Volume 2 Issue 1
Title Page of Journal of Islamic and Religious Studies
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Religious Studies|
|Double Blind Peer Review|
|Language||Urdu, Arabic, English|
|Edited by||Junaid Akbar|
The University of Haripur (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
مصنف/مصنفین: Nasreen، Hafsa
This article deals with the polemics of Ibn Warraq about the history of the text of Qur’an with reference the codex of Abdullah bin Mas’ud. Ibn Warraq considers the codex of Ibn Mas’ud as milestone in the history of Qur’anic text. Ibn Warraq is of the view that its order of Sura is different from Mushaf Uthmani and a lot of variant reading have been attributed to him so the history of Qur’anic text and the text itself should be rearranged in the light of codex of Ibn Masud. In this paper these views being examined in the light of authentic sources.
مصنف/مصنفین: Awan، Yasser Arafat
Islamic Fiqh is the representative of legal aspect of Islam. It has been originated and established on direct teachings of Qur’┐n and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).These two sources are called primary sources of Islamic law. There are some supplementary sources to the primary sources; Isti╒san (Juristic Preference) is one of these. Orinetalist’s studied and produced literature on Islamic law. Isti╒san has also been discussed by them but they have different opinions about its origin and its role in Islamic law. In this article their opinions are being critically analyzed and the definition, role and types of Isti╒san being presented according to Muslim’s viewpoint. This research concluded that the Goldziher, Joseph Schacht, MicDonald, David Pearl, and Benjamin Jokisch explanations about the establishment of Isti╒san are not correct.
The golden Islamic history cannot be completed without the mention of Spain which was a bright star. It became one of the great Muslim civilizations; reaching its summit with the Umayyad caliphate of the tenth century. The heartland of Muslim rule was Southern Spain or Andulus. Different eras of Muslim rule in Andulus have been described in this research with an aim to highlight their apex and glory they achieved and then a focus on the reasons of their downfall as well. A brief introduction of the rulers in all eras with their major achievements and immersion in evil habits that led to their downfall has been the prime focus of this research. It gives us various glimpses from the course of history to reflect upon Muslim rule in Spain from a new perspective.
In general, the results of research studies conducted by Professor Joseph Schacht and his fellows on criticism of Ahadith are contradictory with the results of Muslim Scholars. Muslim Scholars, point of view is that Muhaddithin have opposed, with full power, the condemnable tries for fabrication of Ahadith. Valuable principles for the identification of authentic and unauthentic traditions were the result of the struggles done by Muhaddithin. With the help of these principles the categorization of Ahadith came in to practical. Professor Joseph Schacht argues that the material presented as Ahadith and Sunna of Prophet by Muslim scholars is the production of later times. According to his point of view, there is no authentic hadith in the bulk of traditions and if assumed that there are few authentic, they are also mixed up with unauthentic and there is no possibility of identification of authentic one. This study is a try to identify the mistakes of his research approach.
The world Semitic religions like Judaism, Christianity and Islam have given comprehensive regulations and code of life. Therefore; there has been a complete system and directions about “ḥalal” and “ḥaram” (kosher non-kosher) means legal and illegal (treif’ in Jewish law). As Islam gives clear cut directives in beliefs, worships, ethics, economy and ways of life to guide the men in life; similarly the Judaism has also given clear regulations in these fields to guide its followers. Islam has taught its followers to eat and drink ‘ḥalal’ (Tayyib), so Judaism has also stressed on eating only ‘kosher’ (food that can be consumed according to Jewish law). For example in animals; meat of cow, bull, sheep and goat etc are legitimizing for eating in both the religions. Similarly the meat of pig is not allowed for men. Many things are similar in both these religions regarding dietary law.This article describes about ‘ḥalal’ and ‘kosher’ things in detail and tells what the similarities and dissimilarities regarding dietary laws are found in their religious literatures.
The establishment and implementation of justice is the primary responsibility of the Islamic state. In every Islamic society, the establishment of the systems of justice and police become an obligation and a necessity for the betterment of society and for the solution of the problems faced. The present research deals with the issue of Islamic system of judiciary highlighting its various components in the light of Shari‘ah. Oath, Evidence, Witness and various technical terms used in the dissemination of Ajustice are explained with evidences from Qur’┐n and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). So this research concludes with the note that if the system of justice be strengthened; all the problems, in particular elimination of crimes can take place, and decisions can be given in the light of the laws and orders in the light of the Shari‘ah.
