflicts among all the Muslims as legitimate action. There are numerous verses of the Holy Quran and Hadith of the Prophet where Muslims have been ordered for reconciliation aiming to promote brotherhood and peace in society. The main rationale behind this is to bring harmony and peace in the social order of life.
What are the pre-requisites of reconciliation from Sharia’s perspective, in which conflict reconciliation is permissible and in which cases it is not allowed. This study emphasizes to answer the above mentioned question. Furthermore, efforts have been made to provide a sharia’s foundation for those who are involved in the process of reconciliation in the form of Taḥkīm. This will not only encourage them, but will help in the maintenance of peace in the society. Similarly, a comparison will also be made between the merits and demerits of Pakhtūn’s traditional reconciliation process, and important suggestions will be made to make the Pakhtūn’s traditional reconciliation process more productive and valuable.
This paper discusses the Islamic jurisprudence as well as the scientific stance regarding breast feeding. Breast feeding is a natural gift for a new born baby, which not only nourishes the infant but also provides great immunity to him. The new scientific research has clarified its importance by calling it the most essential element giving natural immunity that keeps a child healthy and free of diseases.
Many developed countries have started “Human Milk Banks” as we have blood banks here. The Human Milk banks provide milk which is like natural food to deprived infants. By taking the milk from “Milk Banks” it creates serious moral and religious problems in the context of motherhood and family relations. This can even cause problems like declaring “Hurmat-e-Nikᾱḥ”. In this paper such issues are elaborated in the light of Qur’an, Sunnah and Islamic jurisprudence.
Inheritance is a key issue in the Islamic Knowledge base. Its importance has been clarified in Qur’an and Sunnah. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) has referred to it as half of the knowledge and has ordered of seeking inheritance and warned that this will be eliminated first from my Ummah, and also notified that this is volatile nature of knowledge which get lost after memorization if not fully cared and practiced. In the light of above mentioned Hadīths it is worth consideration to make knowledge of Inheritance practicable in everyday life. A reason could be that the arithmetic means used for the solution of Inheritance problems is complicated and time consuming. There it is important to introduce such easy and short arithmetic rules for the solution of Inheritance problem that are easily understandable by both the scholars as well as the common man. This will result in making Inheritance easy to handle and hence will become practicable. In a hadith it is stated that near the day of judgement there will be a conflict between two persons in an Inheritance issue and they will not find a scholar to resolve their problem. In this Article an Introduction and comparison of old and new easy arithmetic principles are made in scholarly manner to introduce new easy methods and draw the attention of the people to such a valuable knowledge and relieve the Phobia of the people regarding it.
Conjugal life is an important aspect of human society, on which a prosperous life depends. Almost every Culture, civilization and religion Legislate for family life. There is a part of these laws to end the marital relationship which is denoted by "DIVORCE". Divorce is mentioned in detail in Islamic Sharia, in order to understand them truly one has to genuinely consider and understand the concept of divorce in Pre-Islamic period of ignorance.
There were several specific terms for divorce that were used in the Arab culture for example Talᾱq, Īela and Khula etc. but generally decent people use the word "طلاق"(Talᾱq) to end the marital relationship. There were some common causes and reasons for divorce in Arabs before Islam for example lack of mental harmony, infertility, bigotry, family feud and apostasy etc. The divorced women become more and more vulnerable socially and economically in ancient Arab and consequently their children less attention, love and affection of their mothers turning them into rebellious, nonconformist and ruthless individuals crossing all limits of oppression and we often see examples of such incidents in Arabs before dawn of Islam. These cruel customs and practices were uprooted through teachings of Islam which is based on justice, equality and basic human rights.
Islamic theory of possession is explicit .It is different from the contemporary feudal system. Islam does not believe in any tribe, nation and ancestry. Islam negates the concept of lordship and slavery. The history of Islam tells us that Muhammad (PBUH) awarded the property to the companion but it was a special gift and his purpose was not to rule. The purpose of feudal system is to land a certain class for political purpose. The Islamic concept of possession is different from feudal system. It is not correct to say that Islam allows the contemporary feudal system
Genghis Khan (1162-1227), Mongolia’s great emperor, ruled over large parts of the world for a long period of time. Under his banner, he had nomadic tribes and desert people. For the ruling, controlling, uniting and disciplining the variant people, he framed a conventional constitution named “Yasa” (Holy laws), which comprised of primitive traditions, customs, laws, law of different religions such as Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism and Genghis Khan’s own insights and decisions. This contained punishment for every kind of crime. There was no room for forgiveness. His aim was to subjugate the whole world under him.
