Volume 2 Issue 1
English title of the first issue of Al-Milal Journal of Religion and Thought.
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Bilal Ahmad Qureshi|
Pakistan Society of Religions (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. CC BY NC|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Author: Ahmad, Anis
In the post-industrial revolution world, social change is often studied and understood in the context of change in means of production, mobility, urbanization and change in the constitution of workforce. Role of ethical values is generally confined to personal conduct and manners. Industrial society is supposed to have its own work ethics which may or may not agree with personal ethics and morality. Ethics and morality are generally considered, in the Western thought, as a social construct. Therefore, with the change in means of production or political system, values and morality are also expected to be re-adjusted in order to cope with the changed environment. Sometimes a totally new set of values emerges as a consequence of the change in economic, political, or legal set up. The present research tries to understand the meaning and place of these values in a global socio-cultural framework. Relying essentially on the divine principles of the Qur'ān it makes an effort to understand relevance of these universal and ultimate principles with human conduct and behavior in society. It indicates that essentially it is the core values, principles, or norms which guide human beings in their interpersonal, social, economic and political matters. Islam being a major civilizing force, culture, and the way of life, provides values which guide both in individual and social matters. The values given by the Qur’ān and the Sunnah are not monopoly of the Muslim. These values are universal and are relevant in a technological society.
Pleasure versus Virtue Ethics in The Light of Aristotelians and the Utilitarianism of John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham
Author: Komu, Seraphine S. C
The question of the end of morality is certainly as old as moral speculation itself. It is this question that prompted Aristotle speculating on moral or character virtue. Moral question is properly a human question since only human beings are expected to act in a given way and are subject to praise and reward or blame and punishment. We should remember that also God and angels are expected to act in a given way, but that would, strictly speaking, be the subject of moral theology and revelation, since without revelation depending only on reason, we cannot examine the acts of God and angels in order to determine how they should act. In short, it is only human beings who can be judged to act morally or immorally if we depend only on human reason, without the support of revelation. In the whole work, Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham stick on happiness, though each differ in approaches. Consequentialists are after the greatest happiness of the greatest number, by advocating on the struggle to that which may make man happy and avoid evil by all means. Aristotle on his side is on eudaimonism, where man is found to be happy but moral happy. Happiness for Aristotle should be reasonable, morally good and means should be maintained. This research is analytical by nature, where both qualitative and analytical methods have been implemented throughout the work. The work has been successful though some challenges could not be avoided. Finally, in doing or acting, man should observe virtue; and this is always doing good and avoiding evil.
Qur’ānic Concept of Divine Mercy Projected through the Pairs of Divine Attributes: A Criterion for Social Amelioration
Author: Ashfaq, Muhammad
This paper intends to discuss Qur’ānic concept of Divine Mercy in the light of couples of Divine Attributes mentioned at the end of verses in order to study what standards have been given for the best human conduct and how we may extract guideline and principles for communal amelioration acquiring well-balanced social rhythm. Conversely, what are the conditions and prerequisites that are responsible to make a person deserving and worthy of Divine Mercy as advised by Qur’ānic verses from within the domain of selected pairs. This paper desires to estimate the hypothesis that Divine Mercy gives rise to the better understanding leading towards broad spectrum of the subject theme where social betterment is greatly concerned. Employing analytical method, we may be able to know multiple dimensions regarding human life and its rectification. This study concludes that from the universal message of Divine Mercy each pair demonstrates its unique communication, which may cause to find the details for social amelioration as well as practical evidences concerning the better social milieu, instead of just concentrating upon theories and revolving around the ideas in relation to the concept of mercy. This communication finds that how these pairs mutually addressed the humanity to educate them commendable conduct along with preventive measures, for praiseworthy living. It is recommended that this discourse will provide a data from Islamic weltanschauung concerning Divine Mercy projecting an exclusive comparative stance towards different thoughts and religions.
