Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought
Title Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context
Author(s) Akhter, Naseem, Arshad Munir
Volume 2
Issue 2
Year 2020
Pages 70-86
DOI 10.46600/almilal.v2i2.113
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Keywords Islamic teachings, Islamic society, Ethical values, Ill-mannered behaviour, Contemporary trends in Universities
Chicago 16th Akhter, Naseem, Arshad Munir. "Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context." Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought 2, no. 2 (2020).
APA 6th Akhter, N., Munir, A. (2020). Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context. Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought, 2(2).
MHRA Akhter, Naseem, Arshad Munir. 2020. 'Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context', Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought, 2.
MLA Akhter, Naseem, Arshad Munir. "Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context." Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought 2.2 (2020). Print.
Harvard AKHTER, N., MUNIR, A. 2020. Emerging Trends of Ethics in Higher Educational Institutions: An Analysis of Universities Students’ Perception in Islamic Context. Al-Milal: Journal of Religion and Thought, 2.
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Abstract

The basic characteristics and moral values of Islamic society include peace, harmony, brotherhood, equality, justice, respect and tolerance. Islam advises humans to spend their life according to the characteristics of Islamic society. The word ‘ethic’ brings harmony in the spiritual and physical attributes of a person. Islamic system preaches good moral values and indicates ways to avoid ill-mannered behavior. An individual with good moral values reflects good faith and blessings of Almighty Allah. But the studies show that Pakistani society and especially the youngsters are growing up without proper training & teachings about ethics and moral values. This research work aims to explain the need for ethical teachings in Islamic society. Quantitative method has been used in this study. Two hundred questionnaires have been filled by the three Universities’ students. The opinion of the students has been presented through SPSS in tabular forms and figures. According to this fieldwork, the majority of students had a lack of training related to ethical values from home to institutions, due to which we are facing ill-mannered behavior in Universities. This research work may be significant for its specific theme and research background; hence it can be used for the benefit of the policy makers, the scholars and the readers at large.

Introduction

Morality has been considered as blessing and wealth.[1] In real sense, ethics is a theory of morality and goodness is its attribute. The word “ethics” is derived from “ethos” which means “morals” and “character”. The theory of values and code of conduct are the roots of ethics.[2] Another meaning of molarity is a strong habit, due to which deeds are performed by the soul without any thought or attention.[3] In Islam, worship and affairs have primary importance but the morality is essential for the building of character.[4] There are two categories of values such as positive and negative . The positive values are called moral or ethical values, which produce only the positive qualities in human beings. It is expected from everyone that he will demonstrate positive behaviors with others in society, and then the social system may succeed in leading towards the balance system. The respectful life, unity, power, knowledge, balance (Ᾱdl), love, virtue, existence, and beauty are the moral values in Islamic philosophy. Similarly, the negative values create adverse qualities in a person as well as in the society such as lack of unity, power, knowledge, balance (Zῡlm), beauty, and hatred etc.[5] “Lickona said that “respect and responsibility” are the two essential elements of ethics on which other values are based.[6] Everything in this world seems to have a deep connection with the man. And the proof is that whosoever lives in the world tries to benefit from the created worldly things.[7] Hence, becomes self-centred in the worldly pursuits and becomes blind and ignores the rights of others. He does not abstain from catastrophe and devastation around this world. It is a fact that human beings cannot survive without society. Therefore, some divine principles have been devised for human beings to live in a society such as monotheism, brotherhood, equality, simplicity, purity, peace, harmony, justice, tolerance, human dignity, and morality. Islamic society is a reflection of collective foundations of Islam. Everyone should perform his duty rather than the demand for his right only. If the basis of social life would be on the concept of "performing duties" rather than "demanding rights" then the right of everyone would easily be ensured. For example, it is the duty of the parents to train their children well, similarly, the children should respect the parents. Whereas the relationship between husband and wife has a very vital role to maintain a pleasant environment at home, therefore the wife should take care of all the household responsibilities. Similarly, it is the incumbent upon the husband that he should treat his wife well and should fulfil all his family responsibilities to live a pleasant family life. Islam advised the humans to behave with relatives, orphans, needy, neighbours, strangers, travellers, companions and even the enemies in a kind way. Allah Almighty dislikes the proud person, therefore, Muslims should save themselves from arrogance.[8] Furthermore, the human beings have been informed about the Greatness of Allah Almighty that Almighty Allah is the creator of all things and He is knowing all the things.[9] Allah Almighty has made this universe and all things, which we can see and that we cannot see. This universe and all the things of this world are mortal. Therefore, Allah commands that we should follow the teachings of Islam and should live in a society as a good Muslim. We should promote good ethical values in society. These are the teachings of our Holy Prophet (PBUH) that a good Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand another Muslim is safe.[10] The Holy Qur’ᾱn and the hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) tell us that we should demonstrate morality and live with peace in with fellow humans in the society. If we look at contemporary society, the morality is on the downslide. We have ignored the Islamic teachings and forgotten ethical values. Being an important part of the society and seats of learning, the universities are believed to be suffering on this account. Therefore, it is need of the hour that we should pay attention to this evolving situation and spread the knowledge regarding Islamic teachings among the people through the young generation. This research work is aimed at ascertaining the need for ethical techniques in promoting Islamic teachings in the development of Muslim society, through the statistical analysis in the light of contemporary trends in the Universities. For this purpose, the views of the young generation were collected in the form of responses to a questionnaire to analyse the results in the forms of different tables and graphs. This research may be useful for scholars and readers due to its specific research work.

