Volume 33 Issue 2

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Al-Idah Title.jpg
English title of the Thirty Seventh Volume of Al-Idah.
DisciplineIslamic Studies, Theology
Double blind
LanguageEnglish, Urdu, Arabic
Edited byRashad Ahmad Saljoq
Publication details
Zayed Islamic Center, the University of Peshawar (Pakistan)
Frequency2 issues per year
Open Access
LicenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. CC BY
ISO 4Find out here
ISSN2075-0307 (print)
2664-3375 (web)
PKR 12,000
PKR 3,000
24 Weeks

دور حاضر میں کرنسیوں کے ادھار خرید و فروخت کا شرعی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: ضیاء، معراج الاسلام، محمد طاہر

Foreign Exchange trading is when you buy and sell foreign currencies to generate profit. In our age of advance technology even the virtual or digital currencies have now emerged. This entire business however is mostly based upon speculation and prediction. Even the most skilled and experienced traders face difficulty in predicting movements in currencies. Further, the value of not well established currencies can fluctuate or its exchange rate value can change any time. In view of occupying central place in the economic systems down the ages, Muslim scholars have also vehemently discussed currency, its significanc and matters relating to it in transactions. The present article reviews trading of foreign currencies from Islamic perspective in a situation when no cash is involved in the transaction. The article concludes that as the currencies in such transactions are different commodities, therefore their trade is legal.

اسلام اور مغرب کے باہمی اختلافات

مصنف/مصنفین: خان، دوست محمد

The paper endeavors to shed some light on the relationship between Islamic World and the West especially America. Using narative methodology, we examine the concept of clash of civilisation aggressively followed by the Western Philosophers and thinkers and antegnoistic approach towards Muslims and Islamic Way of life, the gulf between the two is widening to an alarming extent. Looking, at this scenario, the paper suggests that emphasis should be laid on inter-cultural complementarity, reframe differences and pursue the cause of peaceful coexistence among the nations of the world.

مسئلہ خلافت کی عملیت میں عرب و عجم زاویہ فکر کے اثرات کا علمی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: الحق، ضیاء، رشاد احمد

Ever since man has stepped on earth and tried to implement a collective social life pattern, then onwards the idea of the establishment of state has come into existence. History has witnessed diverse governance patterns as per indigenous values and ideologies. At the time of advent of Islam, there was monarchy and kingship that prevailed beyond the deserts of Arabia that sustained on royal descendants, whereas, in Arabia rulers would be selected upon their competence and acumen for ruler ship. When Islam came, religious angle was included too however, the various modes of interpretation became a bone of contention later on. In this research article, a review of oriental and occidental thought patterns have been reviewed. Similarly it has been tried to assess how diverse and divergent these two points of view remained.

مولانا غلام اللہ خان کی تفسىر جواہر القرآن: منہج اور خصوصیات

مصنف/مصنفین: اللہ، سمیع

Maulana Ghulamullah khan is considered one of the best commentators of the Quran from  Punjab. Ghulamullah Khan was born in 1905 in Chaj Darya, Attock district of Punjab. He got his Quranic education from Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, who was a disciple of Maulana Hussain, a well-known and a leading commentator of the Quran. He studied hadith  from Hussain Ahmad Madni, Maulana Shabir Ahmad Usmani and Anwar Shah Kashmeri.This tafseer consists of fifteen hundred pages. It has a long preface and covred up in three volumes over all. Maulana Hussain Ali named him a true successor of the Quranic studies and acknowledged that he had done this duty well. Among his works, TAFSEER JAWAHIR -UL- QURAN, has its own uniqueness and usefulness. Millions of copies have been published of this Tafsier. This tafseer is a compilation of rabat bain surulayat (connection between sura and ayat) of  Maulana Hussain Ali by Ghulamullah khan and has been revised by Maulana Said Ahmad Hussain Sajad Bukhari.  He is termed as Shaikh ul Quran and was called so by Maulana Hussain Ali.I have hinted at different sources for my article so that readers may expand their knowledge about the Quran and Tafseer. This article is about JAWAHIR -UL- QURAN and it will throw light on its features.

