Evaluation of Objectives of Population Education Integrated in School Curriculum on the Basis of Islamic Philosophy

From Religion
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Bibliographic Information
Journal Bannu University Research Journal in Islamic Studies
Title Evaluation of Objectives of Population Education Integrated in School Curriculum on the Basis of Islamic Philosophy
Author(s) Qadeer, M. Zaigham, Saqib Shehzad
Volume 3
Issue 1
Year 2016
Pages 1-11
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
URL Link
Keywords Objectives of Population Education, School Curriculum, Islamic Philosophy
Chicago 16th Qadeer, M. Zaigham, Saqib Shehzad. "Evaluation of Objectives of Population Education Integrated in School Curriculum on the Basis of Islamic Philosophy." Bannu University Research Journal in Islamic Studies 3, no. 1 (2016).
APA 6th Qadeer, M. Z., Shehzad, S. (2016). Evaluation of Objectives of Population Education Integrated in School Curriculum on the Basis of Islamic Philosophy. Bannu University Research Journal in Islamic Studies, 3(1).
MHRA Qadeer, M. Zaigham, Saqib Shehzad. 2016. 'Evaluation of Objectives of Population Education Integrated in School Curriculum on the Basis of Islamic Philosophy', Bannu University Research Journal in Islamic Studies, 3.
MLA Qadeer, M. Zaigham, Saqib Shehzad. "Evaluation of Objectives of Population Education Integrated in School Curriculum on the Basis of Islamic Philosophy." Bannu University Research Journal in Islamic Studies 3.1 (2016). Print.
Harvard QADEER, M. Z., SHEHZAD, S. 2016. Evaluation of Objectives of Population Education Integrated in School Curriculum on the Basis of Islamic Philosophy. Bannu University Research Journal in Islamic Studies, 3.

Abstract

Pakistan emerged on the map of world in 1947 as an Islamic state on the basis of two nation theory. Islam was the main binding force behind that unprecedented successful struggle. The inherent education system of Pakistan was greatly influenced by British and Indian education system. Since independence, various education policies and plans were formulated to align our education system with our philosophical foundation. During period 1983-1998, population education was integrated in school curriculum in three phases. The main objective of study was to evaluate the objectives of curricula on basis of Islamic philosophy. This study was delimited secondary school curriculum for class 1-10. The researcher used document analysis and expert review. The data obtained were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted statistically. The findings of study revealed that Population education remained a controversial area among curriculum developers. Both proponents and opponents of curriculum presented almost same numbers of Quranic verses and Hadiths. The objectives of curriculum were also evaluated by using Michalis six points’ criteria, which shows that objectives were not stated in behavioral terms. The experts were of the opinion that these controversies may lead to a mental conflict and non-clear statement resulting non achievement of objectives of Population Education.

Demographic Trends of Pakistan

Demographic profile of Pakistan depicts the critical situation of population. Pakistan ranks as the seventh most populous country of the world whose population has been increased almost five folds from 32.5 million in 1947 to 150.648 million in 2000. Although its growth rate has declined from 3.1 in 1981 to 2.2 in 2000, yet it is too high as compared to the other developing countries of the world. Doubling time of Pakistan population is 30 years and its population is projected as 227.04 million in 2025 and 285.019 million in 2050. Rural-urban ratio has changed from 85:15 in 1947 to 67.5:32.5 in 1998 which shows trend of urbanization in Pakistan and by the year 2028 half of our population will be living in cities. Population density per square kilometer has increased from 43 in 1951 to 164 in 1998. Total fertility rate is 46 in 2000. Fifty percent of our population is living in one houseroom. Among 167 countries of the world, Pakistan ranked as one hundred and forty second which reveals that we are the most illiterate nation of the world. Twenty three percent of our children do not attend school and majority of them are girls. Infant mortality rate is 91, life expectancy at birth is 58 year. Pakistan’s total land area is 6774 km, which is 0.61 of the total landmass of the world where as Pakistan accommodates two percent of total world population. About 43.9 million people are living below poverty line. Inflation rate is 5.7. The Crud birth rate is 33.8 per thousand and crude death rate is 8.9 per thousand. There are 106 men as compared to 100 women in Pakistan. Only 44.1 percent of labour force is employed, which is mostly under employed. There is one doctor for a population of 1578 people, one nurse for 3822 people and one hospital bed for 1495 people. Maternal mortality rate is 350-500 per thousand live births. Pakistan is an agricultural country but arable land is shrinking. On average seven people live in a house and sixty percent of people do not have bathroom facility (Govt. of Pakistan, 2000a).