In the Islamic Sharia there are two types of texts, as for the first one, there is no need for any interpretations. For instance: Tauhid (unity of Allah), while few interpretations have modiefied with the changing circumstances. The expertises of Islamic jurists highlight the interpretations of the text according to prevailing social and political environment which can create harmony between Islamic Sharia and importunity of nature. Imam Sharani and Shah Wali Ullah are those personalities who evaluated the intellectual efforts of Islamic jurists and describe their diligencial and margenial secondary level differences. They created a road of conformity between their minor level marginal differences which are legitimate. Imam Sharani and Shah Wali Ullah‘s methodologies of uniformity represent the facts that differences in the approaches of jurists, which are considered as segregation in the reality that is benevolence for Muslim Ummah. Their methodologies of uniformity are not only practical but also very useful in the context of global village. In this age ethical, social, and family problems can be solved through the method of uniformity. For the solution of issues like intellectual extremism, prejudice and terrorism, Imam Sharani and Shah Wali Ullah‘s methodologies of uniformity are beaconhouse.
In the field of Defective Narrations or Ahādith Mu'allah, collection and study of chains and tracks have great importance. It is this process in which the difference in the texts and chains of narrations comes to the surface and their defects become evident. This difference in text and chains has different types, like:
Waṣl wa Irsāl: the presence or the absence of a narrator in the chain of a narration. Raf' wa Waqf: attribution of a narration to the Prophet (PBUH) or to his companion. Addition or Deletion in the text or in the chain of a narration
Sometimes, a narration has more than one types of differences. To determine the preference among the differences of the said types, scholars of Hadith (muḥaddithīn) have to use Presumptions of Preference or Qarā'in al-Tarjīḥ. Some of these presumptions are common among the hadith scholars known as Common Presumptions or Qarā'in Aghlabiyah. The present research discusses these presumptions with examples in light of the book al-'Ilal al-Wāridah fi al- Ahādith al-Nabawiyah authored by Imām al-Dārqutnī.
Hadîth is the second important source of Islamic Law after the Qur’ᾱn. There is a consensus among the Muslims that Sunnah is the second revealed fundamental source of Islamic sciences. Due to the importance of these fundamental sources, Muslim scholars and educational institutions around the world have played an important role in the development of Hadîth sciences. There are different teaching methodologies and learning approaches. We should use different teaching methods to improve the quality of Hadith studies to the best level and achieve our objectives. The Applied approach is an approach that emphasizes the relevance of what is being learnt to the real world outside the classroom and makes that relevance as immediate and transparent as possible. It is a valuable approach that can be used at all levels of education. It motivates students, improves their confidence and also provides a meaningful context for learning both theoretical concepts and practical skills. There are immense possibilities for development in Hadîth studies by using the applied approach in teaching and learning of Hadîth and its sciences. The challenge is to ensure that applied approach in teaching of Hadith and its sciences plays a constructive role in improving the educational quality of Hadith studies to the level best. This research article is based on importance of applied approach in teaching of Hadîth and its Sciences.
Semantic (علم المعاني) is the most interesting branch of Rhetoric. Al-Zamakhsharī has discussed its categories in his introduction to “Al- Kashshᾱf”. He has elaborated the terminology of Semantics but he did not arrange it separately in chapters and did not apply this division in Al- Kashshᾱf as well. The Great Scholar of Rhetoric Al-Sakkᾱkī has categorized semantics in the form of three terminologies: the Knowledge of Semantic, (علم المعاني) the Knowledge of Eloquence, (علم البيان) the figures of speech (علم البديع). Al-Zamakhsharī was very influenced by The Great Scholar and Literary Theorist Abd-ul-Qᾱhir Al-Jurjᾱnī since he implemented whatever Abd-ul-Qᾱhir Al-Jurjᾱnī pointed out in his book “Arguments of Miracles” and “Mysteries of Rhetoric” whilst analyzing Qur’ᾱnic Verses in his exegesis “Al-Kashshᾱf” on Rhetorical basis, though he mentioned in his exegesis all foremost and supreme aspects of Rhetoric which were not referred to by any former scholars.
In this article I have widely discussed the unique and distinguished rhetorical topics, highlighted by Al-Zamakhsharī in his exegesis Al-Kashshᾱf, for instance; he semantically analyzed letters and verbs in the Holy Qur’ᾱn, particularly propositional and non-propositional verbs. At the end of this article I tried my best to conclude the topic with better sequences.