ٹریڈمارک، کاپی رائٹ اور حقوق کی خرید و فروخت کا شرعی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: طاہر، محمد، ابظاہر خان

There are many things which would not be bought or sold in earlier ages but these days they are considered great wealth and precious capital and their transaction is in vogue and  they are titled as  rights. For instance, literary copyright and copyright of music and trade mark etc.Now the need of the hour is to understand the Islamic solution of the trade of these different kinds of rights. This article reviews the copyright issue in the light of islam.

تعلیمات قرآن کریم اور زبور کی تطبیق و تفریق

مصنف/مصنفین: ایاز، محمد، سہیل انور

There have been many prophets in human history to guide  people on the right path. Some of them were revealed the Holy Scriptures. Muslims believe in all the heavenly books, as they were meant for the guidance of their respective Ummah (Nation). In the end Allah Almighty sent the Holy Quran which is complete and last message and a source of guidance for the whole mankind till the Day of Judgment. It is the only heavenly book which is found in its original form, because Allah Almighty has taken the responsibility to guard it. None of the other Holy Scriptures is found in its original shape.

This protection has made it distinguished from all the other heavenly scriptures. However some teachings of the other Holy Scriptures have no contradiction to those of the Holy Quran; which terms this portion to be original and safe from human amalgamation. In the given article coordination (similarity) and contradiction of the teachings of the Holy Quran and those of Zaboor (Book of Psalm) have been compared and analyzed. First co ordinations and then contradictions have been discussed.

مسئلہ حجاب: فرانسیسی مسلمان خواتین اور اسلامی تعلیمات

مصنف/مصنفین: Qasmi، Ghazi Abdul Rahman، Muhammad Mujtaba

Human history is replete with preposterous and unjustifiable incidents of unearned sufferings against the women. Sometimes they were maltreated and molested harshly and sometimes they were abused, persecuted bestially. Contrary to these incidents occasionally they were considered superior and super angelic but on the contrary Islam has bestowed a dignified status to them regarding their rights and responsibilities. In this regard a comprehensive manifestation has been introduced by the Islam and until this manifestation was being followed by the Muslims no single complain was lodged by any woman against the violation of her basic in the Islamic societies till the climax of Islamic regime. But today some European countries are holding discussions to impose illegal sanctions against the veil of women and girls. The parliament of France has approved a discriminatory law against veil of the Muslim women or girls. It is amazing that Christian nun is at her liberty to cover her head with scarf or not but if Muslim women consider themselves safe in veil they are contemptuously scorned with derision and disdained. In this article views of France and Islamic teachings have been brought under discussion.

خواتین کی دینی تعلیم: روایت، مسائل اور عصری تحدیات

مصنف/مصنفین: شبیر، آسیہ

The role of madaris in spreading Islamic knowledge is an admitted fact. This blessed effort started from Dar-e-Arqam (Makkah) and Suffa (Madinah) as very first Islamic institutions. The role of madaris in producing scholars has been vital. In Islamic world, some universities and madaris got great repute. These institutions have splendid history and valuable tradition of teaching Quran and Sunnah. Along with this, madaris went through reforms time by time. There is a widespread criticism on these institutions. This is a result of sincere concern but most of the times, of mere propaganda and stereotypes. Women madaris certainly are in need of radical reforms to meet the challenges of modernity and globalization. Changing role of women requires a paradigm shift in curricula, teaching methods and training methodology. This article “Balancing one’s rights and responsibilities” is an effort to identify some of the contemporary needs of the Muslim women’s education and curricula. This is the way Muslim women can attain their dynamic role in society by adopting reforms to meet the challenges of the day.

تعلیم المدنیت (شہریت کی تعلیم) اسلامی تناظر میں

مصنف/مصنفین: طارق، عتیق احمد، انعام اللہ

e come across unpleasant news regarding people from different walks of lives. Teachers Judges, Doctors, Police Officers and so on are allegedly reported for committing malpractices and corruption. This is not the problem in our country. It is a worldwide problem. It is evident that the education which is given is not upto the mark.Though Civic education or value education is being given  across the country but it has not been proven that  much effective which can make character and personality of an individual strong engouh to  stops a person from committing the mentioned wrongs. On the other hand Islamic perspective of Civic education is more comprehensive and covers different angles and aspects of human personality and life. Islam aims to make an individual internally disciplined in the manner where he/ she does not do right things and acts just because he/she is under the eye of Camera but he/she does the right act because he/ she is supposed to do so.