Acquisition of peace, eradication of crimes and cleaning a society of all immoral activities is the basic and equal need of all human beings without any differentiation of any worldly and divine religions, on the basis of this need, Imam Ghazali declared “peace” is the purpose of Islamic jurisprudence. Islamic jurisprudence expects protection of faith, life, reason, race and property from humans for the humans. Protection and prevalence of theses five purposes is called peace in Islamic jurisprudence. In the religion of our world, there are two ways of acquisition of peace, eradication of crimes and protection of property, First awareness and fright of divine punishments on committing a sin or sins, Secondly, to punish the wrong doer on the basis of the nature of his/her crime in the circle of pure justice. These worldly punishments have remained different in different ages and religions while in our modern world and revolted era, punishments of Islamic Jurisprudence are considered stick and against the humans rights, especially punishments relating to adultery and fornication. It is therefore, considered imperative to compare these punishment relating to adultery and fornication , we have in our Islamic jurisprudence to those of other religion in order to unearth the relating of considering Islamic punishments strict and against the human rights.
Monosodium Glutamate is the scientific name of Chinese salt, which also called Ajinomoto. Monosodium Glutamate was first discovered by the Japanese chemist Ikeda Kibunae in 1908. The MSG was firstly derived from seaweed. Later on MSG was got from meat, gluten, and vegetables etc. It can be derived from Najas ul ‘ain and Gher Najas ul ‘ain things. If it was got from Najas ul ‘ain, then there is a question about MSG that is it halal (permissible/ lawful) or haram (non-permissible/unlawful). This research in this article is concluded that if the culture of MSG is halal or the proper Istihalah has been done in Najas; MSG will be halal (permissible/ lawful). However, where no such details are available about the culture of MSG, it should be avoid, although it cannot be declared haram as per Islamic Jurisprudence rules.
This article describes the methodology and characteristics of Zad al-masir fi ‘ilm al-tafsir. This is one the finest work of Allama Ibn al-Jawzī, a 6th century prominent Interpreter. Several editions of this Tafsir have been published. However, the edition of dar al-kitab al-‘arbi, Beirut published in four volumes is selected for this study. This exegesis is based on conventional narrations, authentic quotations from the Islamic Scholars and lingual & grammatical discussions. As a witness, causes of verses (asbab al-Nuz┴l), Makki and Madani Surah’s (chapters), the abrogating and abrogated verses (al-nasikh wal-mans┴kh) and Islamic jurisprudence have been discussed in it where needed. The quality of this translation which is admirable is that mostly authentic Ahadith from original sources, and references to well known basic books in relevant discussions have been described.
Fath ul Qadeer is one of the most comprehensive and well organized works in the Hanafi School of thought. Full name of this book is Fath ul Qadeer Lel ‘Aajez el Faqeer. It is a commentary and illustration of Hedaya, the most popular and authentic book in Islamic jurisprudence and in Islamic schools of thought. It is compendium of Islamic knowledge with a discussion on various subjects that are from various types of fiqh and Usool-e-fiqh. Author, Ibn e Hamam used a critical explanation of words from lexical to technical, their grammatical analysis, connection on the basis of grammatical and syntax regulations and illustration of differences between synonyms. The methodology of this book is unique as it provide unprejudiced and impartial in analysis of various topics under discussion and the rational and logical arguments given by the author in support of his view make this book a significant work and a remarkable milestone in fiqh collections. The paper concludes with a comprehensive analysis of the aspects dealt with in terms of methodology and its characteristics.
Methodical codification of “Gharib ul Hadith” books started during second century. Abu Ubaida Mua‘mmar bin Muthanna, an Iraqi scholar, pioneered the field. Afterwards numerous scholars have written books on “Gharib ul Hadith” but they followed different methodologies for their compositions. Some of them have written Hadith's disorderly, and then explained all Gharib words appearing in the Hadith. This method appears in most part of their writings. Some of the scholars have observed jurisprudential method for their creations. Others followed methodology of explaining Gharib words by organizing Hadith's; first from Prophet Muhammad, then from sahabas (companions of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w), and finally from Taba’een (immediate followers). However, some sorted Hadith in alphabetical order. This research article presented a detailed analytical review of different methodologies adopted in famous “Gharib ul Hadith” Books.
