Excellence of the Holy Qur’an in the Science of Human Behaviour, Psychology

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Bayān al-Ḥikmah
Title Excellence of the Holy Qur’an in the Science of Human Behaviour, Psychology
Author(s) Khan, Saqib Muhammad
Volume 3
Issue 1
Year 2017
Pages 11-24
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
Keywords Psychology, Humanity, Nature, Spirit, Existence
Chicago 16th Khan, Saqib Muhammad. "Excellence of the Holy Qur’an in the Science of Human Behaviour, Psychology." Bayān al-Ḥikmah 3, no. 1 (2017).
APA 6th Khan, S. M. (2017). Excellence of the Holy Qur’an in the Science of Human Behaviour, Psychology. Bayān al-Ḥikmah, 3(1).
MHRA Khan, Saqib Muhammad. 2017. 'Excellence of the Holy Qur’an in the Science of Human Behaviour, Psychology', Bayān al-Ḥikmah, 3.
MLA Khan, Saqib Muhammad. "Excellence of the Holy Qur’an in the Science of Human Behaviour, Psychology." Bayān al-Ḥikmah 3.1 (2017). Print.
Harvard KHAN, S. M. 2017. Excellence of the Holy Qur’an in the Science of Human Behaviour, Psychology. Bayān al-Ḥikmah, 3.

Abstract

The Science of Human Behavior (Psychology) governs every facet of our lifespan. The scope of psychology is so vast that it touches all major disciplines of medical science, social science, cultural studies and humanities. It does not just connect with subjects ranging from mathematics and biology to sociology and philosophy, but its methods and discoveries help other disciplines as well. Psychology influences legal affairs and national policies, yet it primarily deals with the cognition of human nature and its relevance to the respective domain. The article is aimed to elaborate that the comprehension of human behaviour in the illumination of the Holy Qur’an is an essential need in every aspect of life such as; educational activities, social and political institutions, ethical reflection or societal choice and the method of preaching.


Psychology is explained as the study of Human behaviour. It is defined as the science of behaviour and mental process. Determining the definition of psychology, Dr. David G. Myers says,

“Many psychologists now study how our minds process and retain information to encompass psychology’s concern both with overt behaviour and covert thoughts and feelings. Thus, we define psychology as ‘The science of behaviour and mental processes’.” [1]

Today, we cannot afford not to know about psychology as it affects every facet of our lifespan. It is not confined to a certain mental health profession that is devoted to dealing with some practical matters as how to have a happy marriage, how to overcome anxiety or depression, and how to raise children etc. Rather, it has different branches for specific subjects. Henry E. Garrett defines few of them as,

The applied psychologist seeks to discover to what extent people differ in intelligence, aptitude, and personality. The clinical psychologist investigates a person’s life history and abilities so that he may improve that person’s emotional and social adjustments. The social psychologist attempts to understand group behaviour – to discover the antecedents of delinquency, to determine why crowds become mobs, why nations go to war, and so on. Whatever their special interests, all psychologists have in common the study of human behaviour – why people do what they do.” [2]

The study of human behaviour (psychology) has not only broadened the knowledge of humanity but also assists the learners to become better, broader and finer people. It is the reason that psychology is always intended for social wellbeing. It enables people to grow closer as they understand each other better. Thus, conclusively we can assert that psychology is the science of human behaviour and mental process that encompasses our life wholly and plays an inevitable role in helping people transform their behaviours. It brings people from sorrows to happiness, from anxiety and distress to the state of contentedness, from disappointment and frustration to courageousness and pleasure, and of course from the darkness of wickedness to the brightness of righteousness.

Holy Qur’an, being the universal book for humanity, describes itself as the guidance that brings humanity to light from the darkness. It is stated in the Holy Qur’an,

[3]وَیُخْرِجُہُمۡ مِّنِ الظُّلُمٰتِ اِلَی النُّوۡرِ بِاِذْنِہٖ وَیَہۡدِیۡہِمْ اِلٰی صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِیۡمٍ ﴿۱۶﴾

Translation:“And brings them to light from the darkness by His Command and shows the right path.”[4]

In the above verse, Almighty Allah refers faith as light, while apostasy as darkness.[5] It should be remembered that apostasy or transgression is the worst condition of behavioural disorder and faith is the perpetual comfort, tranquillity and relaxation. So, the Holy Qur’an brings humanity from the worst state of behavioural disorder to the best. This is precisely what science of Psychology claims and tends to act.

