Volume 29 Issue 2
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
|Discipline||Islamic Studies, Theology|
|Language||English, Urdu, Arabic|
|Edited by||Rashad Ahmad Saljoq|
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
|Frequency||2 issues per year|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY|
|ISO 4||Find out here|
Education is a compulsory component of life. The first man of this world Adam (A.S) has got his basic education through the angels by the permission and grace of Almighty Allāh. In the light of the Qur’ānic verse “and He taught Adam the names of all the articles (things), the importance of education for the mankind was very well proved.
The last and the final Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was sent by Almighty Allah for the completion of edÉucation as a code forever in the shape of Qur’an and Sunnah but with the passage of time, education has expanded and modern issues and sciences have become the integral parts of today’s educational system. There are many aspects of education especially in the present time, the Western World have explored new angles of discoveries, inventions, and creations through education. How Islam looks into these new issues and matters of education, has been discussed in this article.
Sūnan-ul-Tirmizi is an encyclopedia of Ahādith-ul-Ahkām. Imam Tirmizi is the Mohadith who divided hadiths into Sahih and Zaeef for the first time. He accepts or rejects a hadith on the base of Taāmul-e-Ummah. He is only the Mohadith who established the terminology of “Filbāb” in which he gives the words of hadith from a Sahabi and mentions the names of all other sahabies who are rawi of the same hadith.
There are many sharh of Tirmizi written by Muhadiseen. Among them Tuhfat ul Ahwazi is famously written by Molana Abdul Rahman Mubarakpuri. He explores the terminologies of Sonan-e-Tirmizi. He discussed uloom ul hadith, books of hadith, Shoroh-ul-hadith, Asma-ul-rejal and ilm ul ansab etc. He mentions tafsiri aqwal, fiqhi problems and usool-e-hadith. He also solved the Tasaholat-e-Tirmizi in validity (sihat) and unvalidity (zouf). He is the first mohadith who tried to find the words of hadith from other sahabies whose names are given in “Filbab”. He did it but could not find the words of 87 ahadith for which he used the term “Lam aqif alaih” and 417 ahadith for which he used the term “Le Yonzar man akhraja haza ul hadith”. This thing makes it distinct from other shoroh of Sūnan-e-Tirmizi. He depends on the usool-e-hadith of forefather Muhadiseen and he did not establish his own usool hadith.
Hadith is one of the major sources of shariah and Islamic Law. The field of Hadith has been researched since the middle of Umayyad dynasty and many have contributed a lot. However, unlike the Qur’an which has been intensively researched due to the serious observation from the Orientalists, the field of Hadith still needs many decades to clarify the myths and arrive at the reality. The Muslims in general and our society in particular is emotionally attached to Islam but lacks an indepth knowledge. The progress of new means of communication has increased the importance of serious study on the one hand and its proper preaching on the other hand through modern means of communication. Slackness in this regard can lead to serious misconception about Islamic sources of knowledge i.e. Quran’an and Hadith.
There are many sayings attributed either to the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) or Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) but in actuality they are either sayings of a saint or proverb. Some is the case of the subject cited above which is believed to be a Hadith Qudsi, popular not only among the people of far flung rural areas but also those youth who have easy access to modern means of communication especially internet. The text of the attributed Hadith Qudsi is spread on the social media and many people quote it without any investigation. The present paper is an attempt to clarify the myths about a perceived Hadith; and a probe to analyze and evaluate the authenticity of the text in the light of the principles laid down by the scholars for the study of Hadith.