The Holy Qur’ᾱn is the Last book of Allᾱh and a great miracle of the Holy Prophet (SAW) the like of which could not be produced by any of all times. The Language of the Qur’ᾱn is Arabic known for its brevity and eloquence. The reality of the Arabic Language can be summoned by acquaintance with “Tadhīīl” and eloquence. Neology is a part of eloquence and communication is a component of neology, encompassing many discernments and points of wisdom. The same is corroborated in galore in poetry along with Qur’ᾱn and Hadîth. This illustrates the text and defines the aim and purpose. The purpose aimed at embraces eneomism and eulogy, didactics and exhortations and felicitations .The dictionary and literary meaning of “Tadhīīl”, types of “Tadhīīl” and use of places has been stated .The examples of Qur’ᾱn, prose and poem have also been given, Where the word “Tadhīīl” has been used.
The meters and rhythm of any poetry have great impact on the minds and souls of human beings، Maḥmūd sᾱmī al-Bᾱrūdī is one of those poets who have attracted the people through their poetry، and he has brought back the ancient meters and rhythm to the modern poetry، and chose the appropriate meters and rhythm for the subjects of his poetry.
In this article we have tried to study and calculate statistically the meters and rhythm of his poetry to know the beauty and relevance of the meters and rhythm with his poetry.
Antecedents of “Quality of Work” in Islamic Perspective Through Mediating Effect of Perceived Job Performance
Author: Afzal, Malik Muhammad, Muhammad Razzaq Athar
In most of service organizations particularly in Pakistan financial sector, employees have reduced their job performance and shortened quality of work due to many factors influencing them at workplace. This research study aims to explore such antecedents in view of Islam that can improve the quality of work in banking sector wherein mediating effect of perceived job performance has been tested. Model variables of this study have also been described in the Islamic perspective. Islam is complete religion in all respect and provides foundation for quality of work. Accuracy & beatification in work, discipline, sequence of tasks, impartiality, and Islamic job satisfaction, knowing ourselves and its link with knowing to our God are parts of quality of work and employees’ performance in the Islamic point of view. The target population of this study covers 20,514 employees of banking sector working in capital cities of Pakistan. Data were collected via cross sectional approach from 380 desk and frontline officials of Public and private banks. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques were used for data analysis. Findings of this research are demonstrated that job satisfaction and emotional intelligence are found the valuable antecedents of job performance and quality of work where employee’s job performance has been proved as a partial mediator between antecedents and quality of work. The two antecedents i.e. job satisfaction, emotional intelligence of perceived job performance and quality of work have been supposed in this study to take as interpreters for the improvement of employees’ contentment and abilities in the working environment of banking sector. These are positively persuaded to job performance and quality of work. A practical exposure is offered by this research that organizational education about importance to employee’s satisfaction and emotional intelligence would be vital for achieving optimum results in this industry.
Author: Khan, Shahbaz, Himayatullah Yaqubi
The Sixteenth century proved an eventful period with regard to the Mughal-Pakhtūn relations in the north-western borderland region. Besides the political tug of war it witnessed a clash of religious nature between the two Ṣūfī saints of the area namely Bāyazīd Anṣārī and Syed ‘Alī Tirmidhī Aliās Pīr Bābā. Settled in the pre-dominantly anti-Mughal Pakhtūn abode Bāyazīd Anṣārī was an opponent of the Mughals in his political orientation in religious jargon. Pīr Bābā challenged his Ṣūfic interpretation based on the Waḥdat al-Wūjūd concept of Islamic mysticism. Their confrontation of mystic traditions gave birth to a debate that whether Pīr Bābā had confronted Bāyazīd for religious reasons or he was working for the interests of the Mughals. The present article aimed at to investigate the matter and to establish a factual position. It would further be explored to understand the nature and contents of the conflict that whether it was religious or otherwise.
Author: Gul, Rais
The central theme of this research is to explore the effectiveness of prisons staff in the reintegration of the prisoners with specific focus on Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan) jails. Mixed method was adopted to carry out the study. Seven high-profile jails within Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, one jail each, in all the seven administrative divisions, were purposively selected. Of all 277 respondents, 250 comprised of jail inmates (under trial and convicted adults and juveniles male prisoners) were randomly selected within the seven jails of the province and interviewed through semi-structured questionnaire. The remaining 27 respondents, purposively selected and interviewed through interview-guide included judges, lawyers, jail officials, human right activists and ex-prisoners. Further, One focus group discussion was arranged to gain more deep insight into the phenomenon in question. Concurrent triangulation strategy was adopted for the collection and analysis of data. It was found that prison staff in Pakistan is characterized by lack of will and skill to transform prisons into correction institutions. Their involvement in torturing the inmates, providing them proscribed stuff, sexual assaults on the prisoners, taking bribery for extending legal and illegal favors etc is deeply-seated within the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa prisons. Providing best trainings to the prisons’ staff considering modern-day needs, their salaries increase along with sound service structure, meritorious selection, transfer and up-gradation of the prisons’ employees, recruitment of the needed staff to bridge the staff-inmate huge gape and ensuring the effective accountability system of prisons are the suggested measures to overcome the problem at hand.