Hypotheses of the Research

Few hypotheses were produced to focus this research work such as;

  1. People have ignored the teachings of Islam.
  2. Moral values are not given importance in society.
  3. The lack of moral values is seen in universities of contemporary society.
  4. We are on the downfall in morality.

Literature Review

Outka Gene described briefly about Islamic ethics in his book “Islamic Ethics of Life: Abortion, War, and Euthanasia, published by University of South Carolina Press”.[11] Mariam al-Attar explores philosophical ethics in Arabo-Islamic thought in her book “Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought”.[12] The book “Islamic Ethics of Technology: An Objectives' (Mᾱqᾱsid) Approach by Amana Raquib tries to broaden the scope of the Sharia to deal comprehensively with the ethical questions and dilemmas that arise during a postmodern technological culture due to the absence of well-defined religious-ethical ends.[13] Ibn-e-Hijjᾱr Asqᾱlanῑ declares the moral values as blessings. Muhammad Ramzan and Dr Ashfaque Ahmad Shah, in their research paper titled as “A Discourse on Teachers’ Ethics as a Projection of Islamic Values considered the ethics as a root of the code of conduct.[14] There are many verses from the Holy Quran and sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that emphasized the importance as well as the need of ethics and moral values for a good society. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) declared his mission in the following words: “I was not sent except to perfect moral characters”.[15] Dr. Hafiz Fazle Omer concludes in his research paper that Nowadays, ethics in Muslim community is falling down due to scarcity in the belief of answerability before Almighty Allah and seriousness about preparation for the life in hereinafter.[16] Researchers agreed that Moral ethics must be taught in education.[17] According to Col. Ghulam Jilᾱnῑ, in his article, “Baz Ikhlᾱqῑ Iqdᾱr Ka Zawᾱl Aur In Ka Ilᾱj” published in Urdu in Daily Pakistan on April 11, 2016, media is responsible for the downfall of moral values in the society. [18]

Research Methodology

Quantitative method has been used to conduct the study.

Data Collection

The data was collected from three universities i.e. Gujrat University, SBBWU, Peshawar, and Swabi Women University. Two departments’ i.e. Islamic studies and Chemistry were selected as the universe to acquire the response. Hundred male students from University of Gujrat and another hundred students (fifty females from SBBWUP and fifty females from Swabi Women University) were selected from both women Universities to collect the opinions concerning said research.

Sampling

A survey form was developed consisting of ten phrases. Two hundred forms were distributed in two departments’ i.e. Islamic studies and Chemistry in the three universities i.e., Gujrat University, SBBWU, Peshawar, and Swabi Women University to collect the views of males and female students. The opinion was asked on following phrases: * Moral decadence lowers standards of moral behavior.