Moreover, the Holy Qur’an repeatedly invites to ponder over your creation – the self. In fact, this is a call for research and study of human behaviours.

[6]وَ فِی الْاَرْضِ اٰیٰتٌ لِّلْمُوۡقِنِیۡنَ ﴿ۙ۲۰﴾ وَ فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِکُمْ اَفَلَا تُبْصِرُوۡنَ ﴿۲۱﴾

Translation:“And in the earth, there are signs for those who are certain. And in your own selves; so can you not perceive?”[7]

[8]سَنُرِیۡہِمْ اٰیٰتِنَا فِی الْاٰفَاقِ وَ فِیۡۤ اَنۡفُسِہِمْ حَتّٰی یَتَبَیَّنَ لَہُمْ اَنَّہُ الْحَقُّ

Translation:“We shall soon show them Our Signs in the horizon and in themselves, till it becomes clear to them that it is the truth.” [9]

The above-quoted verses are the invitation to reflect over and realise the self. As recognition of the self-gives firm control on desires, a better understanding of the faith and guidance towards a pious and exalted character which leads to serene and successful life.

The Holy Qur’an sketches the nature of human creation and various psychological facets. It also mentions remedial measures of psychological disorder. These issues are indispensably elaborated in the Holy Book as it is the ultimate guide for humanity revealed to purify their self and groom them to attain exalted behaviour.

Verses regarding the psyche of humanity are the radiant guidelines for interpreting and maintaining behaviours of any person. It distinctly concludes that the science of psychology whose postulations connects to the true description of the human being is fully described in the Holy Qur’an.

Transcendence of the Holy Qur’an over Modern Psychology in Description of Human Nature and Behaviors

The Holy Qur’an stands superior in the description of a human. It identifies the qualities of both righteous and unrighteous people, and it shows those features, which conduce to the righteousness and sinfulness.[10]

It is a well-known fact that to comprehend the human completely; it is essential to recognise all those factors which bring change in human. When modern psychologists study these factors, they only consider biological, societal, or cultural elements. In the biological study, they describe inherit effects, bodily structure and mental state, while in social aspect they normally describe experiences of childhood especially treatment of parents and other members of the family. Likewise, in cultural issues, they sketch social degrees and effects on any person from welfare organisations and friend circle. In this way, factors, which bring change in any human, can be divided into two classes; first, inherent factors that emerge from the self. And the second, environmental components which come from outer influences.[11]

When modern psychologists discuss factors, which bring change in self, they avoid spiritual issues. Their research is based on the scientific experiments, which suits their pattern of study. Therefore, the discussion on the influence of spiritual factors of the self-does not exist in the modern Psychology. Hence, due to this negligence (from spiritual elements) psychologists could not attain to the ultimate remedy of behavioural disorder.[12]

We cannot understand human nature comprehensively and wholly until and unless we comprehend all influencing factors either they are material, social, ethnic or spiritual. The study of human nature restricted to the biological and social factors and negligence from the spiritual influences gives an obscure and incomprehensible concept of humans.

The Holy Qur’an, describing human beings, does not discuss only biological and social aspects associated with a human. Rather, it presents an all-encompassing perfect description of the human including spiritual elements of the human nature as well.