Author: Tanzeel, Shaista, Najma Iqbal Malik
The present study examining the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being among Muslims and Christians adolescents and young adults. Daily Spiritual Experience Scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale were used to examine the study variables. The present study was carried out on the sample of (N = 254) i. e. Muslims (n = 123) and Christians (n = 131) . The sub sample of Muslims and Christians were further divided into males (n = 48) and females (n = 75) . Similarly Christian males (n = 60) and Christian females (n = 71) . The instruments used to measure the variables possessed satisfactory reliability i. e. spirituality (α =. 80) for Muslims and (α =. 92) for Christians and psychological well-being (α =. 82) for Muslims and (α =. 84) for Christians. Results of the study revealed that spirituality not only had significant positive correlation with psychological well-being but also found to be significant positive predictor of psychological well-being among Muslims as well as Christians. Additional findings of the study further revealed that significant differences exist in the terms of gender and age. Limitations, suggestion and implications were also discussed at the end of the study.
Author: Hussain, Shabir, Yasar Arafat
This study critiques the existing journalistic practices for being deficit in ensuring constructive reporting of wars and conflicts. Though the available academic scholarship developed at the Westernized settings offer a number of alternatives, however due to the peculiar socio-cultural conditions in Pakistan and rest of the Islamic societies, these approaches are not very practical. The authors of the present study propose a more contextual and an Islamic oriented model to facilitate journalists in Pakistan to produce more effective and constructive reporting of conflicts. We believe the model inspired by the Islamic injunctions would only ensure a more professional and practical approach for conflict reporting but it would also facilitate peaceful resolution of conflicts which at present are escalated by the existing practices.
Author: Faizi, Waqar un Nisa, Muhammad Naeem Butt
Higher education for women is one of the major issues in Pakistan especially in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Most of the girls quit their education at higher secondary or intermediate level, which is a negative sign both for productivity and financial system of our society. Higher education not only increases critical and rational thinking, general knowledge, ways of living, financial status of a family but also common sense. The need of higher education is more for women as they are responsible for the bringing-up of a family; unfortunately, the ratio of the higher education among women in Peshawar is decreasing, which is the point of discussion in this study. This research made an attempt to consider the possible reasons behind the issues related to the women’s higher education in Peshawar. Data was collected through Questionnaire and further analyzed by employing ANOVA. The results revealed that there are different social and cultural issues due to which higher education of women in Peshawar is not promoted; however, the increase in the enrolment of the female students has witnessed an increase. Government may make extra efforts to promote the education of women as it directly affects families in particular and societies in general.
Author: Sumaira, Zahid Anwar
Kabul was a bridge between Indian Mughal Empire and Central Asia, the ancestral homeland of the founder of the Mughal Empire. Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, carries about 3,500 years old historical records mentioning Kabul with different names like, Kubha, Gandahara, Kabura, Ortospana, Kapul, Zavul, and Zabul etc. Many great warriors and conquerors from Central Asia used Kabul as their route to India. It was also known as a gateway to India and Central Asia. Kabul became the foundation stone for the Mughal Empire in India. During the Mughal era Kabul entered into a new phase and with the invasion of Babur the area got the position of the capital of the Mughals. The early Mughal rulers paid much attention to the affairs of Kabul, because their existence to a greater extent was dependent on their strong hold over Kabul. The research work is focused on development of Kabul under Mughal kings particularly Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb. The later Mughal kings after Aurangzeb were not able to end political disturbances in Kabul which not only displeased the people of Kabul but also encouraged the neighbouring powers to invade the valley. Historical and analytical methods are used in this research and Pashtu, Dari, Urdu and English sources have been utilized to gauge development of Kabul during that point in time. No research work has been carried out on this aspect of Kabul so far. The analysis of the development of Kabul under Mughals brings to limelight the geostrategic and politico-economic worth of Kabul as an important Caravanserai on the trade route between Central and South Asia.
Author: Haseeb, Abdul
The subject of Medical Science was the central part in the history of Muslim culture. The muslim scientists have produced extensive medical literature. This treasure of knowledge has been preserved in different public and private institutions throughout Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, particularly on Peshawar University Campus libraries. One among them is Islamia College Peshawar Library, which contains some of the rare medical manuscripts. This paper will highlight the current status of these manuscripts present in Islamia College Library Peshawar. The paper will also reveal the metadata of these manuscripts.