Twriyah in a speech or word contains multiple meanings having different interpretations of its primary meaning. This article represents the linguistic and connotative concept of Twriyah and T’ryd in the light of Qur’an, hadith, Sirat, the views of various jurists. By analytical study of the available literature it is concluded that there is difference between using Twriyah and Falsification. There are several rules which regulate the use of Twriyah in special circumstances. All Messengers of Allah have never give false statements in any case, however they often used Twriyah in their statements. This article elaborated the various meanings and situations of Twryh in the light of Islamic teachings.
Muslim-Christian Dialogue from Pakistani Perspective: Evaluation of the Contribution of Christian Study Center
Author: Saeed, Riaz Ahmad
The twentieth century is considered as the most notable era for interfaith dialogue and other interreligious activities among the followers of different faiths across the globe. A number of interfaith activities were launched to bring closer, especially, the adherents of the Abrahamic faiths: Jews, Christians and Muslims. Many Christian institutes and organizations are actively involved in such activities. We cannot ignore the role of Christian Study Centers situated across the globe, which are rendering considerable services in the field of interfaith dialogue. One of them is the Christian Study Center Rawalpindi (CSC), Pakistan, which is the focal subject of this research paper. The CSC has a long journey in the course of interfaith dialogue and harmony, as it was its objective since its commencement. The CSC was established in 1967 as an extension of HMI (Henry Martyn Institute, Hyderabad India) to promote interfaith dialogue, harmony and good relationship among the followers of different faiths in Pakistan. It is conceded; the Christian Study Center Rawalpindi has provided great services and contributed a lot to interfaith dialogue, harmony and peace in Pakistan. In this study the efforts were made to evaluate the 50 years dialogical activities of the Christian Study Center (CSC), Rawalpindi.
Author: Ashfaq, Haleema, Shahzadi Pakeeza
The first main objective of Maqasid I Shari`ah is the completion of human’s necessity; in which protection of progeny (nasl) is the foremost purpose. The preservation of lineage is greatly emphasized by the Islamic Shariah and the Cairo declaration of human rights in Islam also supported the protection of lineage in Islam. All the articles of CDHRI covered the five basic human rights mentioned in Maqasid I Shariah. The research is focused on delineating the concept of protection of lineage as one of the main objective of Shariah and it is supported by evidences from Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam along with Quranic verses and traditions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). The aspects covered in the paper range from discussion of right of progeny as well as equal rights of progeny for male and female; rights of children with the hierarchy of their rights from the stage of fetus, having proper nursing, caring, education and a healthy beginning of life. The comparative analysis based on arguments of Shariah and the CDHRI proves that it is the basic objective of Shariah to protect all fundamental rights and right of progeny has the foremost significance in it.
Author: Muhaimin, Abdul
This study elaborates the difference and connection between modernism and postmodernism eras while highlighting their backgrounds. The research highlights the teachings of Islam in terms of modernism and postmodernism. The research brings to light the influence of modernism and postmodernism on Muslim societies. What are the far reaching impacts of the modernism and postmodernism eras of Muslim societies and how well a common Muslim is equipped to address the issues related to postmodernism. The study primarily focuses on the related issues in Pakistani society and explains the role and the influence of religious scholars of their understanding of the terms modernism and postmodernism. The study focuses on the awareness of the ’Ulamā in addressing these global challenges and subsequently the future of Pakistani society. The study has an element of quantitative research and it indicates towards the on ground realities on the issue with the help of a latest survey on modernism and postmodernism.
مصنف/مصنفین: Muhammad، Abdul Manam Ahmed
This research work emphasizes on the biography, publications and contributions of the Sudanese prominent scholar ‘Aun al-Sharif Qasim who born in the North of Al-Khartoum, the capital of the republic of Sudan in 1933 A.D.He wrote many books in Arabic language and his famous book “A Dictionary of Colloquial Dialect in Sudan” specially deals with the studies on the Sudanese Colloquial Arabic language and its impact on the literary Arabic language. Likewise he wrote in literature and language and enriched his scholastic life with many publications. This research work tries to convey the most important book and to give a short thought on it.