The Curriculum Wing has addressed the issue of global significance e.g. population education, drug education, environmental education, values education, traffic education etc (Govt. of Pakistan, 1999a).

When curricular innovations are introduced at any level of education system, it is an important task of educationist to determine their effectiveness. The evaluation of objectives of curriculum determines that whether these objectives are achievable or not. If obtained then up to what extent? Curriculum evaluation pointed out the strengths and weaknesses of curriculum. The concepts of population education had been integrated in school curriculum but nothing has been evaluated to determine effectiveness of these objectives. There was a great need to evaluate this component of curriculum. Therefore the researcher designed this study to evaluate the objectives of population education in school curricula.

Following were the main objectives of this study.

1.     To investigate whether the objectives related to the population education in the existing school curricula have been stated in behavioral terms.

2.     To explore whether the subject matter covering the concepts of population education corresponds to the stated objectives.

3.     To critically review the subject matter to point out the strengths and weaknesses.

4.     To explore the opinions of curriculum experts about the worth of integrated concepts of population education.

This study was delimited to secondary classes’ I-X due to scarce financial resources and time constraints.

Objectives of Population Education

Objectives of Population Education at Primary Level

Demography

·        To develop awareness among students about different demographic concepts including human population, population size and population growth etc.

·        To develop appreciation among students about the population as an important factor effecting personal, family, community, and national development.

The family and social life

           To develop awareness among students about family as a basic social institution, its composition, types, and functions of different members with special reference to family size and welfare.

Gender role and responsibilities

           To develop understanding among students about gender roles and responsibilities, and socio-cultural values and beliefs related to marriage and family life, and to correct mis-conceptions about discriminating-limited role of girls in the society.

Environmental and eco-system

To develop basic understanding among students about the relationships between population and environment.

Health and Nutrition

           To develop awareness among students about the relationships between population size and quality of life aspects, specially health, food and nutrition, housing, education, employment, etc. (Govt. of Pakistan, 1997a).

Objectives of Population Education at Elementary Level

Specific Objectives

           To develop basic understanding among students about the relationships between population and environment.

·        To create an understanding of the population structure of Pakistan, its distribution and composition in terms of gender, rural-urban-literacy, age group, technical know-how and to relate the size of population with the quality of life.

·        To develop an understanding of various environments and their relationship with natural resources and population in Pakistan.

·        To enhance awareness about exploitation of natural resources and ecological balance.

·        To create better understanding about role of different foods in daily life, nutritional requirement of specific population groups and their relationship with the quality family life in general and the health of individuals in particular.

·        To develops awareness about the family structure and the prevalent cum expected roles and responsibilities of men-women and boys-girls in the family, community and society.

Objectives of Population Education at Secondary Level

Specific Objectives

·        To know about facts and figures, percentage information regarding human resources, population growth rate in Pakistan and its dynamics over a span of 100 years.

The objectives statements of population education were evaluated by experts by using SMART criterion given as under:-

Objectives Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time Bound
Primary X X X X
Middle X X X X
Secondary X X X X


The analysis of objectives revealed that statements were not written properly. Only criterion of specific was met whereas all other parameters were totally ignored. The experts declared that statements of objectives of population education were poorly designed and found non-realistic, non-achieveable with no time frame.

Analysis of Content

                       According to Holy Quran, “It is not fitting for a believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His messenger, to have any option about their decision. If anyone disobeys Allah and His messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong path”. (Al-Quran, 33:36).

2.6.1 Opponents of Family Planning 

·        Advocates of multitude presents the following reference.

·        Man as Allah’s Viceroy (Khalifa) on earth.

·        Procreation

·        Sunnah

·        Preference of a Prolific wife

·        Wives as tilth

·        Multitude as source of power and the development.

·        Family planning as conspiracy (Omran, 1994)


Consequences of faily and population planning

·        Scarcity of Manpwoer:

·        Check on Pace of Development:

·        Moral Degeneration:

·        Promiscuity and Licentiousness (Maududi, 1993).