Author: Qadri, Khurshid Ahmad
Bābā Farīd al-Dīn Ganj-i-Shakar, considered as the first Punjābī Sūfī poet, not only exercised his skill but also conveyed Qur’ānic and Prophetic (PBUH) message through his Punjābī poetry. His poetry is a rich source of Islamic teachings in lingua franca of the Punjab. The research intends to explore that whether the inclusion of his poetry in the Sikh scripture is recognition of Muslim mysticism or the poetry itself. The study attempts to examine the relation of the hymns of Bābā Ṣāhib with the teachings of Holy Qur’ān. Bābā Farīd, because of his high stature as an originator of Punjābī poetry, got a place in Granth Ṣāhib. The goal of this research is to highlight the pivotal position of Bābā Ṣāhib in connecting the two major religions of the world. The paper not only substantiates the historic position of Bābā Ṣāhib but also gives an insight to the services rendered by his poetry in promoting the interfaith harmony in the Sub-continent. This article focuses on Bābā Farīd as a literary and moral Canon, which led his work to be included in Sikh scripture. Moreover, it hints at the nuances of religious tolerance, mutual respect and love for knowledge, which lacks otherwise in a multi-religious society. In this article some of Bābā Ṣāhib’s verses in Granth Ṣāhib will be traced and analysed, taking into account their Qur’ānic interpretations. The comparative and somewhat historical approaches have been adopted to lay out a vivid analysis of his hymns in relation with the verses of the Holy Qur’ān and hence a message is extracted. Thus, he, evidently becoming part of one of the greatest anthologies of Punjābī poetry, attracted a huge outreach. The research question of this article is, whether the Holy Qur’ān is a basic source of Bābā Ṣāhib’s poetry or otherwise. It is strongly recommended that in order to attain actual harmony in our society, Bābā Ṣāhib’s work should be published in Shah-Mukhi script for the contemporary readership.
Polemic Views about the Source of Qur’ān in Medieval Christian Writings with a Reflection upon Contemporary Orientalists: A Critical Review
Author: Rahman, Muhammad Hafeez ur, Hafiz Muhammad Sajjad
Before the advent of Islam, there was a strong tradition of polemic writings both among the Jews and the Christians to prove the errors of adversary. But, after the advent of Islam in general, and the conquering of Roman / Byzantine empire by the Muslims in the era of Righteous Califate in specific, due to embracing Islam by a large number of local populace, the flux of Christian polemic writing was directed towards Islam. A number of polemic writings surfaced as a resort to keep their religion alive. These writings tried to belittle all basic concepts, beliefs, and creeds of Islam, and even the personality of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and the Holy Qur’ān. The contemporary orientalist polemic writers have claimed that there are several accounts originating from Jewish and Christian sources which tried to allegedly prove that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was instructed by Jewish or Christian scholars in the composition of Holy Qur’ān, and to support this claim, they not only point out to certain Jewish or Christian sources, but have parroted their arguments as well, with the similar motives. With this, they have attempted to discredit Islam by raising doubts about the origin of Qur’ān. But despite of their efforts the fact remains firm that the Qur’ān has a Divine origin and was revealed by Allah Ta‘ālā unto Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In this regard, the purpose of this article is to analyze the medieval polemic writings, their motives, and their rumination by the orientalists of the contemporary age. A critical approach is adopted in this analytical, and historical study, using published authentic data and literature including academic books, research papers, periodicals, dictionaries and reliable web sites also.
Role of Islam in Practical Life amongst Some Young Swiss Muslim Adults: A Focused Ethnographic Analysis
Author: Nour, Akbar
Contemporary secular Switzerland has been polarised by more than two decades of anti-Muslim sentiments, conveyed through misrepresentative narratives by some politicians and media, ‘otherising’ Islam and Muslim-related issues. This polarised environment may have triggered ambivalent impacts on the personal development of Swiss-born Muslims Consequently, I suggest that they live in an ambivalent position, where their status as Muslim is not fully acknowledged and their belonging to Switzerland still questioned. Indeed, this article will explore the following research question: How do some young Swiss-born Muslim adults construct their subjectivities and experiences linked to Islam in their daily lives in contemporary Switzerland? The research methodology of this focused ethnography draws on various semi-structured interviews and informal conversations with several young Swiss Muslim men and women. The paper focuses on (a) Switzerland’s socio-cultural and political context and (b) the various ways this study’s research partners construct their ambivalent subjectivities through the analysis of their individual trajectories and narratives. It concludes that young Swiss Muslim adults formulate and produce alternative narratives, in order to make sense of their lives and accommodate various layers of identification in contemporary Switzerland. Eventually some recommendations for further research are formulated.