دور جدید میں کرائے کی ماں (Surrogate Mothering) کا تصور اور اسلامی نقطہ نظر
مصنف/مصنفین: لنگڑیال، الطاف حسین، محمد مسلم
Artificial insemination is a means of attaining pregnancy not involving sexual intercourse. A couple having trouble getting pregnant can benefit from the exact timing and placement of the sperm. It can overcome instances where a woman's immune system can reject her partner's sperm as invading molecules. In the case of an impotent male, donor sperm may be used. It is also a means for a woman to conceive when two women wish to parent a child, or a single woman does not have a male partner, when she does not want a male partner, or when a male partner's physical limitation impedes his ability to impregnate her by sexual intercourse. A relationship in which one woman bears and gives birth to a child for a person or a couple who then adopts or takes legal custody of the child; called Surrogate Motherhood. In surrogate motherhood, one woman acts as a surrogate, or replacement, mother for another woman, sometimes called the intended mother, who either cannot produce fertile eggs or cannot carry a pregnancy through to birth, or term. Surrogate mothering phenomena is prevailing all over the world now days especially in America and European countries. The first recognized surrogate mother arrangement was made in 1976. Surrogate mothering is also introducing in Islam in some extend but Islam has its own laws regarding each and every problem of life. This Article is a summary of all positive and negative aspects of said issue and a critical analysis of its implications according to the Islamic injunctions in modern era.
حالت امن کے قواعد کلیہ: فقہائے کرام کی آراء کی روشنی میں
مصنف/مصنفین: الطاف، حافظ محمد، حافظ عبد الباسط خان
The value of Shari’ah Maxims is realized all over the world. These maxims keep a superlative significance over all legal maxims as their sources are based on Qur’ān and Sunnah that is the real source of islamic law.Shari’ah Maxims such a important subject of islamic law that simplifies the interpretation of shari’ah.If the Shari’ah Maxims are inculcated and conceived properly then there is no need to burn midnight oil in learning the large number of sub-titles of Shari’ah.The fiqh defines the Shari’ah Maxims as the principles organized.
This article explores the Four important Shari’ah Maxims relating to peace and ethics of a muslim state towards its non-muslim residants.It includes the meanings,arguments and real life examples about these maxims. These maxims are:(الذمی من اھل دارنا کالمسلم)Zimmies are considered equalent to the muslims of state.(الامر بیننا وبین الکفار مبنی علی المجازاۃ)The relations between muslims and non-muslims countries are based on equality.(ان حرمۃ قتل المستامن من حق اللہ تعالی)Those who have the entry into the muslim state with permit and peaceful intention,must be protected and neither be killed nor be harmed.(عبارۃ الرسول کعبارۃ المرسل)Any ambassador of the state will be considered the real representative of the sender who can completely deal all the things on behalf of his sender.Today it’s the dire need of the time to implement these Shari’ah Maxims generaly for the humanity and especially for Muslims Countries to solve the critical issues,because today the world needs peace the most as it was needed never before.
مولانا ابو الکلام آزاد کا تفسیری اسلوب: سورة الکہف کا خصوصی مطالعہ
مصنف/مصنفین: بزدار، عبد القادر، محمد انس حسان
Since about the middle of the 19th century, numerous attempts have been made by Muslim scholars to interpret the Qur’ān to the modern world. By far the largest output of literature produced in this connection, whether in the form of commentaries, critiques or articles in periodical, has been in Urdu, English and Arabic. But whatever the medium of expression employed, the net result is still is far from satisfactory.
Moulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958) was one of the most notable Muslim figures in Sub-continent. The Tarjuman-al-Qur’ān is regarded on all hands as his main contribution to Islamic learning. His original plan was to prepare side by side two companion volumes to this great of his, one entitled Tafsir-al-Bayana affording a detailed commentary of the Qur’ān, the other entitled Muqaddima, to serve as prolegomena to the Tarjuman -al-Qur’ān .The circumstances of his life did not allow him the time that he needed to execute the two projects. Moulana Azad,s thinking and philosophy about commentary of the Qur’ān is very clear:Explain the Qur’ān in the manner of the Qur’ān . This paper attempts to enlighten many aspects of Moulana Azad,s commentary of Surat-al-Kahaf and explores his contribution and Comparative Analysis for other selected Urdu Tafasir of his era.
تفسیر الدر المنثور فی التفسیر با لماثور میں بعض موضوعی روایات کا علمی اور تحقیقی جائزہ: سورۃ النساء تا سورۃ المائدہ
مصنف/مصنفین: خان، جنت نعیم
Jalal-ud-Din Abdur Al Rahman ibn Bakr-Suyuti who has written a well-known Tafseer Al-Durr Al-Man’thur fi al-tafsir Bil-Ma’thur. This is a big treasurer of explanatory traditions but unfortunately he has quoted some fabricated narrations in this tafseer which caused doubt about the validity of his commentary. This article deals with the some fabricated report.
