Volume 4 Issue 2
Urdu title page of volume 7 issue 2 of Al-Basirah.
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Syed Abdul Ghaffar Bukhari|
National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Human is the combination of body and spirit, Islām pays attention to the balanced growth and construction of the human personality considering the health of both body and spirit. As Muslims, we believe that Islām is the perfect code of life, which provides guidance for the solutions of all individual and collective problems of human beings. Therefore, we believe that Islām has a complete system of instructions for the development and reformation of spirit on the one hand, and, on the other hand, it has prescribed guidelines for the upkeeping and maintenance of the body. Reproductive and sexual health is one of the major problems of human beings. Eastern societies are comparatively shy to discuss this problem, unless necessary, while the western societies have introduced sex education in their schools to teenagers. We being Muslims tend to look towards our religion to guide us in such a way, that it may educate us, on the one hand, and on the other, it may guide us to adopt the required attitude to avoid the negativity of its awareness. Although the issue of reproductive health is considered as the specialty of the modern age, however, Islamic instructions very obviously discuss them from the beginning. In this article, the author has explored and elaborated Islamic teachings regarding the reproductive health and sexual instructions and discussed them in order to prove that Islām has the full capacity to solve the current social problems of reproductive health and sexual health.
This is a historical fact that along with Arabs, rather morethan Arabs, the Quranic and Islamic sciences were dealt by the nonArabs. After Arabic, the Persian language attained the status of anIslamic language, and great books were written in Islamic literaturein Persian. After Persian, Urdu succeeded to hold the title of Islamiclanguage. A great many works of Islamic sciences and translationand exegesis of the Qur’ān were rendered into Urdu by the scholarsof the subcontinent and others. It is said that Urdu tafsīr began in the 12th century from theHijrah. As Jamīl Naqī says that the first Tafsīr was "Basā’ir alQur’ān" by Nikhal Shāh Jahānpūrī (114 A. H/1231AD) , he points outthat Ḥakīm Muḥammad Ashraf Khān was the first one whotranslated the Qur’ān into Urdu with some comments. Shāh ‘AbdulQādir (1230 AH/1815AD) and Shah Rafi’udddīn followed him. However, Urdu translation and exegesis of the Quran byMurād’ullāh Anṣārī Sanbhalī, a disciple of Mirzā Maẓhar Jan-eJānān, is rightly said to be the earlier work than those of Shāh‘Abdul Qādir and Shāh Rafī’uddīn. However, the first completetranslations were of course of both of them. The Author of this research article, explores and discussesTafsīr-e-Murādiyah and highlights its scholarly merits, whichdetermine its status among the exegetical literature of the Quran.
اسلامی ریاست میں داخلی استحکام کے لیے مرکز اور صوبوں کے تعلقات
مصنف/مصنفین: الرحمن، حافظ محمد عبد، ضیاء الرحمن
There is a dire need of an experienced and authoritative mechanism in the polity of Islām in order to run the affairs of the state in a benefiting manner. This mechanism divides the state into different regions and provinces so as to carry out the affairs of the state in an organized way. These provinces must be founded on some administrative basis, not on racial, lingual or regional grounds. It is necessary that these units are autonomous as far as authority and power is concerned. It will help eradicate parochial differences and strengthen integrity of a country. It is essential to keep up and safeguard the freedom and the rights of these units. We can get our desired objectives, if legal and constitutional safeguards are meted out to these administrative units of the state. According to ‘Allāmah Ibn Khaldūn’s point of view, it is imperative to strengthen a state instead of expanding it. There must be small but integrated autonomous units of the state. Such division helps these units to progress and prosper. The golden principle of power distribution is in vogue in all eras, although its structure has been different and varied. In this article, we are going to view the structure of distribution in the perspective in an Islamic state
تفسیر‘‘محاسن التاویل’’ میں جلال الدین قاسمی کے منہج کا تحقیقی مطالعہ
مصنف/مصنفین: خان، محمد طیب، عبد الحمید خان عباسی
Brought up in the context of a very critical time of Islamic history, Imām Muḥammad Jalāl’uddīn Qāsimī (1866-1914) played a vital role to reform and purify the ongoing mindset of the Muslims in Syria in his time. He was a man believed in an independent thinking in the light of the Qur’ān and Sunnah. He taught the people to get rid of the backwardness and blind imitation (Taqlīd) . For this purpose of his, he presented the works of the previous leading Islamic Scholars as they were. He was expert in various fields of knowledge like Qur’ān, Ḥadīth and their Sciences, Jurisprudence, Dialectic, etc. One of his masterpieces is his exegesis known as “Maḥāsin al-Tāwīl”. It is a great exegetical work; as most of the exegetical aspects are entertained in it. It has nine or seventeen volumes according to its two different editions, including a whole volume of preamble containing eleven Rules of Quranic Sciences. Although the critics object to his copying the long paragraphs of the prominent Islamic Scholars without commenting or editing and on his long discussions that deviate the reader from the actual purpose of the Holy Qur’ān, but to present the material in this way for the purpose of reformations of Muslims and to bring them back to the way of Salaf through their words, in that crucial time, justifies the significance of the work. In this article, the author probes to present the mythology adopted by Imām Qāsimī in his exegesis and its scholarly merits.