Allah warns the poor who kill their children:

Kill not your children, on a plea of want. We provide sustenance for you and for them (Al-Quran, 6:151).

Kill not your children, for fear of want, we provide sustenance for them and for you, the killing of them is a great sin. (Al-Quran, 60:12)

Losers are those who, from folly, have slain their children, without knowledge, and have forbidden that which Allah bestowed upon them (of risq and food), inventing a lie against Allah. (Al-Quran, 6:140)

There is not a creature on earth, but its sustenance depends on Allah. He knows its habitations and its depository. All is in a clear record [book]. (Al-Quran, 11:6)

The also invoke the description of wives in the Qur’an as a tilth to their husbands, which implies to them that their continuous cultivation (impregnation) is the norm. They refer to Sura 2:

Your wives are as tilth unto you, so, Approach your tilth how you wish.            (Al-Quran, 2:223)            Marry and multiply, for I shall make a display of you before other nations on the Day of Judgment.

           A man came to the Prophet (PBUH) to ask his advice about a wealthy woman, who came from a prestigious family but was infertile. He asked the Prophet ` Should I marry her?` The Prophet did not agree with him. He came back twice with the same response. On the third time the Prophet said ` Marry the affectionate prolific woman, for I shall make a display of you before other nations.`

           Family planning as conspiracy, Muslim Minorities, The Questions of Wa’d and Rizq.

On the authority of Asma bint Zaid ibn al Sakn who said:

“I heard the prophet (P.B.U.H.) say: Do not kill your children unconsciously, for al-ghaylah will have in the future the same effect as when a horseman is overtaken (by an opponent) and thrown of his horse.”

This tradition strongly discourages al-ghaylah (Omran, 1994).

Abdullah bin Asud said that a man asked Allah’s Messenger what was the greatest sin in the sight of Allah, to which he replied, “That you should treat anything as equal to Allah when He as created you.” What next?” he asked, to which he replied, “That you should not your child for fear that he may eat along with you.” “What next? He asked, to which he replied, “That you should commit adultery with your neighbor’s wife” (Imran, 1970).

2.6.2   Proponents of Family Planning

Quran Maintained that fetus reached the seventh stage than another creator comes into existence.

Man We did create from a quintessence of clay;

Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm [nutfa] in a place of rest firmly fixed;

Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood [alaqa];

Then of that clot We made a [fetus] lump [mudgha];

Then We made out of that lump bones;

And clothed the bones with flesh;

Then We developed of it ‘another creature’ [Khalqan’ aakhar];

Blessed be Allah, the best to create.’ (Al-Quran, 23:12.13, 14)

Another evidence for spacing is and mothers shall suckle their children two full years for those who wish to complete breast-feeding (Al-Quran, 2:233)

In another verse a child’s weaning was specified to be in two years:

And his weaning is in two years. (Al-Quran, 31:14)

Islamic philosophy was the first criteria used to evaluate the specific objectives. Quran and Hadiths were used to judge the Islamic standpoint about these issues.

(Jabee, 1992) clearly discussed that fundamental aims and objectives should be specific and in accordance with the Islamic teaching of Holy Quran and Hadiths.

Arain (1993) also discussed that as Pakistan is an Islamic state so objectives of education must be inspired by the Islamic way of life, its values, ideals, attitudes, rights and obligations.

Table 3:           Islamic philosophy about population, environment and drug education.

Area Proponents Opponents
Quaranic verses Hadith Total Quranic verses Hadith Total
POPED 8 3 11 6 4 10


Table 3 depicts the clear Islamic standpoint about Population, Environmental and Drug Education. From analysis of table 3, it is clear that Islam completely favours the environmental and drug education, whereas equal number of Quranic verses and Hadiths were given by both proponents and opponents of family planning. Concepts of population education presented in Islamiat was also contradictory as compared to other subjects taught in educational institutions.

Haroun (1999), Omran (1994) and Maududi (1993) also have opponent point of view, which was translated in Islamiat that in Islam Population Planning should be strictly banned.

In Pakistan, family and population planning is controversial issue. There are two schools of thought, one in favour and other is against. Both presented their arguments from Holy Quran and Hadith.

From this discussion it is concluded that population education is a controversial issue. There is urgent need to discuss this issue at national level along with active participation of all religious leaders. Proper decision will be helpful to formulate the future strategy for the implementation of population programme and remove the existing ambiguity.