The Holy Qur’ān is a complete code of life or system of life for whole humanity. It gives complete guidance for human life from birth to death and for eternal life as well. The Qur’ān were the only book that changed the lives of the companions of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ). And they became the most successful persons of the world. They ruled over three continents successfully with the guidance mentioned in Holy Quran. Today, we must adopt the guidance of Holy Qur’ān to change the humanity. In his thesis we addressed all aspects of human life including beliefs, modes of worship and customs of individual life, and also provided the guidance about the collective aspects of life, such as the economic aspects, as well as full instructions of political system and social aspect as well. So, counter the transcend world and get the eternal peace, success, and tranquility through Holy Quran.
قرآن پاک کی روشنی میں اسلاموفوبیا کی سدباب کے لئے حکمت عملی
مصنف/مصنفین: عزیز، خدیجہ، ضیاء اللہ الازہری
In Western, countries there is a great fear of Islam and Muslims leading to a great hatred which in turn makes them think that Islam is a religion of violence that it allows the massive killing of people. After the incident of 9/11, Islamophobia has taken another turn. In this regard, it is the utmost duty of every Muslim to find the solution to this problem collectively as well as individually. It is therefore necessary, to think of a solution which favors the teachings of Islam without harming the humanity. It is a pressing need of the day that the true picture of Islam be brought forth through practice upon Shariah. We as muslims should play our role in changing the perception of our religion as the religion of ‘peace’ and preserver of humanity.
عالم برزخ اور عذاب قبر کا ثبوت ۲۶ قرآنى آىات مبارکہ کى روشنى مىں: اىک تجزىاتى مطالعہ
مصنف/مصنفین: حقانى، صالح الدىن
Holy Quran is the revealed book of Allah Almighty. This holy book has described the fundamental principles for the guidance and success of Human beings. One of the fundamental beliefs is that of life herein after (Akhirat). Allah Almighty has described several stages for the same life. The first destination of man purgatory which is like an interval between death and resurrection. This destination is the beginning point of the graciousness and severe pain in the life herein after.
In the article under reference efforts have been made to explore and highlight the Quranic view point about purgatory (the interval between death and resurrection).
The most beautiful pictures in coordination of Chapters in the Holy Qur’ān . In this research I talk about the coordination in Holy Qur’ān Chapters, so as to each Chapters contains a specific purpose that its Qur’ān ic verses want to achieve it, and we don’t see any difference or inconsistency. In order to achieve this purpose. I make an analytic study for one chapter in holy Qur’ān .I gathered the declarations of the explainers of , after that I give all my effort to show the coordination between them.
الالتفات في القرآن الكريم دراسة تحليلية
مصنف/مصنفین: إسلام، صاحب، ضياء الحق
The paper deals with the different styles of iltifāt found in the Holy Qur’ān and coming out with a general scheme to account for its occurrence in order to enhance the understanding of the subtleties of this feature of Qur’ān ic style. To accomplish this, the research was carried out by way of an analytical study of the instances of iltifāt in the Holy Qur’ān . As a prelude to the discussion of this subject, the research provides the meaning of iltifāt among the Arab rhetoricians and the status of iltifāt as one of the rhetorical tropes. The paper also discussed the significations of iltifāt which have already been mentioned by previous scholars, and since those scholars touched on the significations only briefly, therefore, the research strived to explore further aspects of their interpretations making an effort to highlight new significations of iltifat and an attempt to introduce a new approach in looking at the iltifāt phenomenon, in different Sura’hs of Qur’ān , to demonstrate the application of this new perspective. Finally the research shows that the occurrence of iltifÉt in the Qur’ān follows certain patterns that are related to the intended significations at the various locations where they appear in the Qur’ān .
There is no doubt that Sheikh Ali-al Tantāwi is one of the most prominent ،famous and best writers and preachers of Islam in the modern era .He is one of the pioneers of Islamic literature, he is also a talented writer and a good social reformer .He has left great heritage of Islamic sciences and literature for us. In this article we have tried to emerge the different aspects of his life and services in the field of society reforms، literature، preaching and journalism.