  • I used to hurt people.
  • We used to go to Mosques to learn ethical behavior.
  • Our Parents teach us ethical values by demonstration.
  • Our parents make us responsible for wrongdoing.
  • Our society lacks moral values like truthfulness, patience, honesty, tolerance etc.
  • People use to hurt others.
  • We are taught ethics by our teachers in class.
  • Universities are maintaining moral values at their level best.
  • Educated people care and keep higher ethical values.

Procedure

Two hundred survey forms were distributed among students and collected data was analysed through SPSS software and the result was displayed in different tables and different shapes.

Statistical Review

In this section the result and discussion, and findings are explained.

Result and Discussion

The Following tables show the ratio of universities, gender, and departments.

Statistics
Gujrat University, SBBWU, Peshawar, Swabi Women University Male, Female Department of Islamic Studies, Department of Islamic Studies
N Valid 200 200 200
Missing 0 0 0
Gujrat University, SBBWU, Peshawar, Swabi Women University
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Gujrat University 100 50.0 50.0 50.0
SBBWUP 50 25.0 25.0 75.0
Swabi Women University 50 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0
Male, Female
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 100 50.0 50.0 50.0
Female 100 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Department of Islamic Studies, Department of Islamic Studies

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Department of Islamic Studies 100 50.0 50.0 50.0
Department of Chemistry 100 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Frequency Tables and graphs

Table and Graph 01:

Moral decadence lowers standards of moral behaviour.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid SA (Strongly Agree) 160 80.0 80.0 80.0
A (Agree) 20 10.0 10.0 90.0
N (Neutral) 12 6.0 6.0 96.0
D (Disagree) 8 4.0 4.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


We can see in the above table and graph that one hundred and sixty male and female responded in “strongly agree” about the mentioned question and the remaining twenty have a response in ``agreed.

Table and Graph 02:

I used to hurt people.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid A (Agree) 10 5.0 5.0 5.0
N (Neutral) 30 15.0 15.0 20.0
SD (Strongly Disagree) 160 80.0 80.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


It shows by the above table and graph that one hundred and sixty male and female students gave their opinion in “strongly disagree” and the other thirty showed their views in “neutral”. This has proved that the majority of people do not accept that they hurt other people.

Table and Graph 03:

We used to go to the Mosque to learn ethical behaviour.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid SA (Strongly Agree) 120 60.0 60.0 60.0
A (Agree) 60 30.0 30.0 90.0
N (Neutral) 5 2.5 2.5 92.5
D (Disagree) 15 7.5 7.5 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


When opinion was asked on "we used to go to Mosque to learn ethical behaviour" then one hundred and twenty and sixty people responded in “strongly agreed” and “agreed” respectively.

Table and Graph 04:

Our parents teach us ethical values through demonstration.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid A (Agree) 50 25.0 25.0 25.0
N (Neutral) 10 5.0 5.0 30.0
D (Disagree) 140 70.0 70.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


One hundred and forty male and female students showed their response concerning the opinion" Our parents teach us ethical values by demonstration", and “disagreed” and the other people “agreed” about the mentioned opinion respectively.

Table and Graph 05:

Our parents make us responsible for wrongdoing.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid A (Agree) 60 30.0 30.0 30.0
D (Disagree) 140 70.0 70.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


The table and graph number five explains that one hundred and forty people disagreed and the remaining sixty have agreed concerning the said opinion

Table and Graph 06:

Our society has a lack of moral values like truthfulness, patience, honesty, tolerance etc.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid SA (Strongly Agree) 140 70.0 70.0 70.0
A (Agree) 50 25.0 25.0 95.0
N (Neutral) 5 2.5 2.5 97.5
D (Disagree) 5 2.5 2.5 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


When we asked people for opinion on "Our society has a lack of moral values like truthfulness, patience, honesty, tolerance, etc." One hundred and forty answered in “strongly agreed” and the remaining fifty replied in “agreed”.

Table and Graph 07:

People use to hurt others.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid SA (Strongly Agree) 140 70.0 70.0 70.0
A (Agree) 40 20.0 20.0 90.0
N (Neutral) 10 5.0 5.0 95.0
D (Disagree) 10 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


We can see in the above table and graph that one hundred and forty males and females gave the response in “strongly agreed” and whereas forty people agreed. .