About creation of human the Holy Qur’an states:

وَ اِذْ قَالَ رَبُّکَ لِلْمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اِنِّیۡ خَالِقٌۢ بَشَرًا مِّنۡ صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَاٍ مَّسْنُوۡنٍ ﴿۲۸﴾ فَاِذَا سَوَّیۡتُہٗ وَنَفَخْتُ فِیۡہِ مِنۡ رُّوۡحِیۡ فَقَعُوۡا لَہٗ سٰجِدِیۡنَ ﴿۲۹﴾ [13]

Translation:“And recall when your Lord said to the angels, ‘I am about to create human beings from the ringing clay which is of the black smelling mud!’ Then when I had informed him and have breathed into him from my special esteem spirit, then fall down in prostration for him.” [14]

The word ‘spirit’ is used in the Holy Qur’an in multiple meanings.[15] In the verses regarding Prophet Adam, the word ‘spirit’ stands for “The strength and quality through which a human develops eminent calibres in his self and a relation with his Creator”[16] (This distinguishes him from an animal like behaviour).

A human concerning his physical needs resembles animals, but the existence of spirit is the prime distinction which stimulates virtuous attributes in his character. So, because of this distinctive characteristic, the human is elevated to the status of the vicegerent of Almighty Allah on this earth.

وَ اِذْ قَالَ رَبُّکَ لِلْمَلٰٓئِکَۃِ اِنِّیۡ جَاعِلٌ فِی الۡاَرْضِ خَلِیۡفَۃً[17]

Translation:“And when your Lord said to the angels: ‘Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successor’ (vicegerent)".[18]

In short, it can be averred that the quality, which separates a man from an animal is the spirit that instils faith and ethical motive in him.

The Holy Qur’an does not entirely explain the existence of spirit in a human being, but it further elaborates its functions and different stages of its growth.

The Holy Qur’an states that the personality of a human being is composed of Spiritual attributes and Devilish desires. This is a constant struggle between spiritual inspiration (urging towards righteous acts) and worldly cravings (attracting towards evil desires). The Holy Qur’an, at several places, explains this phenomenon:

فَاَمَّا مَنۡ طَغٰی ﴿ۙ۳۷﴾ وَ اٰثَرَ الْحَیٰوۃَ الدُّنْیَا ﴿ۙ۳۸﴾ فَاِنَّ الْجَحِیۡمَ ہِیَ الْمَاوٰی ﴿۳۹﴾ وَ اَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّہٖ وَ نَہَی النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْہَوٰی ﴿ۙ۴۰﴾ فَاِنَّ الْجَنَّۃَ ہِیَ الْمَاۡوٰی ﴿۴۱﴾[19]

Translation:“Then, as for those who rebelled. And preferred the life of this world. Surely, Hell will be their destination. But as for those who fear Allah, to stand before their Lord and restrain themselves from lust. Verily Paradise is their destination.” [20]

These verses categorically elaborate that those who transgress, suffer a breakdown of values that results in their faulty standards of behaviour. Thus, hell will be their dwelling place. While those who fear Allah and does not indulge in sin through control of caprice and desires, he stays in the area of obedience and Allah gives him paradise as a reward.[21]

Sayyid Qutb says,

“God, the Creator of man, knows the human soul, its weaknesses and their effective cure. He does not ask a man to suppress his desires, because He knows that it is not possible for him to do so. He simply asks man to control his desires and not to let them control him. He tells him that fear of standing before his Lord, the Almighty, should be of great assistance. He has fixed his reward for this hard struggle: paradise as a dwelling place. For God knows perfectly well the hardships involved in this struggle and the high standards to which man is elevated by the same. This struggle, self-control and elevation help man fulfill his humanity. Such fulfillment cannot be achieved by giving way to all desires, and following caprice wherever it leads, on the pretext that desire and caprice are part of human nature. God, who made man sensitive to certain urges, also gave him self-discipline. He also gives him paradise as a reward when he elevates himself to a high standard of humanity.” [22]

The Holy Qur’an does not merely distinguish the general purpose of the spiritual existence, but it also explains the different stages of the spiritual inspiration and its outcome.

اَرَءَیۡتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ اِلٰـہَہٗ ہُوٰىہُ اَفَاَنۡتَ تَکُوۡنُ عَلَیۡہِ وَکِیۡلًا ﴿ۙ۴۳﴾ اَمْ تَحْسَبُ اَنَّ اَکْثَرَہُمْ یَسْمَعُوۡنَ اَوْ یَعْقِلُوۡنَ اِنْ ہُمْ اِلَّا کَالْاَنْعَامِ بَلْ ہُمْ اَضَلُّ سَبِیۡلًا ﴿٪۴۴﴾[23]

Translation:“Have you seen him who has taken as his god to be his own desire? Will you then take the responsibility of being a guardian over him? Or do you think that most of them hear and understand? They are not but like cattle, nay, but they are the worst astray from the path.” [24]

Commenting on this verse, Sayyid Qutb says,

“This verse is carefully phrased to paint a picture showing the psychological condition of a person who pays no heed to accepted standards or values. Instead, they only submit to their own desires and worship none but their own pleasure. They apply no standard, recognize no value, and acknowledge no logic. Once their desire moves clearly in a particular direction, they follow like slaves submitting to a powerful master.

Almighty Allah hurls further ridicule on those who submit to their lust and worship their desire, turning a blind eye to the truth. It puts them on the same level as animals which are devoid of hearing or logic. People, who take their desires as their gods which they blindly obey, ignore all the signs they hear and see are indeed like cattle.”[25]

The Three spiritual levels of Human Nature:

In a description of the spiritual influence of human nature, the Holy Qur’an presents three stages of the spiritual development in humans:

  1. Nafs-e-Ammara
  2. Nafs-e-Lawwama
  3. Nafs-e-Mutmainnah
  4. Nafs-e-Ammara

A human being is differentiated from animals by his ability to recognise the truth. Also, a man has a quality to shape his life concerning the truth he has understood. The major characteristic of a man is the tendency to transform his life, having influenced by the truth. When any person gives up these attributes, he becomes worse than that of beasts. And if this stage of any human holds his mentality altogether, he cannot control his desires and blindly follows appetites. Hence, in the end, he becomes the slave of “Nafs-e-Ammara” – an inner force tempting towards evil desires. Stating this stage of a human, Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani says,

“And if the soul got inclined to the earthly world, and getting engrossed in the tastes and pleasures (wishes) of the world, eagerly desired the vice and fled from the following of the Shariah, that soul is called Nafse Ammara i.e. Soul bidding to vice, because that Nafs bids man to evil.” [26]

The Holy Qur’an outlines this theory of spiritual decline as,

وَمَاۤ اُبَرِّیُٔ نَفْسِیۡ ۚ اِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَاَمَّارَۃٌۢ بِالسُّوۡٓءِ اِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّیۡ اِنَّ رَبِّیۡ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ ﴿۵۳﴾ [27]

Translation:“And I do not hold my soul free from sin no doubt the soul is won't to command evil but that on whom my Lord has mercy No doubt, my Lord is Forgiving, Merciful.”[28]

  1. Nafs-e-Lawwama

When human realises his wrongdoings and confessing them turns towards Almighty Allah, he struggles from his evil desires to attain piety. This feel and spirit are caused by ‘Nafs-e-Lawwama’ – the inner force which resists evils and leads towards confession and turning righteous. Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani says,

“And sometimes the soul bends in the earthly world and is absorbed in lust and rage, and sometimes inclining to the upper world considers those things as bad and flees away from them, and if he commits some evil he feels ashamed and repents, such a soul is called Nafse Lawwama (Reproachful Soul).”[29]

The Holy Qur’an mentions this reprehensive spiritual state in human as:

[30]لَاۤ اُقْسِمُ بِیَوْمِ الْقِیٰمَۃِ ۙ﴿۱﴾ وَ لَاۤ اُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَۃِ ﴿۲﴾

Translation: “I swear By the Day of Resurrection. And indeed swear by the reprehensive soul.” [31]

  1. Nafs-e-Mutmainnah

When human, having confessed his wrongdoings, turn towards Allah, follow all His instructions and attains His pleasure. This is the stage when he gets able to control his desires, and he balances his physical needs and spiritual requisites. This stage leads him to the highest degree of humanity. And he attains a soul that stays content in felicity and adversity. Such soul is free from transgressions and disobedience of Allah.[32] This is the purest stage of spiritual evolution which is named as “Nafs-e-Mutmainnah”. The Holy Qur’an addresses such soul in a tender, compassionate and reassuring expression:

[33]یٰۤاَیَّتُہَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّۃُ ﴿٭ۖ۲۷﴾ ارْجِعِیۡۤ اِلٰی رَبِّکِ رَاضِیَۃً مَّرْضِیَّۃً ﴿ۚ۲۸﴾

Translation: “O you contented human soul. Return to your Lord, so pleased with Him, as He is pleased with you. So you enter among My chosen devotees. And you enter My Paradise.”[34]

Holy Qur’an is the ultimate guidance. Thus, it encompasses various issues of human nature. The description of human nature in the Holy Qur’an does not limit itself to the description of spiritual, biological and social aspects; rather it also delineates the reasons and drives of the refinement and improvement in one’s behaviour. And it elaborates factors and elements that result in the declination of one’s nature.

Causative of improvement in Human Nature:

The Holy Qur’an in various places outlines the elements that cause progressive and superior human behaviour.

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللہَ وَ قُوۡلُوۡا قَوْلًا سَدِیۡدًا ﴿ۙ۷۰﴾ یُّصْلِحْ لَکُمْ اَعْمٰلَکُمْ وَیَغْفِرْ لَکُمْ ذُنُوۡبَکُمْ وَمَنۡ یُّطِعِ اللہَ وَ رَسُوۡلَہٗ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِیۡمًا ﴿۷۱﴾[35]

Translation:“O believers! Fear Allah and speak the right word. He will set right your deeds for you and will forgive your sins. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has achieved great success.”[36]

It is instructed to fear Allah as it keeps one away from any transgression and if this quality sets firmly in mind, it makes one avoid lying, backbite, proud, oppression of weak and poor, dishonouring parents, and exploiting rights of fellow organisms. Sayyid Qutb in explanation of these verses says,

“The Surah directs the believers to say only what is just, true and accurate. They are instructed to say right words leading to right action. God takes care of those who make sure of saying what is right, proper and accurate, guiding their footsteps and making their deeds sound, producing good results. God also forgives the sins of those who say what is right and do righteous deeds, for even they are not immune to slips and errors. They are all human, and by nature humans err and need God’s forgiveness.

To obey God and His Messenger is, in itself, a great triumph, because it gives comfort and reassurance. Moreover, it achieves entry into heaven. Enjoying the bliss in the life to come is an act of grace which is over and above the reward for such obedience. It is a grace bestowed by God freely, without anything being asked in return.”[37]

This state of spiritual contentment is the achievement of mental and emotional relaxation and eternal happiness that enlightens one’s personality and brings glory to his behaviour.

Beside this faithful and believing attitude, our pious acts and worship also work as a deterrent to our psyche and character. This fact is categorically stated in many verses of the Holy Qur’an. About fasting it says;

[38]یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا کُتِبَ عَلَیۡکُمُ الصِّیَامُ کَمَا کُتِبَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ مِنۡ قَبْلِکُمْ لَعَلَّکُمْ تَتَّقُوۡنَ ﴿۱۸۳﴾ۙ

Translation:“O you who believe! Fasting has been made obligatory upon you as it was made obligatory upon those before you, so that you may become pious.”[39]

The primary and principal objective and function of fasting is to be God-fearing. Fasting naturally instils the quality of piety in the human heart. In addition, it also acts as a safeguard against wrongdoings.