الشعر في ميزان القرآن الحكيم
مصنف/مصنفین: افزا، ماه رخ
The Holy Qur’ān is said to be a book neither in poetry nor in prose; yet it has a unique rhyme with a metrical system peculiar to it. The science of prosody and metrics, which is linked directly to poetry with its two characteristics of meter and rhyme, is based on the inductive study of the formal qualities of the Arabic poetry. The Holy Qur’ān, though not a book of poetry, is far away from the stylistics of prosaic speech in the sense since the terminal-end points of the ayaths (verses) of its each and every surah are rhythmic and follow a metrical system of its own, which phenomenon is significant from the view- point of the science of prosody and metrics. Given this, each and every Surah of Qur’ān has a distinct quality whereby it can be recognized and differentiated from every other surah. Both Islam and the Qur’ān have abstained from going to the extent of putting an end to poetic genius; rather they have encouraged it differentiating good poetry meant for the cause of spreading Islamic message from the bad one that stands against the message of Islam. As regards the Qur’ān, its each and every Surah is dominated by multi-dimensional musical rhythms in synchrony with the total climate of its verses, which makes the listener spell-bound, and which plays an essential function so characteristic of the science of eloquent rhetoric.
As all of know that start of the revelation of Holy Qur’ān started with imperative form of the verb as it is ended with like that. This shows that the imperative mood is one of the most magnificent topics of an Arabic language، particularly in the Qur’ān context. According to the opinion of the major scholars، both the commencement and conclusion of the Holy Qur’ān were in the imperative mood. Thereupon، the scholars of Arabic language took a keen interest in study of meanings of the imperative mood whether literal or figurative.
From the abovementioned point of view the following article attempts to study the meanings of imperative mood، whether they are literal or figurative، and also it endeavors along with its connotations in the light of what is stated in the Holy Qur’ān and Sunn’āh as well as in the sources of Arabic language، to lead those who recite the Holy Qur’ān to the right way، guide them to the truth and to help them in understanding of the secret meanings of Qur’ān.
Indian Muslim Freedom Fighters Based in Afghanistan and Soviet Russia
Author: Khan, Abdullah, Nasir ud Din
At the outbreak of the First Word War, the Indian Muslim freedom fighters headed towards Afghanistan and thence to Soviet Russia to devise a strategy to pulverize the British Indian government through an alliance of the powers that were hostile to the British Imperialism in India such as Germany, Turkey, Czarist Russia and Soviet Russia. The present paper takes into account the life struggle of a few spirited individuals such as Mawlana Abdur Rahim alias Maulv Bashir, Maulvi Muhammad Ali Quāuri, Mawlana Barakatullah Bhopali, Mawlana Ubayd Allah Sindhi and a host of others who found their way towards Afghanistan with the avowed intention of the liquidation of the British Imperialism from India. The activities of these Freedom fighters apparently did not bring about immediate tangible results in terms of the freedom of India; however, they contributed to the complete freedom of Afghanistan and in subsequent years brought the goal of the freedom of their own country nearer.
Laws of Inheritance in Islam and Hinduism: A Comparative Study
Author: Farooq, Hussain, Hafiz Abdullah
Laws of inheritance and succession exist since time immemorial in every human society. The estate of the deceased person is distributed amongst his/her legal heirs according to the laws of inheritance. Based on religions i.e. Islam and Hinduism-two different societies exist in the Indo-Pak sub-continent, having different frames of rules regarding socio-religious life. Coupled with a long history of closeness and co-existence, have deep religio-moral and socio-cultural diffusions and infusions with one another. The same impact permeates the laws of inheritance as well. This paper is an analysis of this permeation by focusing on the points of comparison and contrast in the light of the Holy Qur’ān , Sunn’ah and the sacred books of Hindūism.