بائبل اور اسلام کی روشنی میں عورت کا مقام اور کردار

مصنف/مصنفین: بی، شکیلہ بی

Status and role of  woman has been discussed in almost every religion. A considerable portion of the  Scriptures of  Sematic religions  also addressed issues regarding woman in one way or another. In the light of the teachings of the Bible Woman is a  sign of sin, cleverness, social injustice and  violence. On the other hand Islam gave  woman more recognition and freedom of choice regarding   marriage, , education, inheritance,  etc. Islam believes in the equality of  male and female and as a result in Islamic society  woman has been  enjoying a better status and position . In this article a comparison of the role and status  of a woman has been discussed in the light of Bible and Islam.

علم اسباب ورود الحدیث: ایک تحقیقی جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: لودھی، محمد ادریس، حافظ عطاء المصطفی

Asbab-e-worood-e-Hadith means the context of background of a Haith. It is impossible to understand the original myth of hadith without knowing its background and context. This Article presents the concept of asbab-e-worood-e-Hadith. The discussion has been premeditated to explore the meanings and importance of asbab-e-worood. In this regard, keeping in view the nature of topic, the guidance has been sought from the Ahadith of Holy Prophet (PBUH).Asbab-e-worood in its nature having similarities with asbab-e-nazool-e-Quran. This article also describes the relationship between asbab-e-worood-e-hadith and asbab-e-nozool-e-Quran. In this regard some examples have been discussed also. This article also describes how asbab-e-worood is important to specify the meanings of text and explain the textual ambiguities.

Key Words:

Sabab-e-worood qasasia

4.         Sabab-e-worood sawalia

اسلام اور دیگر نظام ہائے حیات کے فلسفہ حقوق کا تقابلی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: الرحمن، عبد

resentation of Human Rights is the crox of Islam. The way Islam preserves Human Rights is examplary. It offers the first ever charter of Human Rights. Service to huminity is considered the highest ever and the most rewarding deed by a muslim. Islam acceeds to a cohesive social set-up where there is a fine balance between rights and responsibilities. A muslim government looks after all its citizens, be they muslims are non-muslims. In the contemporary world UN reverbation of Islamic concept of Human Rights.

عصر حاضر کی تناظر میں عرف اور عادت کی شرعی حیثیت: ایک تجزیاتی مطالعہ

مصنف/مصنفین: الدین، حافظ صالح، عرفان علی

The unique feature of Islam is its comprehensive code of life. This proves its indispensability and worth as the universal order which accommodates complex issues of human life without compromising on its fundamentals. Hence, it is a matchless way of life on this planet .Keeping in view the modern specification of the current age in respect of those countries which tend to modify their legislations and their political, economic and social institutions as per Islamic framework. In this regard, a part from the fundamental and core Islamic sources of jurisprudence like the holy Quran, traditions of the holy Prophet (Hadith), consensus of Muslim scholars (Ijma) and Analogy (Qias), there are other sources like ‘Decorum’ (Istihsan) and ‘Arbitrariness’ (Masalih e Mursalah) to play their effective and significant jurisprudential role to address the numerous social issues by honoring the customs and norms already prevailing in any particular society. The article under discussion speaks of the distinct characteristic of Islam that it is a religion of nature and takes care of natural necessities of human life. Already prevailing customs and norms in human society are not subject to disregard or straight rejection. Islam puts a considerable endeavor not to confront the wisdom of the society by sweeping its norms and customs unnecessarily. Conditions imposed by Islam to formulate any society are specious enough which accommodate many of the customs and encompass overwhelming norms in it. But being the sincere guardian of the humanity, on the other hand, it does not miss its significant reformative role to play with reference to those customs and norms which appear contrary to its fundamentals

بین المذاہب ہم آہنگی کے لئے اقوام متحدہ کا کردار

مصنف/مصنفین: خان، نور حیات

        Independance, freedom, peace and justice can be included in basic human needs. Need of these qualities and disliking of wars existed in human being since long.To accomplishes his task, UN was established in 1945.  It is working for peace, resolution of disputes, restoration of human rights, welfare of mankind, freedom, religious and interfaifaith harmony.        

