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Islamic Work Ethics With Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Knowledge Sharing Behaviors and Organizational Commitment: A Study on AJK Colleges

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Bibliographic Information
Journal Islamabad Islamicus
Title Islamic Work Ethics With Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Knowledge Sharing Behaviors and Organizational Commitment: A Study on AJK Colleges
Author(s) Malik, Muhammad Tahir, Nisbat Ali Malik
Volume 1
Issue 1
Year 2018
Pages 1-12
Full Text Crystal Clear mimetype pdf.png
Keywords Islamic work Ethic ( IWE ) , Organizational Citizenship behavior ( OCB ) , Organizational Commitment ( OC ) , Knowledge Sharing behavior( KSB)
Chicago 16th Malik, Muhammad Tahir, Nisbat Ali Malik. "Islamic Work Ethics With Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Knowledge Sharing Behaviors and Organizational Commitment: A Study on AJK Colleges." Islamabad Islamicus 1, no. 1 (2018).
APA 6th Malik, M. T., Malik, N. A. (2018). Islamic Work Ethics With Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Knowledge Sharing Behaviors and Organizational Commitment: A Study on AJK Colleges. Islamabad Islamicus, 1(1).
MHRA Malik, Muhammad Tahir, Nisbat Ali Malik. 2018. 'Islamic Work Ethics With Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Knowledge Sharing Behaviors and Organizational Commitment: A Study on AJK Colleges', Islamabad Islamicus, 1.
MLA Malik, Muhammad Tahir, Nisbat Ali Malik. "Islamic Work Ethics With Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Knowledge Sharing Behaviors and Organizational Commitment: A Study on AJK Colleges." Islamabad Islamicus 1.1 (2018). Print.
Harvard MALIK, M. T., MALIK, N. A. 2018. Islamic Work Ethics With Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Knowledge Sharing Behaviors and Organizational Commitment: A Study on AJK Colleges. Islamabad Islamicus, 1.

Abstract

Our research paper is about to know that how Islamic work ethic (IWE) on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), Knowledge sharing behavior (KSBs) and organizational commitment between workers of colleges of Hajeera, district Rawalakot, Azad Jammu Kashmir. We take 210 workers of different colleges from Azad Jammu Kashmir for the purpose of this study. Result indicates that Islamic work Ethics (IWE) plays a strong impact on Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB). In short one with having high Islamic work Ethics (IWE) possess more organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) as one who possess low Islamic work Ethics (IWE). Our results are indicating (IWE) has a direct relationship with Knowledge sharing behavior (KSB). One with high Islamic work Ethics (IWE) possess high Knowledge sharing behavior (KSB) as one with having low Islamic work Ethics (IWE) possess low Knowledge sharing behavior (KSB). In this paper we will show you theoretical & practical implications of our results.

Introduction

Weber (1905) gave the concept of work ethics. He brings an idea of Protestant Work ethics (PWE) behind this idea hard work individualism is involved. Many researchers conducted in west on PWE these researches indicate that there is difference in PWE and non PWE societies which are having other religion and beliefs. Many researchers worked on work ethic on several societies and identify that the main input of work ethic is religion. The idea of Islamic work ethic is presented by[1] both concepts of PEW and IWE emphasis on commitment, loyalty to work and prevent to earn wealth by use of wrong means[2] compare both IWE and PWE talks about intentions than results. An example is cited by Youssef that our prophet Muhammad said our activities have been recorded according to our objective. We will receive reward or punishment according to our intention. That action which is done with the purpose of to give harm to someone and one who gets benefits by doing this by giving harm to others such acts are out of Islamic laws. PWE comes from protestant sides and IWE comes from Quran as cited by Youssef [3]now the researchers are trying to learn business ethics through Islamic perspective including many reasons. Islam is becoming the second popular religion in the world and Muslims’ are growing faster day to day.[4] The world market is recognized as universal market place and business involves mixture of individuals having different religions and they have different cultures backgrounds. The globalization and innovation leads to the needs for people from different backgrounds.


Islam guides all mankind and specially to its admirers in all matters of life,[5] we all know the importance of Islam as a perfect religion no one tries to understand how Islam teaches its followers about work ethics. Previous studies tried to find out the impact of IWE on organizational development and change, job involvement and satisfaction, and the issue of motivation and finally to turnover. It is still needs to find out the impact of IWE on KSB, OCB and OC on workplace. OCB, KSB and OC productions are vital status in the victory of an organization. In this competitive era now the development and innovation, cooperation at workplace is very important for the survival of the firm. That firm gets success which replied customer’s new demands with innovative ideas services products. There is a need to sharing of knowledge and cooperation and all necessary behaviors at work for the innovation in products and services. Researchers also indicates that there is a strong connection between IWE to OCB, KSB and OC. Islam encourages collaboration at work and all sympathetic accomplishments like well-being that transforms into OCB as organizational context. Islam also promotes knowledge sharing by discussing knowledge at work. Our determination of the study is to describe that effect of IWE on OCB, OC and KSB and the extra role of KSB sharing our study will give the more detailed of an IWE.