Research on Learning Strategies in Arabic Language Education
Author: Malik, Muhammad Zaid
The learning of Arabic language like any other foreign language contains four main aspects; reading, writing, speaking and understanding while listening.[i] This learning process can be enhanced if the most appropriate Learning Strategy is used. In this paper the most appropriate Learning Strategy of Arabic Language is suggested. The course outlines for Arabic language are thoroughly studied and several professors and experts of Arabic Language from Pakistan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Sudan are interviewed. The author, who himself has vast experience in teaching Arabic language, also had the opportunity to sit in the Arabic language classes to observe various strategies and methodologies adopted by different professors while teaching Arabic. In this paper the time spent on teaching Arabic to the students is also discussed. The appropriate size of the class room i.e., the number of students in Arabic language class also matters in improving the quality of Arabic among the students. The matter of teaching Arabic in Arabic only or in the native language of the students will also be touched in here. As the time has changed and the world is moving ahead on a fast pace, it seems necessary to apply the “Direct Method” while teaching Arabic or any foreign language.[ii] This paper will shed light on what is meant by “Direct Method”. The idea of making the student sit and memorize the dry rules of grammar has become obsolete. The idea of telling the student what part of the phrase is subject or predicate, or what is object and what is a noun or verb, may come later. The idea of memorizing the bulk of new vocabulary in the beginning can also be postponed. Hence a paradigm shift is needed here while talking about the Methodology of Teaching Arabic Language, under the heading of “Direct Method”. [i] Muhammad Abdul Khaliq, Professor of Arabic and co-author of 'al-Arabia baina Yadaik'. The author of this research paper had a personal interview with him on 21.03.2014, in the Institute of Arabic Language, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. [ii] This method is adopted roughly by some great scholars of Arabic language like Dr. V. Abdur Rahim who taught Arabic language for decades in the Islamic University of Madina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The author was fortunate to meet with him many times and get benefitted from his experience. See for details: Abdurrahim, V. (1999), Arabic Course for English-Speaking Students, Leicester: UK Islamic Academy. See also: Abdullah, F. Ibrahim. (1999), Iqra Arabic Reader. Chicago: Iqra International Educational Foundation. Moreover see: Fawzan, Abdurrahman and others. (2004), Al-Arabia Baina Yadaik, Riyadh: Ministry of Education.
Research on Akhlaq Development: The Standard Character and its Development in Muslim Living
Author: Malik, Muhammad Khan
Knowledge without its moral disposition is of no benefit. The virtues of knowledge without hidāyat are useless and vice versa. Man is advised to control his behavior as he will be questioned for his deeds. Faith is not a matter of words but of accepting Allah’s will and striving in his cause. Every soul shall have a taste of death and on the Day of Judgment will be paid full recompense for his deeds. The one who is admitted to heaven would attain the object of life. This object is achieved by moral character. It shapes an individual in a way conducive to the unfettered growth of good, virtue and truth in every sphere of life. It gives full play to the forces of going in all directions. Also it removes all impediments in the path of virtue. It eradicates evils from social plan by prohibiting the causes of its appearance and growth, by closing the inlets through which it creeps into a society. It saves from all sorts of human weaknesses and counsels of pseudo-wisdom, self respect that keeps breaking-in and resists all evils. This is attained by exercising highest patience and self restraint. It signifies the entire scheme of life and not any isolated part or parts thereof. Akhlāq develops an attitude in a person by which every moral valuation, every decision as to the practical course for whatever the individual would prefer in his life to take for ultimate success.
The Investigative System of Islam Investigative System of Islam
Author: Lodhi, Muhammad Idrees, Hafiz Atta ul Mustafa
The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was sent to establish justice. He made use of law and good conduct to achieve this great target. Complete investigation and transport exploration is of universal value that holds fundamental significance in legal system. This research article presents insight, broadness and transparency of investigatory system established by the Prophet (PBUH). It also highlights rules and laws in the light of valid research references. All these features are evident in Prophet’s personality. In this regard, keeping in view the nature of topic, the guidance has been sought from the commands of The Quran, Hadith and different incidents of the life of Muhammad (SAWW). A discussion has been premeditated to explore Prophet’s tactics regarding law of investigation. This research article, having research outlook and logical link, touches upon the rules and principles which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has given us for the recognition of the real culprit of good judgment, clues and witnesses. Investigative departments are radically important for the protection of Islam, maintenance of peace, internal stability and the protection of life, honor and property of people living in the society. The charter of these agencies is to abolish oppression, establish justice, impose the writ of law, and punish the guilty and to bring lawbreakers within the grip of law. The officer who performs the above duties is known as Naazir e Jaraaim1 in Islamic jurisprudential terminology. Further duties which fall within the remit of this officer are: Investigation of charges, production of the accused before a court of law, getting proven criminals sentenced by the court, executing the sentence handed down, releasing the accused in case evidence is not sufficient and getting wrongful accusers punished properly.