Author: AL-Nsour, Osama Sami AL-Nsour
The concept of citizenship is one of the pillars upon which the modern civil state was built. The concept of citizenship can be considered as the basic guarantee for both the government and individuals to clarify the relationship between them, since under this right individuals can acquire and apply their rights freely and also based on this right the state can regulate how society members perform the duties imposed on them, which will contributes to the development of the state and society .The term citizenship has been used in a wider perspective, itimplies the nationality of the State where the citizen obtains his civil, political, economic, social, cultural and religious rights and is free to exercise these rights in accordance with the Constitution of the State and the laws governing thereof and without prejudice to the interest. In return, he has an obligation to perform duties vis-à-vis the state so that the state can give him his rights that have been agreed and contracted.This paper seeks to explore firstly, the modern connotation of citizenship where it is based on the idea of rights and duties. Thus the modern ideal of citizenship is based on the relationship between the individual and the state. The Islamic civilization was spanned over fourteen centuries and there were certain laws and regulations governing the relationship between the citizens and the state, this research will try to discover the main differences between the classical concept of citizenship and the modern one, also this research will show us the results of this change in this concept . The research concludes that the new concept of citizenship is correct one and the one that can fit to our contemporary life and the past concept was appropriate for their time but the changes in the world force us to apply and to rethink again about this concept.
Exploring Individual and Social Factors that Influence Human Belief: An Analysis in the Light of Quran and Sunnah
Author: Zulqarnain, Muhammad, Ashraf Abdul Rafey
استقصاء العوامل المؤثرة في الاعتقاد الإنساني من الناحية الفردية والاجتماعية: دراسة تحليلية في ضوء القرآن والسنة This research work was primarily designed to explore the factors that affect and change the human beliefs. The paper particularly addresses the issue from individual and social perspectives in relation to Holy Quran and authentic traditions of Holy Prophet PBUH. Qualitative research approach was employed for the collection and demonstration of data. The review of relevant literature concluded that there are many factors which seriously affected and changed the human beliefs. However, the most important and common factors are four: individual, social, religious, and economic. These factors play a significant role in changing Islamic beliefs of an individual. In this context, it was recommended that Islamic states in general, and Islamic scholars in particular should play their role to preserve Islamic beliefs in its original form. Furthermore, Muslim scholars should also design the strategy of purging beliefs from impurities and presenting them in systematic, logical and rational way along with their impact on the society
Author: Shafique, Muhammad Mudassar, Abid Naeem
Inter-Faith Harmony and Contemporary Demands: An Analytical Study in the Light of Divine Teachings بین المذاہب ہم آہنگی اور عصر ی تقاضے : الہامی تعلیمات کی روشنی میں تجزیاتی مطالعہ Abstract Over the course of time and with the rapid increase in human population need for mutual relations become crucial. Resultantly on behalf of this closeness, separation, anti-standpoints and comparisons also emerged. As the time passed by hatred and hypocrisy and other social vices spread on large scale. Thus human society was waiting for such liberator who may lead and work for the betterment of this society. With the dawn of Islamic civilization all such issues were not only resolved but also provided with a model for containing the difference of opinion and multiple traditions under its unique worldview. Islamic History presents itself as a model where the minorities were provided with the opportunities of participating in political, social, educational and collective affairs. Thus in a society where tyranny, injustice, un-forbearance, religious intensity, terrorism and the activities of violating the human rights were very common, were substituted by the Islamic ideal of forbearance. It is argued here that the solution of all these issues was only in religion contrary to what is being claimed about an idea of social harmony where religion is not given its due position. Today it’s our dire need to develop a sense of harmony, modesty, affection and peacefulness among the masses of various religions of Pakistani society. It is further argued that for this very noble cause all the religious scholars and their followers can come forward playing their pertinent role. Keywords: Interfaith harmony, present era, divine books, religious personalities, Peace
Urdu Dissertations of Islamic Studies on Semitic Religions (MPhil, PhD) in Pakistani Universities: An Index and Bibliometric Review
Author: Saeed, Riaz Ahmad, Saeed-ur-Rehman, Rauf Ahmed