Literature Review

From the long period of time researchers studied ethic to know or learn the reason human behave in different ways and prove their accomplishment on altered parklands. Ethics are known as the principles that clearly differ right from wrong. Previous studies indicates that business and other researchers are interesting to explain result of different ethical value on the workplace.[6]


Many studies on IWE done by[7] on the base according the rules of Quran and Sunnah of Muhammad (SAW).[8] Quran and Sunnah are the best and perfect guideline for passing life and someone must believe that Islam is valid for all personalities who approximating the Islam. The values of Islam are standard for the whole individuals in the world for every one’s life and who can apply them. These values and norms will remain un change in society and remain same instead of change over a period of time. Muslims are taking and understanding Islam as a way of life more than a religion.[9] Islamic ethical values are focusing all aspects of human life and teach us how to effort inside an association in Islamic rules. It is an ethic to be the leaders in economies there is no alternatives round. Every action is observed with the deep lens of Islamic ideals, conscience. The Quran is hardly preventing us to participate in time wasting, negative activities. According to Islam these activities are wasteful, Islam emphasis those positive activities which encourages social welfare and turn into OCB for organizational context .previous studies suggested that Muslims workers work attitudes and their management practices effected by Islamic values and beliefes.[10] Studies has been indicated that an individual useful contribution toward society and an organization responsibilities for their own employees. IWE is the combination and the name of work related principles which tells us the difference in the right and wrong ways according to the views of Islam. Islam focuses upon hardwork and creativity. Full involvement in work, Islamic principles strongly focus on coordination and cooperation between employees to make the work environment more encouraging, dynamic and useful, Islam is giving us a complete system regarding life which fulfil all aspect of life under ethic. Islam teaches us all aspect of life involving social, pecuniary life. Muslims needs to take guideline and follows Islamic way of passing life as given in Islamic laws which are very closed to GOD,[11] IWE in way has a direct relationship with Islamic laws as followed by Muslims regular & that’s why this is not limited to a single person or a specific society, professions. In the society of Islam cultural norm, values are guided by Islamic laws and principles not culture. In Islam it is clear that hard work is to be compulsory for societal prosperity. As our Holly Prophet told us the best food the person eat through his exertion.[12] Quran tells us every person has a rank as per his manners.[13] A man is nothing gets added than only what he go for that which he attempts. Islam teaches us do not be lazy & prevent us for wasting time by sitting idle or involved in activities which are not productive.[14] Islam focuses on cooperation at work & consultation as success. This is the reason in the organization such workers which follows Islamic principles involved in productive activities


Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

OCB refers as individual behavior which is known by the proper rewards system but it counts or improve an organizational effectiveness and its functions, OCB is noble, productive behavior by an employees in an organization.[15] OCB is one of the desirable behavior in workplace. Previous studies identify some individuals & organizational factors which affects OCB.


Knowledge -Sharing Behaviors

KSB plays an important role in organization success4), Researchers argues that it is important for an organization to motivate & involve its employees in knowledge sharing.[16] KSB is a progression of accomplishment in which an individual shares his knowledge with another individual after that both individuals together make a new knowledge is refer as a behavior which exchange information it can be assistance to others.[17] Knowledge sharing is a process in which knowledge of an individual is organized in a way that any other individual or employees can use it. This knowledge is helpful or useful for an organization.