As fasting is described in the Holy Qur’an as a mean and founding stone to attain piety – the exalted human nature, similarly the recitation of the Holy Qur’an and offering Prayers have also been suggested as the effective sources for gaining righteousness in the personality and getting rid of evil behaviours:

اُتْلُ مَاۤ اُوۡحِیَ اِلَیۡکَ مِنَ الْکِتٰبِ وَ اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوۃَ اِنَّ الصَّلٰوۃَ تَنْہٰی عَنِ الْفَحْشَآءِ وَالْمُنۡکَرِ وَلَذِکْرُ اللہِ اَکْبَرُ وَاللہُ یَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُوۡنَ﴿۴۵﴾[40]

Translation:“O beloved! Recite the Book that has been revealed to you, and establish prayer. Undoubtedly, the prayer forbids one from indecency and evil thing. And no doubt, the remembrance of Allah is the greatest. And Allah knows what you do.”[41]

This verse states that the True Salaah which is performed punctually and with utmost sincerity will certainly enable one to give up ones evil habits.” [42]Prayer purifies our soul and refrains us from indulging in the indecent and evil doings. Consequently establishes our character and brings glorification in one’s nature.

Along with worship, the Holy Qur’an further elaborates that our good morals and ethics also act as a mean of attaining excellence in our behaviour. It presents a concept that our positive actions reflect on the positive development of our nature. Referring Hazrat Musa, Allah states the reward of his good doings,

[43]وَلَمَّا بَلَغَ اَشُدَّہٗ وَاسْتَوٰۤی اٰتَیۡنٰہُ حُکْمًا وَّ عِلْمًا وَکَذٰلِکَ نَجْزِی الْمُحْسِنِیۡنَ ﴿۱۴﴾

Translation:“And when he reached his grown up age and attained his full strength, We bestowed him Judgement and knowledge. And thus We reward the good-doers.”[44]

For the guidance of believers, the Holy Qur’an also points out distinguished qualities which serve in the maturation of one’s nature. For example, about patience, the Holy Qur’an states;

[45]سَلٰمٌ عَلَیۡکُمۡ بِمَا صَبَرْتُمْ فَنِعْمَ عُقْبَی الدَّارِ ﴿۲۴﴾

Translation:“Peace be upon you for your patience. What an excellent last abode you received.”[46]

Similarly, in the several places in the Holy Qur’an humans are taught about such attributes and instincts that are the causative in the improvement of humanity.

Conclusively, we can postulate that our firm faith, the practicality of our belief, our services, devotion and reverence to the God and moral practices are the strong means of development and amelioration of our behaviour. Allah bestows strength in our soul and desirable features in our personality for our virtuousness.

Signs of Decline in Behavior

In the course of progress in human nature and to secure human beings from worsening of their nature, Holy Qur’an indicates some elements which lead to the decline in one’s behaviours:

یٰۤاَیُّہَا الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَیۡسِرُ وَ الۡاَنۡصَابُ وَ الۡاَزْلٰمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّیۡطٰنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوۡہُ لَعَلَّکُمْ تُفْلِحُوۡنَ ﴿۹۰﴾ اِنَّمَا یُرِیۡدُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ اَنۡ یُّوۡقِعَ بَیۡنَکُمُ الْعَدٰوَۃَ وَالْبَغْضَآءَ فِی الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَیۡسِرِ وَیَصُدَّکُمْ عَنۡ ذِکْرِ اللہِ وَعَنِ الصَّلٰوۃِ ۚ فَہَلْ اَنۡتُمۡ مُّنۡتَہُوۡنَ ﴿۹۱﴾[47]

Translation:“O believers! Wine and gambling and idols and foretelling through arrows are only unclean things, a work of Shaitaan. So, save yourselves from them, that you may prosper. The devil (Shaitaan) desires only to infuse hatred and enmity among you through wine and gambling and to bar you from the remembrance of Allah and from Prayer will you then desist?”[48]

Human beings are instructed to keep away from wine, gambling or other wrongful activities because if they indulge in these, it will result in enmity and differences among them. Sayyid Qutb, explaining the effects of wine and gambling upon human nature states,

“Intoxicants weaken one’s consciousness and self-control, heighten tempers and stir up whims and impulses. Gambling and all games of chance leave people with a sense of loss and grudges. It is natural that a losing gambler nurses a strong grudge against the winner who takes away his money from under his nose and leaves him empty-handed. It is only natural that such matters stir up enmity and hatred, regardless of the impression of happiness they initially give off.