پاکستانی جامعات میں سامی مذاہب پر علومِ اسلامیہ کے(ایم فل ،پی ایچ ڈی) اردو سندی مقالات کا اشاریہ و شماریاتی جائزہ Urdu Dissertations of Islamic Studies on Semitic Religions (MPhil, PhD) in Pakistani Universities: An Index and Bibliometric Review Study of religions or Comparative Religions is a globally significance subject. Pakistan is also resourceful in this field. In many universities, there are special departments on this valuable subject. It is taught as compulsory course at BS & MA level in the departments of Isalmic studies in all universities. In many universities it’s also taught at MPhil and PhD level, some of them have produced hundreds of MS and PhDs dissertations on this subject. Due to its importance, it was a dire need to review and compile the titles of theses and dissertations, which are produced from the universities on the subject. In this study, efforts are made to review and compile a comprehensive index of such theses at MPhil and PhD level from Pakistani universities with statistical analysis. Due to its huge amount, the data is divided into two major types, Semitic and non-Semitic religions. The current study covers only Semitic/ Revealed and related topics. The word Semitic refers to the race of the son of Prophet Noah (A.S) or the areas where this race was spread and grew. Semitic Religions consists of; Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In this study, Biblometric approach is adopted with mix method approach. Total 393 theses of Islamic Studies on Semitic Religions are compiled and statistically evaluated in this paper. The study concludes that a good deal of literature and dissertations are available in Pakistani universities on Comparative Religions and Interfaith Studies. It is recommended that contents of theses should be analyzed for improvement of the Study of Religions in Pakistan
Author: Nasir, Samina
مسلم تہذیب و تمدن پر ہندؤ تہذیب کے اثرات: پاکستانی تناظر میں جائزہ Islam provides a complete and comprehensive concept of civilization that includes all aspects of human life and provides a complete philosophy of life. Generally speaking a civilization is the expression of any philosophy or belief that develops into the political, social, economical and cultural norms. Main focus of the present research is the impact of Hindu civilization on our society, we see that by living with the Hindu society, their beliefs, casteism, rituals, have influenced the people around them. Pakistan is and always has been an amalgam of a diverse culture. Pakistan has a rich culture without a doubt, but this culture is in the line of fire in association to powerful Indian culture. From birth to death, there are small rituals that were normally associated with Hindus, have also slowly mixed with Islamic culture and have become inseparable. Change in the social life of Muslims of subcontinent is due to conversion of a large number of Hindus to Islam. They accepted the preaching of Islam but did not give up their practices and rituals. Consequently, their rituals and practices were incorporated into the Muslim society. Some social ceremonies associated with births, deaths, and marriages were influenced by Hindu culture. It is a fact that media played a great role in propagating Hindu culture. Therefore, in this article, efforts are made to analyze all the factors due to which we are facing challenges of Hindu civilization and how we can get rid of its impacts on Muslims thoughts, culture and society. Allah Almighty says: O people, who believe in Allah, enter the whole circle of Islam. So, to address all above-mentioned challenges, a comparative and analytical research methodology with qualitative paradigm has been conducted in this research paper. At the end, solutions have been provided.
Islamic Approach towards Social Construction: An Analytical Study in the Light of Hazrat Umar Farooq’s (RA) Wisdom and Thought
Author: ullah, Kaleem, Muhammad Fakahr Ud Din
تعمیرِسماج کا اسلامی منہج :حضرت عمر فاروقؓ کی فکر و بصیرت کی روشنی میں تجزیاتی مطالعہ The modern era is considered as advanced and humanized in terms of materialized advancement only. Today the leading societies of the world have created a self-sufficient religion in the name of humanism and have set standards ignoring Divine guidance. Thus, man has the right to decide the rules and norms of society on his own goodwill. As a result, the breaking of family system, appearance of gay and homosexual relations, etc. are being considered as legitimate in many countries where religion is no more considered a guiding principle. On the other hand, revealed religions have focus on the development of humanity in terms of both the ethical and materialistic perspectives. Islam as religion has provided a model of such an advancement and social change in history that has proven that Divine guidance is major source for betterment and development of civilization and humanity. This was practically proven in the time of Muslim golden rule in the world. The caliph Umar (R.A) was the man who introduced for the first time, the principles and values, which has changed the Arabs to a civilized and humanized nation. This huge change was made possible in the light of Divine guidance. In this academic article all such norms, values, and principles that were introduced by Sayyīdnā Umar (R.A) which brought a social change in his Era are discussed. Facts have been collected from historic books and presented following the descriptive and analytical method. Although, the information was narrated and scattered in the books, no proper study was introduced where the role of these reforms in the social construction was analyzed. The aim of the study has to investigate the historic facts of social change in the era of the righteous Caliph Sayyidna Umar bin Khattāb and prepare a guideline for the humanity in present era.