       This world is a temporary abode where the humans are deemed as social beings. Allah Almighty has also endowed the humans with intellect and reason which has made conflict and difference of opinion inevitable among communities. Coupled with this are factors that can prove fatal and lead the humans astray. In such a critical scenario it is high time to work for global peace and harmony and to look for ways and means that ensure mutual understanding, tolerance, respect for humanity and above all respect for all religions.        This artical descides how much successfull UN was in achieving its goals and what are the future prospects

مستدلات شرعىہ کی روشنی میں بیعت کا ناقدانہ جائزہ

مصنف/مصنفین: داد، کریم

Literally Bai't means solemn assurance to do something and absolute submission to one's commands. All the believers have declared to follow the commands of Allah Al-Mighty  and act upon the guideline of His Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). In the early days of Islam, every person intending to embrace Islam use to take an oath of obedience and loyalty to the orders given by the Prophet (P.B.U.H). The person gave his hand in the hands of the Prophet (P.B.U.H). Afterwards, this sort of oath was introduced in many kinds; one of them is "Bai't Islah or Bai't Al Tuba".

 The Bai't is in accordance with the spirit  of Islamic teachings. The scholars of Islam in majority have accepted its authenticity as discussed in the article under reference.

الإيجاز في القرآن الكريم: دراسة بلاغية

مصنف/مصنفین: اسلام، صاحب، ضياء الحق

This article focus on the literary aspect of Qur’an. Stylistically it has a rich texture, which in itself is a miracle Qur’an is not only the last message of Allah- bearing finality but it is the root source of all forms of human knowledge. It has a pithy style therefore it offers multiple shades of meanings in it. This article focuses on that so as to open up new pathways into the stylistically rich texture of Holy Qur’an.

إنهاض المجتمع و تنوير العقل دراسة في روايات طه حسين و نذير أحمد

مصنف/مصنفین: سهول، سلمة فردوس، فوزيه جبين

Egyptian society and Indian society faced many social issues, especially during the British colonial rule in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The British occupation was an era of decline for the Muslims of the sub-continent. Public minds were not able to recognize this change and did not fully understand the requirements of the time. Writers and poets of that time discussed and dealt with social isues and tried to raise the almost dead community back to life. They wanted their people to be rationalized and to understand the problems of society. Two of those leading writers were Taha Hussein and Deputy Nazir Ahmed.

            This article will examine Taha Hussein’s role and contribution in raising of Egyptian society and enlightening the Arab minds and also throw light on the efforts of Deputy Nazir Ahmed, a leading social novelist in the sub-continent. The most important issues that were treated through their novels and their writings were the problems and issues of woman and the issue of moral decline in society.

استشهاد ابن زيدون بأشعار المتنبى في رسالته الجدية التي كتبها في غياهب السجن

مصنف/مصنفین: شاه، سيار علي، سائره جول

This article probes into poetical citation in the historical letter of Ibn-e Zaydun, a renowned Andalusion poet of 11th  century A.D. Ibn-e Zaydun was imprisoned by king of Córdoba, Ibn-e- Jahoor. While in prison, Ibn-e- Zaydun wrote Ibn- e- Jahoor a letter lamenting that he has been thrown into prison for no reason and appealed  for mercy and leniency towards him.The depth of thoughts reflected in the poetic text of Ibn- e- Zaydun`s letter testifying  his command over  poetry. The poet who is  quoted in the letter of Ibn- e- Zaydun is known as Al- Mutanabi.The article examines the parts of the Ibn- e- Zaydun`s letter citing the poetry of Al- Mutanabi in order to make it effective in achieving the objectives of the study.