The fact that intoxicants and gambling do turn people away from their remembrance of God and prayer is too clear to require elaboration. Drinking makes people forget, and gambling makes them oblivious to everything else. Indeed, games of chance keep gamblers in a state of intoxication which is not dissimilar to that produced by drink. The world of a gambler is akin to that of a drunk: tables, glasses and a strike of fortune or misfortune.”[49]

Similarly, about the consequences of devouring interest the Holy Qur’an states,

اَلَّذِیۡنَ یَاۡکُلُوۡنَ الرِّبٰوا لَا یَقُوۡمُوۡنَ اِلَّا کَمَا یَقُوۡمُ الَّذِیۡ یَتَخَبَّطُہُ الشَّیۡطٰنُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذٰلِکَ بِاَنَّہُمْ قَالُوۡۤا اِنَّمَا الْبَیۡعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبٰواۘ وَاَحَلَّ اللہُ الْبَیۡعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبٰوا فَمَنۡ جَآءَہٗ مَوْعِظَۃٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّہٖ فَانۡتَہٰی فَلَہٗ مَا سَلَفَ وَاَمْرُہٗۤ اِلَی اللہِ

وَمَنْ عَادَ فَاُولٰٓئِکَ اَصْحٰبُ النَّارِۚ ہُمْ فِیۡہَا خٰلِدُوۡنَ﴿۲۷۵﴾[50]

Translation:“Those who devour interest (usury) cannot stand on the Day of Judgement, except like one who is touched by Shaitaan into insanity. That is because they say: "The trade, too, is just like interest". But, Allah has permitted trade and forbidden interest. So, whoever has received direction from His Lord and refrains from it, whatever he took before is lawful for him. And his affair is with Allah. But, whoever returns (to dealing with interest), they are the inmates of the Fire, wherein they will abide eternally.”[51]

Sayyid Qutb in the commentary of the above verse explicitly elaborates the menaces and evil effects of usury,

“The usury system is a curse on all humanity, not only ethically and religiously, but also economically and practically. It is a system that creates unhappiness and restricts the growth of harmony and stability in society, despite its deceptive promise of prosperity. A usury-based economic system is bound to undermine the moral and ethical character of individuals, their feelings and their desire to help each other. It encourages greed, selfishness, lechery and speculation.”[52]

These are the few examples from the Holy Qur’an which outline the decline of human behaviour and its nature.

In the light of the above discussion, it can be stated veritably that the Holy Qur’an stands superlative in the guidance of human psychology and dealing with human nature comprehensively. As compared with the modern science of psychology, the Holy Qur’an does not entirely conform to the basic laws of human conduct but also provides complete guidance and a practical approach of dealing with human behaviours far beyond and above then the restricted study of the modern psychologists.

Hence, the understanding of human behaviour and psyche in the illumination of the Holy Qur’an is vital and a fundamental necessity, whatever the fields of application: educational actions, methods of preaching, medical field, social and political institutions, ethical reflection or societal choice.