Writing behavioural objective is highly technical and complex task. It involves several aspects such as deciding on the elements of objectives, seeing, taxonomic relevance, choosing proper language and sequencing. Tyler, Mager, Michaelis, MaAsan, Grounlund, Leonard, Utz and several other curriculum experts developed several criterian for the evaluation  of the statements of behavioural objectives.

Goraha (1993) considered that criteria of Michealis having six elements time, percent, behavior, object, performance level and conditions is most appropriate to evaluate the objectives statements. Applying the criteria of Michaelis, Specific behavioural objectives statements of population, environmental and drug education were analyzed.

Area Verb (%) Time (%) Who (%) Behaviour (%) Object (%) Condition (%) Agg.  (%)
Active Ambiguous Stated Not Stated Stated Not Stated Stated Not Stated Stated Not Stated Stated Not Sated Stated Not Sated
POPED 0 100 100 0 0 100 5 95 0 100 18 82 20.5 79.5


Table 4 clearly shows that specific objective of Population, were not properly translated into behavioral (measurable) statements. Almost seventy nine percent objectives were not translated according to Michaelis six point criteria.

From analysis, it is clear that only twenty one percent objectives were written in behavioural terms whereas seventy nine percent objective are not properly translated. There is urgent need to revise the objective statements of curriculum.

The results obtained from analysis of previous researches and tables, it is concluded that Population Education was not according to the criteria of philosophical foundation presented by both Arain (1993) and Jabeen (1994).

                                             

CONCLUSIONS

           From the findings of the research study following conclusion were drawn:The objectives of population education were poorly designed and did not meet the criteria of measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound. Objectives met only criterion of specific statement.

1.     Pakistan is an Islamic state, the aims and objectives of education must be inspired by Islamic ideology. Quranic verses and Hadiths were used to draw Islamic standpoint. Analysis shown that equal number of both Quranic verses and Hadith were in favour and against the population education. Furthermore curriculum experts also considered population education as a controversial issue.

2.     Michaelis, six point criteria of writing behavioural objectives was used to evaluate the objective statements. Almost seventy nine percent behavioural objective were not properly stated.

REFERENCES

Arain, A.A. 1993, Foundations of Curriculum. AIOU, Islamabad. P. 41-42

Ashraf, T. 1967, Zia ul Quran, Islamic Publications, Lahore. P. 507-509

Al-Quran, 2:223, 2:232, 2:266, 5:90-91, 6:140, 6:151,9:25, 11:6, 11:8, 15:4, 17:31, 21:31, 23:12, 13,14, 24:45, 31:14, 33:36, 46:15, 60:12, 78:14-16, 79:27-33.

Goraha, M.A. 1993, Aims Goals and Objectives of Education. AIOU, Islamabad. p. 105-106.

Govt. of Pakistan, 1997a. Population Education Curriculum for Classes (I-V) Ministry of Education, Islamabad. p IV-V.

Govt. of Pakistan, 1997b. Population Education Curriculum for Classes (VI-X) Ministry of Education, Islamabad. p III-IV.

Govt. of Pakistan, 1998. National Education Policy 1998-2010. Elementary Education. Ministry of Education, Islamabad. p 32,44.

Govt. of Pakistan, 1999a. National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks. Curriculum Wing Ministry of Education, Islamabad. p 11,18,19.

Govt. of Pakistan, 1999b. Evaluation of Population Education on formal system. Curriculum Wing, Ministry of Education, Islamabad. p 11,18,19.

Govt. of Pakistan, 2000a. Population and Development Profile. Ministry of Population Welfare, Islamabad. p 1-12.

Haroun, A.1999. Islamic Principles on Family Planning. Darul-Ishaat, Karachi. P 28-29.

Imran, M.1970. Who are sinfull women according to Quran and Hadith. M. Siraj-ud-Din and Sons, Karachi, 26 pp.

Jabeen, F. 1992. Development of Aims Goals Objectives and Curriculum in Pakistan. IER University of the Punjab, Lahore. P 92-93.

Maududi, A.A. 1993. Birth Control. Islamic Publications, Lahore. P 172-175.

Omran, A.R. 1994. Family Planning in the Legacy of Islam. Routlege, USA. p. 86, 101, 113.