اسلامی بینکوں میں رائج مضاربت: اصول و تطبیق، دور حاضر کے تناظر میں
مصنف/مصنفین: Ali، Hafiz Rao Farhan
Islām is said to be a complete code of conduct. It guides the humanity in every aspect of life. To earn the best living is the aim of every man, for which he earnestly spends his most precious time and energies. In the present era, the economic activities are in close correspondence with the banking system. But, it is a matter of fact that the conventional banking system was not founded on Islamic economic principles, nor does it follow them in the conduct of its affairs. The question arises, are Islām and its academic sources capable to guide us to substitute the conventional banking system. We find that Muḍārabah in an Islamic economic system is an instrument that emanates a number of substitutions to replace the conventional banking. This article discusses Muḍārabah, only. Muḍārabah is a mode of Islamic financing in which one party provides capital and second one employs its expertise to do a business. In the classical Muḍārabah, there were only two parties. One of them is called Rabb al-Māl (Financer) and second Muḍārib (Worker) . It was the simplest form of the classical Muḍārabah, but with the passage of time, Muḍārabah evolved into many forms. Now, it has become more complex. The Islamic banks employ Muḍārabah. They are using modern forms of Muḍārabah in their products. People have several misconceptions about Muḍārabah for lack of knowledge about it and its the procedures. This article is an effort to explain the legitimacy of Muḍārabah and its method according to al-Sharī‘ah in the context of the modern Muḍārabah banking.
Sir Syed Aḥmed Khān belonged to a famous family of the subcontinent during the late Mughal and early British colonial period. He was famous for his close relations with the colonial government. He served many years in the judiciary. In recognition of his services, he was conferred upon with various titles such as Sir, The Imperial Advisor, etc. He is the founder of the educational campaign which was later known as the Aligarh movement. He was worried about the future of Muslims in India. This worry forced him to produce various literary and Islamic books to uplift the political, cultural, educational and social status of the Indian Muslims. One of his famous contribution to Islamic literature of Quranic exegeses is his Tafsīr al-Qur’ān. His tafsīr is influenced by western thoughts. He, instead of following the traditional methodology of Quranic exegeses, tried to understand the Quranic verses rationally. This led him to deviate from many established concepts of Islamic doctrines. He went against the Muslims’ affirmed beliefs in his exegesis. He mistrusted some of the basics of Islamic thoughts and tried his best to make new parameters of writing & reading of the Quranic exegesis on human logics. In addition, some of his views show certain relevance to the Mu'tazilites school of thought. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical and a critical evaluation of the exegetical opinions of Sir Syed Aḥmed Khān, particularly on the issues where he deviated from the mainstream Islamic thoughts in his exegesis, Tafsīr al-Qur’ān.
Moderation is the most distinguishing feature of Islām, which reigns all the matters and fields of the Muslim life. The Muslim nation is titled as the moderate one in the Qur’ān. It is therefore required that along with the Qur’ān and Sunnah, moderation should reflect through Islāmic jurisprudence, too, in the individual as well as the collective matters of Muslims. The author of this present study traces the roots of moderation in the collective matters of the first community of Muslims, i. e. , the companions of the Prophet (SAW) , who directly received the understanding of the Islām from the Prophet (SAW) , therefore, they are the true examples to follow. The companions would consider the circumstances and situations to issue their jurisprudential verdicts. This is very much evident, especially, from the verdicts of the second caliph ‘Umar Ibn Khaṭṭāb. The companions would observe the principle of moderation to generate love and reverence for the religion Islām. If they had stuck stringently to mere rules and regulations, they would not have succeeded in the spread of Islām in the world. The author shows through their examples that how essential and significant it is to observe the principle of moderation while compiling jurisprudence and how to avoid exorbitance and stringency. To observe moderation needs a deep understanding of the true spirit of religion and great skills to practice it which the companions did have being the direct disciples of the Prophet (SAW) . We need to follow their example without yielding to the whims of irreligious or secular modernity.