Impact of IWE on OCB

Past researches shows that IWE influencing many jobs outcomes. Research is done on the managers of telecom industry of Pakistan and finding indicates that IWE has a positive relationship towards business performance.[18] Another study identify that if employees have some awareness regarding IWE than they are showing strong commitment towards an organization.[19] While other study shows that there is affirmative relationship between IWE and various phases of assertiveness for organizational commitment and change. IWE is playing a significant effect on job satisfaction with the organizational commitment. IWE boost the relationship between job satisfaction &organizational commitment. Many researchers’ findings shows that innovation and employees capability are positively affected by IWE. In a recent study which comes up with the moderating role of IWE towards knowledge sharing capability and innovation capability of worker. Another research comes to determine the impact of IWE on turnover intention. Job satisfaction. Findings come up that IWE directly affect job satisfaction and job involvement. IWE negatively affect turnover intention. There is research on the topic of the effect that IWE on KSB, OCB at workplace. According to Islam individuals should be involuntarism.[20] IWE focus on cooperation with others, IWE focus on the working for the advantages of the society. Islam teaches us to have a positive behavior and well deeds. Those who workers in an organization may take guideline from Islam they are involve in cooperative behavior. Our prophet (SAW) tells the best people are giving benefits and useful for fellow and society. Another research findings are IWE is positively association with employees loyalty towards the organization in which they work and their friends are Supervisors. Now we can say that IWE is positively related to citizenship behavior. IWE focus on cooperation and selfless


Impact of Islamic Work Ethic on Knowledge Sharing Behavior

Informal knowledge can be made by using informal communication between members of an organization. Some researches on knowledge tell us an individual is creating knowledge in an organization.[21] New and fresh Knowledge starts with an individual. This is very important to create and share knowledge in generation with innovative ideas products. Many researches identify the worth of available resource of knowledge. Studies describe that through the share of knowledge it can increase the competency of an organization to improve its ability to provide customers solution by doing so an organization can gain advantage over competitors.[22] When an organization wishes to come or implement knowledge sharing culture it needs to alter its workers knowledge hiding behaviour and an organization needs to bring reliable knowledge sharing activities.[23] According to Quran the men and women are the representatives of ALLAHA this importance is given due to knowledge they received from GOD. Quran asked question are that who know and who don’t know are equal. Quran clearly tells that we should involve in knowledge sharing and cooperation at work among people. Muslims can take guideline from Quran and Sunnah which motivate us to share knowledge and participate for the improvement of the civilisation on enormous measure in all characteristic of life.[24] Islam prevents us to hide knowledge it focus on sharing of knowledge. Our prophet encourages us to involve healthy and useful discussion which promotes knowledge sharing between people and sharing of knowledge among other people.


Impact of Islamic Work Ethics on Commitment

Islamic work ethics is actually define that one how has to act on the work station. Islamically. It transforms the work environment into more cooperative, committed and responsible way. Comfortable environment attract employees and argue employees for more commitment. The philosophy of Islamic Work Ethic has greater influence on employee commitment because it creates good working condition which optimally leads to team work, cooperation and locality. Basically when plea of the employees get honours than they feel more commitment themselves. Collaboration basically supports to ensure the job challenges that lead not only to satisfaction but also increase the level of commitment as well. [25]Modifications and alteration in the ethical system bring and generate actually more and more commitment in the organizations.[26] Organisational ethics fundamentally enhances the organizational commitment in even adverse environment. According to Bukhari, Saeed and Nisar (2011) Islamic work ethics haves very optimistic effect on commitment. Yousef (2001) concluded that if Islamic work ethics practice introduces in organizational polices that directly has positive impact on employee commitment. Rokhman’s (2010) study indicates Islamic Work Ethics produces favorable outcomes that also generated the employee commitment. Bukhari, Saeed and Nisar (2011) studied that satisfaction and commitment escalation when Islamic work ethic is adopted by strongly.[27]



Theoretical Framework

Hypothesis

H 1 Islamic work ethic has a positive relationship with Organizational Citizenship behavior


H 2 Islamic work ethic has positive relationship with Knowledge Sharing behavior


H 3 Islamic work ethic has positive relationship with Organizational Commitment .


The researchers collect data through questionnaires from six colleges of Hajeera AJK .We promise to participants that their responses will not be share to anyone else. We translate our questionnaires in Urdu because the participants were not experts in English. Reacher distribute 350 questionnaires in which we got the response from 241 participants 31 were found incomplete so we included only 210 for analysis phase. The response rate were good we include only Muslims’ participants.73 respondent were undergraduates 20 were in master and 4 were PhD degree.


Measures

We measured all variables with self-reports. We use Likert scale using 5 points 1 ``show strongly agree and 5 shows strongly disagree. IWE is measured by 17 items that was given by (ali, 1988). OCB is measured by 10 items given by (podsaoff.at.al.1990). KSB is measured through 16 items given by Andrawina & Govindaraju 2009.[28]


Control Variable

Previous researches indicates that age and gender is may affect OCB &KSB (Kidder 2002; Lin 2008; Slagter 2009)[29] that’s why their effect has been controlled .