Table and Graph 08:

We are taught ethics by our teachers in class.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid A (Agree) 60 30.0 30.0 30.0
D (Disagree) 140 70.0 70.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


When we asked "we were taught ethics by our teachers in class", one hundred and forty people answered in “disagreed” and the other sixty replied in “agreed”.

Table and Graph 09:

Universities are maintaining moral values at their level best.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid SA (Strongly Agree) 100 50.0 50.0 50.0
A (Agree) 40 20.0 20.0 70.0
N (Neutral) 11 5.5 5.5 75.5
D (Disagree) 49 24.5 24.5 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


The above table and graph display that a hundred and forty people showed their responses in “strongly agreed” and “agreed” and forty-nine people disagreed. It means that the majority of people accept that Universities are maintaining moral values at their level best.

Table and Graph 10:

Educated person care and keeps more ethical values.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid A (Agree) 30 15.0 15.0 15.0
N (Neutral) 20 10.0 10.0 25.0
D (Disagree) 150 75.0 75.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


The above figures for the table and graph tell us that the majority of people to the tune of one hundred and fifty disagreed with the mentioned question. In their views, the educated person does not care and keeps more ethical values. Whereas thirty people responded in “agreed” and the remaining people withheld their opinion being neutral.

Findings

The above tables and graphs display that we are on the downslide ethically. We have ignored the teachings of Islam due to which we are facing ethical problems in the universities and society such as hatred, negativity lack of unity, ignorance, and lack of balance etc. There is a dire need that we follow the teaching of Islam and practice positive values in students, as well as younger generation, to develop a peaceful and ethically balanced environment in the universities and society.

Conclusion

Ethics shape the behavior of an individual in the society. It has a great influence, not only for today but also for the future life for the individual and the society as well. Regrettably, the youngsters are unable to give due importance to the moral values in their lives. The ethical values are no more found among most of the youth in contemporary society. The study shows that multiple factors are involved in lowering morality in our society especially in the academic environment. It shows that teachers have miserably failed in coaching, propagation and promotion of moral ethics to their students. According to the study, the parents are also unable to teach ethical values through demonstration to their children. The respondents strongly agreed that our society has a lack of moral values like truthfulness, patience, honesty, tolerance etc. The results regarding table No: 2 and 07 are very alarming and shows the hippocratic attitude of the society. More than seventy percent of the respondents have their opinion that educated people don’t care and keep ethical values. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is the dire need of the time to create a sense of commitment to ethical and moral values i.e. compassion, truthfulness, respect, tolerance, honesty, and kindness among the youths for a better society.

Suggestions and Recommendations

Following suggestions and recommendations are given:

Social Aspects

  1. We should follow the teachings of Islam to make the environment of society peaceful.
  2. We should teach ethics to our Younger generation to inculcate positive values in them.
  3. Parents should demonstrate moral values such as; tolerance, truthfulness, patience, and honesty in our children from a young age.
  4. We should produce a sense of right and wrong in our children to make them a good person.
  5. We should not put others in trouble, because Islam has forbidden it.
  6. We should display good manners in interaction with other people.

Physical Aspects

  1. The subjects of ethics must be taught in educational institutions such as schools, colleges, and universities.
  2. We should send our children to the mosque for prayers, as well as to learn moral values too and Mosque should play the role of institution besides prayers.
  3. Parents should give training to their children at home concerning moral values to make them good persons of society.
  4. Universities should maintain moral values in students to raise humanity in them.

Bibliography

Asqalani, Ibn-e-Hijjᾱr, Ᾱdᾱbo Ikhlᾱq Say Mutᾱliqᾱ Sᾱhih Hᾱdith, Lahore: Islᾱmic Services Society, 2017.

Abdur Rahman, Safia Aftab and Ubaid Ahmed Khan, “Effective Moral Ethics Education at the Undergraduate Level in Pakistan: The Role of Curriculum”, Journal of Usoolῡddῑn, 2 no. 1 (2018):4.

Al-Albani, Muhammad N. [complier], Silsilat Al-Ahᾱdeeth Al-Sᾱheehah [In Arabic], Bᾱirut: Al- Mᾱktᾱb Al-Islᾱmῑ, 1985.

Badawi, Jamal A, “Islᾱmic Business Ethics”, Halifax, N.S: Saint Mary’s University, 2001.