امنا عائشة ملكة العفاف رضي االله عنها
مصنف/مصنفین: السندی، مسعود احمد
This research aims to explore various features of Syyidah some highlights paper This. personage noble s'(ر الله عا) ishah‘A’ distinguished aspects of her biographical account, her extraordinary intelligence, eminent rank amongst other wives of the Prophet Muḥammad (r) , excellence over women of the world and being mentioned in the Qur’ān for her praiseworthy character. The scholarly areas, in which, she outshone others in Islamic intellectual heritage, include the Quranic exegesis, Ḥadīth narratives, jurisprudence, scholastic reasoning: analysis of jurisprudential methodology and principles of deduction of rulings and opinions. She adopted multifarious modes in this regards including explicit, direct, generalized, inductive and analogous approaches in the Islamic intellectual scholarship. by acknowledged was (ر الله عا) ishah‘A of grandeur The the companions of the Prophet, her scholarly point of view in conciliation of the problems of the Qur'ān and Ḥadīth made her stand out amongst all. She was a keen researcher, peaceful preacher and the greatest scholar of Islām of all times. Her knowledge and command over religious and social matters made her one of the most reliable experts of the Qur'ān, Ḥadīth and Fiqh. Such was her stature as the archangel Jibrā’īl presented his salutation to her.
This article deals with “Synonymy” in Arabic. Generally “Synonymy” is a radical source which keeps language more advanced and developed. The “Synonymy” has gained attention of early Arabic linguists’ and scholars while compiling the sacred language data, for instance two major linguists Abū al-Mālik ibn Qutaybah al-Asma’i and Ibn Khalawayh focused on synonymity of words, eventually they considered memorisation of synonym words as a mark of pride. On the other hand, some other linguists like Abu al-‘Abbās Aḥmed ibn Yaḥy al-Thalb and Abū ‘Alī al-Fārisī have denied the existence of synonymity in Arabic language altogethers. After all, the “Synonymity” of words is considered as a linguistic phenomenon in all languages generally and in Arabic language particularly. A renowned great scholar ‘Abdul Raḥmān al-Kilānī paid countless attention to this linguistic phenomenon and wrote the book the of one is which“مترادف القرآن مع الفروق اللغوية”: entitled comprehensive reference books in the field. He studied Quranic synonyms with their meanings systematically. The article addresses the concept of synonymity with a brief historiography as well as what ‘Abdul Raḥmān al-Kilānī's book brought us in this field.
The Muslim nation shows great diversity in many ways: Ethnical, lingual, tribal, racial, colour, cultural, etc. Nevertheless, such differences have never been supposed to impede their way to their unity. The Muslim nation has far more reasons and mutual foundations to be united. But unfortunately, the Muslim history witnesses squabbles and skirmishes between different sects of this otherwise one Ummah. These disputes led us to the recesses of ignorance and intolerance, which in turn left us lagging behind the world and advancement, and now, we are called the third world, which is not an honour any way. We need to work on the similarities between different sects of the Muslim nation and let them learn how to live together keeping their differences. So that they may get united. All the Muslims sects fundamentally believe in the same set of beliefs, practices, and rituals. The differences in these areas are the differences of diversity and extensions, not of contradiction. This diversity is the beauty of deliberation and discussion, hence a reason for knowledge to grow, it should not be a matter of contentions. We need to highlight the mutual common grounds of Islamic beliefs and religiosity among the sects to unite this nation. We need to teach how to tolerate and respect each other with difference of opinions. We should encourage constructive dialogues between the Muslims sects and let them understand point of views of each other and thus remove the misconception about; each other. We should curb the contentious and discordant voices and build up an atmosphere where a healthy, tolerant and heterogeneous society may emerge and pave the way to Muslim unity and thence to success in this life and the life to come after death. In this perspective, the author of his present study explores to find the teachings and guidance of Islam. This is the theme of the present study.