Najeeb Al-Kailani is a famous Egyptian Islamic writer. He was immensely impressed by Iqbal’s philosophy. He was absorbed in the study of Islamic literature in the early days of his life and dared to write many articles in various magazines, touching various aspects of Iqbal’s poetry. Al-Kailani then by maintaining his interest in Iqbal’s poetry, was compelled to write the book entitled إقبال الشاعر الثائر"”, (Iqbal, the Revolutionary poet). He was awarded with prize by ministry of education and training, and in 1977 President of Pakistan General Muhammad Ziaul haq awarded him gold medal. This article highlighted the impact of Allama Muhammad Iqbal in al-Kailani’ book and analyzed its text by refereeing it to the original poetry of Allama Muhammad Iqbal. This article concluded that Kailani’s book is finest and comprehensive book, which demonstrated the life and philosophy of Allama Muhammad Iqbal.
Fasl and Wasl are the burning topics of ‘ilm ul-Bayan (Arabic Rhetoric) alongside it is very initial element which brings structure, beautification, embellishment and improvement. Many Arab scholars, in particular, Arab pioneer Rhetoricians had discussed and still have been discussing as well as discoursing Fasl and Wasl related matters. They put their all attention deeply to both of them in the discoursing of Qur’an structure. The utmost susceptible scholar Abu Bakr Abd al-Qahir bin ‘Abd arRahman bin Muhammad al-Jurjanī, the figurative personality, who first time in the history had discussed Fasl and Wasl based structures in his two prolific books; Asrar al-Balaghah (The Secrets of Elucidation) and Dala'il al-I’jaz (Intimations of Inimitability) theoretically and practically. Later on it was developed by Abu alQasim Mahmud bin ‘Umar al-Zamakhshari as he applied both theories to his commentary on Holy Qur’an known as “Al-Kashshaaf (the Revealer)”. The following research attempts all fruitful efforts spent by scholars having different ethics. It brings arguments towards where it is required, bringing out a short comparison between contemporary and classical Fasl and Wasl based perceptions resulting in what the scholar thinks in person.
مصنف/مصنفین: Ahmed، Zahir
Arabic language is a family member of Semitic languages whereas Urdu is the member of Indo-European Languages. The Arabic language though is not from the same language family but amazingly it provides much of its share through alphabets, words with its meanings and pronunciation. These features of both languages have provoked to study it under the contrastive linguistics through semantic study of commonly used words. This research is a semantic study of commonly used words in both languages of different language family along with the applied linguistics in Language teaching. There are large numbers of Arabic words that are used in Urdu language and there are significant numbers of words that are used in different meanings, this change in meaning led to change in semantic field. This research paper also study the effect of semantic change of these words on Arabic Language teaching to the Pakistani students whose native language is Urdu. This study will also reveal the reasons of errors during language learning with the help of semantic study if commonly used words.
‘Abdullah bin al-Mubark was born in Marw’ one of the prime cities in Khurasan, (nowadays in the surroundings of Afghanistan and Central Asia), in the year 118 AH. In addition to his many talents, achievements and abilities, ‘Abdullah bin al-Mubarak was also gifted in literacy, particularly in the art of poetry. He held an eloquent tongue which was recognized by all who conversed with him and his language displayed the nature of someone who had been taught well. Most of the poetry which has been recorded from him is actually his advice to others, whether they were close friends or high-ranking Caliphs and Rulers. The topics spoken of concerned the common issues which had arisen in his time (e.g. matters pertaining to theology, politics, the worldview, the community etc) and as always, they contained much wisdom and hence the books of history have sealed them and recorded them. This research article discussed Biography of Abdullah ibn Al Mubarak, The Islamic Ethics in his poetry, Impact of Rhetoric on his poetry with special concentration on the four kinds i.e. citation, impact of Quranic words, Quranic pictorial and Quranic style on his poetry.
This article defines principles of pragmatism and text. It endeavors to elements of interpretation of text as well as relation which plays its vital role for connecting both; text and pragmatism with each other. It goes on to describe a mechanism of reading and understanding of text along with elaboration of its interaction with text. It is so because Arabic based structure and text is having multi-coloured aspects and meanings. It has several ups and downs like surface and depth, metaphor, imagery and allegory in addition to exploitation and adaption. Interpretation of text is the grass-roots of productive cognition. Because the ambiguity in word, sentence even in structure weather it is shorten or long is interpreted in addition to the interpretation of meanings of structures which are ordinarily defined and recognized through involving context and situation of context, bearing in view the original meaning; lexical meaning alongside interpretation with its significant principles and elements. However, all the description said before locates frequently infinity of text meanings.