Bukhari, Muhammad Bin Ismᾱil, Sᾱhih ul Bukhᾱri, Bᾱirot: Dᾱrul Kῡtbul Ilmῑyᾱh, 2004.

Ghulam Jilᾱni, “Baz Ikhlᾱqi Iqdᾱr Ka Zawᾱl Aur In Ka Ilᾱj” Daily Pakistan, 11 April, 2016.

Fazle Omer & Farhᾱdullᾱh, “Contemporary Business Ethics: A Study in the Seerᾱh of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)”. Al-Ilm, July–December 2019.

Muhammad Ramzan and Ashfaque Ahmad Shah. “A Discourse on Teachers’ Ethics as a Projection of Islᾱmic Values”, Research Journal Ulum-e-Islᾱmiᾱ.

Tahirul Qadri. Husna-e-Iklᾱq (Sᾱloq Wa Tᾱsᾱwuf Ki Amlῑ Hidᾱyat), Lahore: Minhᾱjul Qur’ᾱn Publications, 2005.

Geertz, C., & Banton, Michael. Religion as a cultural system, Lahore: Private Publications, 1966.

Muhammad Naeem, Islᾱm Main Husna-e-Ikhlᾱq Aur Kirdᾱr Sᾱzi Ki Ehmῑyᾱt, 2018.

References

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  2. Muhammad Ramzan and Ashfaque Ahmad Shah, “A Discourse on Teachers’ Ethics as a Projection of Islᾱmic Values,” Research Journᾱl Ulum-e-Islᾱmiᾱ22 no. issue (year): 73.
  3. Tahirul Qadri, "Husna-e-Iklᾱq: Sᾱloq Wa Tᾱsᾱwuf Ki Amli Hidᾱyᾱt (Lahore: Minhᾱjul Qur’ᾱn Publications, 2005), 13.
  4. Muhammad Naeem, "Islᾱm Main Husna-e-Ikhlᾱq Aur Kirdᾱr Sᾱzi Ki Ehmiyᾱt," Jang Vol no 7, issue 4 (2018): https://jang.com.pk/news/559375, accessed on 18 August, 2020.
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  6. Geertz, C., and Banton, Michael, Relῑgion as a Cultural System (Lahore: Private Publications, 1966), 34.
  7. Jamal A. Badawi, “Islᾱmic Business Ethics,” Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, N.S. (2001): 295-332.
  8. Al-Qur’ᾱn, 4:36
  9. Al-Qur’ᾱn, 15:86
  10. Muhammad Bin Ismᾱil Bῡkharῑ, Sᾱhih ul Bῡkhᾱrῑ, (Bᾱirot: Dᾱrul Kῡtbul Ilmῑyᾱh, 2004), 67.
  11. Outka Gene, Islᾱmic Ethῑcs of Life: Abortion, War, and Euthanasia (USA: University of South Carolina Press, 2003), 23.
  12. Mariam al-Attar, Islᾱmic Ethῑcs: Divine Command Theory in Arᾱbo-Islᾱmic Thought (UK: Routledge, 2010), 41.
  13. Amana Raquib, Islᾱmic Ethῑcs of Technology: An Objectives' (Mᾱqᾱsῑd) Approach (Malaysia: The Other Press, 2015), 201.
  14. Ramzan and Shah, A Discourse on Teachers’ Ethics as a Projection of Islᾱmic Values, (2018), 73.
  15. Muhammad N Al-Albᾱnῑ, Ilsilᾱt Al-Ahᾱdeeth Al-Sᾱheehᾱh (Bᾱirut: Al- Mᾱktᾱb Al-Islᾱmῑ, 1985), 1:75.
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  17. Abdur Rahman, Safia Aftab and Ubaid Ahmed Khan, “Effective Morᾱl Ethῑcs Education at the Undergraduate Level in Pakistan: The Role of Curriculum,” Journal of Usoolῡddῑn 2 no. 1 (2018): 4.
  18. Ghulam Jilᾱni, “Baz Ikhlᾱqi Iqdᾱr Ka Zawᾱl Aur In Ka Ilᾱj,” Daily Pakistan Vol no 6. Issue 4, (2016).