Today’s world is a global village. Societies affect each other far deeper and faster than ever. New problems are sprouting with every coming day. We feel that the cultural issues are the most significant ones in this context. The question is how we should deal with these problems. To us, the solution lies in the concept of Sadd al-Dharā’i‘(prevention) , one of the instruments of Sharī‘ah (Islamic Law) . Such is its importance as all the four schools of thought are of the same opinion about its scope. A cultural change if drives Muslims away from the objectives of Sharī‘ah, it will have to be stopped or altered to suit the objectives, but if it leads to something good without damaging the objectives of Sharī‘ah, it will be accepted. New problems are multifarious. We need to bring ijtihād into practice and solve such problems. This research article discusses the concept of Sadd al-Dharā’i‘(prevention.) , its meaning, definition, and scope. It also discusses different opinions of scholars. The author of this paper, then, deliberates its use for its applications to solve the new problems being faced by the Muslims across the world.
Codification of Muslim Family Laws of Pakistan and Malaysia: An Evolutionary Comparative Study
Author: Muhammad, Niaz, Fazle Omer
Codification is the creation of codes, the compilation of written statues, rules, and regulations that inform the public of the acceptable and the unacceptable behaviour. Muslim jurists had differed in their opinion of codification of Islamic laws; some supported the idea, while the others opposed it. However, in the contemporary global situation, Muslim scholars are emphasizing the importance of codification of Islamic laws and efforts have been initiated in many Muslim countries to codify them. In the current paper, the evolution of Muslim Family Laws of Pakistan and Malaysia has been comparatively studied. Malaysia has been selected due to its technological and economic advancement among the Muslim countries. Malaysia serves as an example in the modem codification of Islamic Laws. In Pakistan, Criminal and Penal Laws are codified while the Muslim Family Laws have not been codified and left scattered in various acts, ordinances and court decisions. The Malaysian Family Law are codified in one volume and enacted after necessary legislation through an act of the parliament. The objective of this comparative evolutionary study is to provide a practical model for the Islamization and codification of Muslim Family Laws in Pakistan.
Comparative Analysis of the Controversies Among the Orientalist About the Epilepsy Imputed to the Holy Prophet S. A. W
Author: Azad, Muhammad Shahzad
The opponents of Islam and its prophet, Muhammad (p) including some of the orientalists, have always tried their best to distort the real image of Islam and malign the person of the holy Prophet. They have produced many baseless stories and notions about the teachings of Islam and the person and life of the holy Prophet. They accused the Prophet (p) of having compiled the Qur’an out of the teachings of Christianity, Judaism and the customs of pre-Muhammadan Arabs. They maintain that Muhammad (p) was caught by epilepsy and trances, out of which he pretended to having received the Quranic revelation. They mention the incident of ‘Shaq al-Sadr’ (splitting up of the bosom of the prophet in his childhood) and the shivering condition of the holy Prophet(p) while receiving the revelations as hallucination of epileptic fits. But the history, medical science, the logical reasoning and the impartial orientalists have absolutely rejected their biased allegations on the personality of the holy Prophet. They certified that Muhammad (p) had never suffered from any type of such ailment like epileptic fits, seizers, trances or the falling sickness. The author is this paper refutes the allegation of epilepsy to the prophet with the help of impartial studies of the orientalists and evidences from the medical science, thus, highlighted the superficiality of the investigations of some orientalists about Islam and Its Prophet.
Revelation in Hinduism: A Muslim Reading
Author: Ali, Muhammad Modassir
Hinduism has been viewed by Semitic religions as a religion devoid of revelation. Early, Medieval and modem Muslim and Christian writings have often portrayed Hinduism as pagan even satanic while Hindus for millennia have claimed to be divinely revealed. Is Hinduism really a revealed religion and if so, what kind of a revelation does it have? In what manner does the divine reveal himself and who are the recipients of this revelation? To what extent is this concept different from ours? Does the process of revelation continue or has it been discontinued? These are some of the more significant questions that this article shall engage with. It clarifies that Hindus have books which they consider revealed and look upon much as Muslims look upon their Qur’an. The most significant of these among a majority of the Hindus are called the Vedas, literally, knowledge. It goes on to introduce the Vedas with respect to their various parts and content, what Hindus largely believe about it and how they ensured its preservation and safe transmission to later generations through various intricate and elaborate memorization techniques. The article highlights the importance of rishl, the recipients of these revelations, their kinds, characteristics and role in the process of revelation. The article contends that there is much in common between Rishland Semitic prophets with respect to their characteristics but that the similarities do not end here. Rather there is much more common ground to be explored with respect to revelation and its contents and its conveyors than meets the eye.