Table 1 Means, standard deviations, correlations, and reliabilities

Variables Means SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1.Education 2.04 0.86 -
2.Marital status 1.47 0.50 0.20** -
3.Age 1.74 0.790 0.05 -0.36** -
4.IWE 4.17 0.35 0.09 -0.04 -0.00 (0.72)
5.OCB 4.36 0.29 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.32** (0.65)
6.KSB 4.24 0.40 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.25** 0.25** (0.82)
7.OC 4.19 0.34 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.21** 0.28** 0.34** (0.91)



N = 210; Cronbach’s a presented in parentheses; age was coded as ‘1’ for 20–35, ‘2’ for 51–50, ‘3’ for 50–60, and ‘4’ for 61 and above * p\0.05; ** p\0.01


Table 2 Regression analyses for IWE, OCB, and KSB

Variables OCB KSB OC
Β R2 Β R2 β R2
Step 1


Gender


Age


0.07


0.03




0.14


0.09


0.04




0.24


0.05


0.06




0.28

Step 2


IWE


0.01***


0.32***


0.01***


0.26***


0.24***


0.36***

N = 210; gender was coded as ‘1’ for male and ‘2’ female; age was coded as ‘1’ for 20–30, ‘2’ for 31–40, ‘3’ for 41–50, and ‘4’ for 51 and above_ p\0.10; *** p\0.001


Results

Correlations and Regression Analyses

Table no 1 indicates descriptive statistics, reliability analysis and Correlational analysis. All variables results indicates that they are in expectable range. Correlation between these variables demonstrates that IWE is significantly related with OCB in positive direction (r = 0.32, p= 0.01), KSB (r= 0.25, p= 0.01) and OC (r= 0.21, p=0.01). Regression analysis has been accompanied to analyse the Hypothesis 1, 2 and 3. In Step analyses has been conducted for age, gender while in step 2 analysis related to IWE were performed. Analysis presents that IWE has positive impact on OCB (b= 0.32, p=0.01) so it supports the H1, while it also indicates that individuals with high values for IWE has more OCB than one who has low IWE. Likewise, hypothesis 2 advocated that IWE has positive effect on KSBs (b = 0.26, p\0.001). Steady through hypothesis 2, our results propose that entities with high value for IWE reveal a sophisticated level of KSBs than among 21 and 35 years old, 23% were between 35 and 50 years, and 2% were 51 and above. Finally, 48% of human capital from HRD department, while other departments like exam, IT employees, examination sections, and academic branch, whereas 27 % were from lecturers, Assistant Professors, Associate Professors, and Professors.


Discussion

From many years researchers are trying to find the magnitudes of ethical morals and observe in the workstation.[30] These researchers show a great interest in knowing of business ethics from Islamic point of view. Previous researches find how IWE impact on organizational development and change, satisfaction of the job and turnover intentions. Instead of all we have little concept of the positive impact of IWE on KSB &OCB. Findings of the study are indicating that IWE is having positive effects on OCB. We can say that an individual who knows IWE will perform more citizenship behavior rather than someone who does not the concept of IWE. Islam motivates its followers for cooperation at workplace. Islamic principles tells its followers to be voluntary supports it says to help those who need for it. Our findings are also tells us the positive effects of IWE on KSB. Those with high IWE has adapt high KSB as more than those who do not knows the concept of IWE. We recommend that Islamic principles focus on acquiring knowledge and share it with others. Quran tells us to be humble in personal life and work domain. Islam teach us to get knowledge and work for the betterment of society.[31] According to Islam one who guide in the right direction others mankind that is about to the share knowledge with others and citizenship behavior is a good person in Islam. Previous studies have not given detailed of the effect of IWE on OCB &KSB we more focus on this topic on the basis of previous researches.


Contribution and Implication of the Study

Our research contributes towards IWE, OCB &KSB by using the previous knowledge in the domain of IWE. KSB & OCB through the study the effect of IWE on OCB &KSB which are very necessary outcomes at workplace. This research identifies that IWE is the main source of citizenship behavior. KSB in the workplace. We are providing the manager of any firm the importance of IWE to increase OCB &KSB. Manager of any firm can use IWE to direct OCB, OC &KSB at their work place. The study also conclude that IWE in academic institutions has greater impact on OCB, KCB and OC.


Limitation of the Study

Our `research is cross sectional nature. It may not come up with causal inferences. Variables measured through self-administrative questionnaire that may construct prejudice to findings.[32] Future study can use our findings through causal mechanisms where IWE effects KSB & citizenship behavior. Our research is done with the private colleges’ employees in Hajeera, Rawalakot district, AJK. Future research can also be done under different work setting.



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