References

  1. David G. Myers, Psychology (third edition) 1992, Worth Publishers, New York, pg. 6
  2. Henry E. Garrett, General Psychology (second edition) 1961, Eurasia Publishing House (Pvt.) Ltd. New Dehli-1, pg. 1, 2
  3. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Maaida 5: 16
  4. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 115
  5. Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan Badayuni, Noor-ul-Irfan, English Translation by Mohammad Hossain Mukaddam, Darululoom Pretoria, South Africa, 2008, Volume 1, pg. 345
  6. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Zariyat 51: 20-21
  7. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 605, 606
  8. Holy Qur’an: Surah Haa-Meem Al-Sajda 41: 53
  9. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 555, 556
  10. Holy Qur’an: Surah Ar-Ra’d 13: 20-22, Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-A’raaf 7: 40-41
  11. Muhammad Usman Najati, QUR’AN AUR ILM-E-NAFS, Urdu Translation by Fahim Akhtar Nadwi, Al-Faisal Publishers, Lahore, Edition 2003, pg. 256
  12. Muhammad Usman Najati, QUR’AN AUR ILM-E-NAFS, Urdu Translation by Fahim Akhtar Nadwi, Al-Faisal Publishers, Lahore, Edition 2003, pg. 257
  13. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Hijr 15: 28, 29
  14. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 281
  15. Bahi Kholi, ‘Adam Elehi Salam’, pg. 21-24, Muhammad Usman Najati, QUR’AN AUR ILM-E-NAFS, Urdu Translation by Fahim Akhtar Nadwi, Al-Faisal Publishers, Lahore, Edition 2003, pg. 258
  16. Bahi Kholi, ‘Adam Elehi Salam’, pg. 22, Muhammad Usman Najati, QUR’AN AUR ILM-E-NAFS, Urdu Translation by Fahim Akhtar Nadwi, Al-Faisal Publishers, Lahore, Edition 2003, pg. 258
  17. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Baqara 2: 30
  18. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 5
  19. Holy Qur’an: Surah An-Naazi’aat 79: 37-41
  20. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 699, 700
  21. Sayyid Qutb, ‘Fi Zilalil-Quran’, English Translated version, ‘In the Shade of Quran' by Adil Silahi, Volume: XVIII, Islamic Foundation, UK, 2003, pg. 31
  22. Ibid.
  23. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Furqaan 25: 43-44
  24. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 404
  25. Sayyid Qutb, ‘Fi Zilalil-Quran’, English Translated version, ‘In the Shade of Quran’ by Adil Silahi, Volume: XII, Islamic Foundation, UK, 2003, pg. 322
  26. Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Tafseer-e-Usmani, English Translation ‘The Noble Qur’an’ by Mohammad Ashfaq Ahmad, Darul-Isha’at Publishers, Karachi, Edition 1999, Vol 3, pg. 2490
  27. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Yousuf 12: 53
  28. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 256
  29. Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Tafseer-e-Usmani, English Translation ‘The Noble Qur’an’ by Mohammad Ashfaq Ahmad, Darul-Isha’at Publishers, Karachi, Edition 1999, Vol. 3, pg. 2490
  30. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Qiyaama 75: 1, 2
  31. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 687
  32. Sayyid Qutb, ‘Fi Zilalil-Quran’, English Translated version, ‘In the Shade of Quran’ by Adil Silahi, Volume: XVIII, Islamic Foundation, UK, 2003, pg. 156
  33. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Fajr 89: 27-30
  34. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 716, 717
  35. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Ahzaab 33: 70, 71
  36. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 483
  37. Sayyid Qutb, ‘Fi Zilalil-Quran’, English Translated version, ‘In the Shade of Quran’ by Adil Silahi, Volume: XIV, Islamic Foundation, UK, 2003, pg. 93
  38. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Baqara 2: 183
  39. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 29
  40. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Ankaboot 29: 45
  41. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 454
  42. Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan Badayuni, Noor-ul-Irfan, English Translation by Mohammad Hossain Mukaddam, Darululoom Pretoria, South Africa, 2008, vol.2, pg. 228
  43. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Qasas 28: 14
  44. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 437
  45. Holy Qur’an: Surah Ar-Ra’d 13: 24
  46. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 267
  47. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Maaida 5: 90-91
  48. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 128
  49. Sayyid Qutb, ‘Fi Zilalil-Quran’, English Translated version, ‘In the Shade of Quran’ by Adil Silahi, Volume: IV, Islamic Foundation, UK, 2003, pg. 208
  50. Holy Qur’an: Surah Al-Baqara 2: 275
  51. Ahmad Raza, ‘Kanz-ul-Imaan’, English Translation ‘The Treasure of Faith’ by Aqib Farid, Tayyab Group of Industries, Faisalabad, Pakistan 2013, pg. 48, 49
  52. Sayyid Qutb, ‘Fi Zilalil-Quran’, English Translated version, ‘In the Shade of Quran’ by Adil Silahi, Volume: I, Islamic Foundation, UK, 2003, pg. 385, 386, 391


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