Personal Knowledge of a Judge As a Source of Proof: An Islamic Perspective
Author: Ahmad, Rashid
Islam has given pivotal role to the judiciary and considers it one of the most important pillar of the state. In this regard, the role of a judge is also of great importance as justice cannot be dispensed in society without the contribution of a judge. When a dispute is brought to a court, it becomes the responsibility of the judge to provide justice to the parties. A judge relies on testimony, oath and circumstantial evidences as sources of proof. Jurists have discussed them in detail while they have also discussed personal knowledge of a judge (Ilm al-Qadi) as a source of proof. This article focuses on it, where different stipulations and conditions, as laid down by the jurists, have been discussed along with their arguments.
Payment of Zakat to Non-Muslims in the Light of Islamic Shariah
Author: Basri, Eshrat Hussain, Jehanzeb Khalil
This study revisited the literature to find answer to an important question that whether Zakat could or could not be paid to the non Muslims? There are different arguments in favor of giving the Zakat to the needy Dhimmies (non Muslims) in an Islamic State. After reviewing Islamic teachings, laid down in holy Quran and Sunnah, the practices of pious Caliphs, in the Islamic History, views of different Islamic schools of thought and the opinion of modern Islamic jurists, the study found that Quran and Sunnah allowed the payment of zakat to the Al-Muallaf-al-Qulub (poor non-Muslims and those, whose hearts are to be inclined). However, there are differences in the opinion of various Islamic schools of thought. For example, according to Maliki and Zaidi schools of jurisprudence it is lawful to give Zakat to the non-Muslims, where as Shyafee school of thought hold opposite opinion and does not allow the payment of Zakat to the non-Muslims. The modern Islamic jurists Muhammad Shaltut, Mustafa Al-Zarka, Taha Jabir, Syed Abual Aa la Maududi, Imam Khumany of Shia School of thought etc, argue that since modern states have become welfare states, it is therefore allowed to use zakat for the well-being of citizens including the non-Muslims. The recommendations given in this study are multidimensional that we will not only help the poor non-Muslims but also complement to eradicate poverty and reduce income inequality in Muslim countries
A Critique of Robert Spencer’s Views Regarding Dhimmis and Jizya
Author: Akhtar, Saeed, Ata ur Rahman
The following research paper is an academic and historical study of Robert Spencer’s views about Dhimmis and Jizya. According to Robert Spencer, dhimmis are treated like ‘guilty’ people and subjected to biased and stringent conditions. Furthermore, he believes that there is an entire system of regulations that institutionalize an inferior status for non-Muslims in Islamic law. This paper is an academic effort, aiming to prove that Islam does not treat non-Muslim citizens as inferior and second class citizens nor imposes unbearably rigorous taxes on them. It consists of two parts: the first deals with Robert Spencer’s views regarding Dhimmis and the second part takes into account his views about Jizya. In this connection, all his views and allegations have been taken into consideration and an attempt has been made to absolve Islam of such groundless allegations.
The House Building Finance Corporation Limited Pakistan: A Sharia’h Appraisal of Ghar Aasan Flexi Scheme
Author: Shahzad, Muhammad Asghar, Muhammad Farooq
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the Sharia’h appraisal of House Building Finance Corporation Limited. The House Building Finance Corporation was established in 1952 under the act of parliament to finance construction of houses in the urban areas of Pakistan. In this research Ghar Aasān (Flexi) product of HBFCL is examined from Sharia’h perspective and a comparison is made with Islamic Banking (Meezan Bank Limited) and Conventional Banking United Bank Limited (UBL). This study also comprises the opinion of Sharia’h experts for the shariah compliance of Ghar Aasān (Flexi) scheme.