Historical and Evolutionary Analysis of Reasons and Causes of Objections of Orientalism on Prophet’s Biography
Author: Shaid, Bakht, Hafiz Muhammad Sani
سیرت طیبہ پر استشراقی فکر کے اعتراضات کے اسباب و عوامل کا تاریخی و ارتقائی جائزہ Over the course of time and with the rapid increase in human population need for mutual relations become crucial. Resultantly on behalf of this closeness, separation, anti-standpoints and comparisons also emerged. As the time passed by hatred and hypocrisy and other social vices spread on large scale. Thus human society was waiting for such liberator who may lead and work for the betterment of this society. With the dawn of Islamic civilization all such issues were not only resolved but also provided with a model for containing the difference of opinion and multiple traditions under its unique worldview. Islamic History presents itself as a model where the minorities were provided with the opportunities of participating in political, social, educational and collective affairs. Thus in a society where tyranny, injustice, un-forbearance, religious intensity, terrorism and the activities of violating the human rights were very common, were substituted by the Islamic ideal of forbearance. It is argued here that the solution of all these issues was only in religion contrary to what is being claimed about an idea of social harmony where religion is not given its due position. Today its our dire need to develop a sense of harmony, modesty, affection and peacefulness among the masses of various religions of Pakistani society. It is further argued that for this very noble cause all the religious scholars and their followers can come forward playing their pertinent role.
Author: Ditta, Allah, Hafiz Muhammad Hasan Mahmood
اسلامی تہذیب میں تازہ کاری کی روایت: قرون اولی کا اختصاصی مطالعہ Islamic civilization was founded by the Holy Prophet (May blessings of Allah and peace be upon him) right from the beginning of Islam. Each civilization and every culture are deeply affected by the concurrent cultures and civilizations and it used to adopt and borrow many things from other civilizations. Similarly, Islamic civilization and culture borrowed many aspects from other prevailing civilizations. With the passing day, these intercultural relations and exchanges became the part and parcel of the Islamic civilization. Such communications, and they have marked all epochs in Islamic history, occur in greatly diverse ways. The Holy Prophet also approved some traditions in this regard and the four Caliphs adopted many customs too. This reflects the adoption and concluding from other civilizations is not prohibited in every case, but this adoption must not be against Islamic teachings. Now a days, the entire world has become a worldwide town because of internet and technological developments. It is relatively obvious that Muslims are adopting many things from western civilization and culture without knowing its legitimacy or illegitimacy. Resultantly, these activities apparently become the chunk of Islamic civilization. This investigation seeks guidance from golden period of Islam i.e. early centuries of Islam and describes its validity or voidness. In this article, these experiences of Islamic civilization and culture in adopting and concluding from other civilizations and cultures have been conferred and their principles and opinion of the prominent scholars, in this context, been talked about in the light of Islamic teachings. This study will promulgate awareness about the tradition of innovation in Islamic civilization and will provide guidance to the new researchers about this topic.
Author: Rahman, Khalil Ur, Mohammd Riaz Khan Al-Azhari
غیر مسلموں کی تقریبات میں شرکت کی حدود وقیود: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ This article aims to highlight an important aspect of Islamic Law, which relates to social life of a Muslim. Islamic law promotes social harmony and tolerance, but it makes it balance in the light of basic principles and objectives of Shar'īah. Likewise, Islamic law determines social relation between Muslims with each other as well as the relation of Muslims with Non-Muslim citizens in the Islamic state. Furthermore, it is very significant to know that a Muslim can participate in the traditional and religious functions of Non-Muslim or not? Islamic law has made some parameters in this regard, in this research paper we have focused on this specific issue of Islamic law and tried to explain the legal status of this issue in the light of Quran, Prophetic traditions, and opinions of Muslim Scholars. The research method applied in this paper is descriptive and critical study of different school of thoughts is also provided. Muslims have a long history of mutual contacts with the non-Muslims guided by the Shar’īah principles as they have come together in every age in different political and geographical contexts. In the early days of Islam, Muslims were in the minority. At that time, Muslims participated in the social life of their non-Muslims neighbors. Islam respects other religions. Provides all kinds of facilities to non-Muslims. And allows Muslims to participate in their legitimate programs.۔