مناهج القدماء في الاستدلال من ’’ شرع من قبلنا‘‘ دراسة تطبيقية

مصنف/مصنفین: مصطفى، غلام، إحسان الرحمن غوري

he research article is an analytic study on a significant source of shariah laws i.e. shariah of Prophets before Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The researcher has sought to enumerate different opinions of Jurists of early centuries (Mutaqaddimin), Hadith Expert (Muhadithin) and Principle jurists (usuliyin). These three groups of scholars have propounded differing considerations regarding the legal status of early shariah law i.e before Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). These differences led to multifarious opinions viz a viz sharia issues. Certain early Jurists have gave credence to its legal relevance while Ahl-al-Zahir and some Jafari Jurists don’t subscribe to this shariah source. The section who accept the legal status of early shariah law always suggest a carefull approach towards it, while in some instances they are quite reluctant whereas, a group of Hadith scholars have conditionally accepted the early shariah law of Prophets  before Muhammad (PBUH). In our opinion, this last group of scholars are positing most accepted opinion in this regards

دور القواعد النحوية في استنباط الأحكام الشرعية من الآيات القرآنية

مصنف/مصنفین: سليم، حافظ محمد، نسرین طاہر ملک

Linguists and Muslim jurists have depended heavily on the Arabic language in their researches about Islamic legislation. Their writings show a deep relationship between Islamic commandments and the rules of Arabic grammar.The three chapters of this research present a study of their work syntactically, and analytically to explore the earliest approaches and their various dimensions, and to detect the relationship with the Islamic commandments in the current time.The first chapter is about the role of nouns in deriving the Islamic commandments from the Quranic ayaat.The second chapter discusses the role of various verbs in deriving the Islamic commandments from the Quranic Ayaat.The third chapter is about the role of Arabic letters in deriving Islamic commandments from the Quranic Ayat.This study hopes to help not only the linguists of Arabic language but also the scholars of other related fields.

أثر القرآن الكريم في شعر أحمد شوقي

مصنف/مصنفین: الرحمن، ابو سعد شفيق

Ahmad Showqi is an eminent poet in this era, and he is also leader in Egypt, Arabic World and Europe. He is pioneer in Modern Arabic History. He followed his mentor Mahmood Saami Al-Baroodi. He spent his life in grooming. Arabic thinking and was beginner and elevator of Arabic poetry. He highlighted great civilization of Arabs. This modern movement of Arabic literature is zeal and zest of this period. This article reveals a profound academic and research study of Ahmad Showqi’s poetry. The main focus of the study is the Words and Verses of Holy Quran used by Ahmad Showqi in his poetry. Ahmad Showqi has presented before us a very fine interpretation and true meanings of the Quranic words. Similarly through his poetry he has presented before us the Quranic verses and passages in an effective way. So we may describe his poetry as an interpretation of the Holy Quran.

أبو الأحرار محمد محمود الزبيري وخدماته الأدبية

مصنف/مصنفین: بي، نازيه بي، سلمی انجم

Renowned Yemeni poet and freedom fighter Muhammad Mahmood Al-Zubairi, also known as the father of freemen, born in Sanna in 1910 in a middle class family. He was one of  the Yemeni iconic revolutionaries who opposed the Imamate. He took part in the revolution in 1962, bringing about Yemen’s transition from a monarchy to a republic. He was one of the founders of the movement of liberals and the leader of opposition against the Imam’s rule. This led to his persecution and he suffered destitution and exile outside his country, settling finally in Pakistan where he had opportunity to translate the poetry of Pakistan’s national poet, Muhammad Iqbal into Arabic.Finally, in 1962, when the revolution against the Imam erupted in Yemen, he went back to his country and became the minister of education. He fallen victim to the royalist forces in 1965 and has been regarded since as one of the Yemen’s most acclaimed martyrs. Al- zubairi published several collection of 1978, a volume of his collected poems was published entitled Diwan al-zubairi. His work  reflects a real originality of themes, ideas and method of treatment. This article discusses the literary work  of Abu Ahrar Muhammad Mahmood Al-Zubairi.

مکانة السنة في نظر أهل القرآن

مصنف/مصنفین: سلطانہ، سعدیہ

This article is about misunderstandings of "Ah-lul-Quran" towards "Al-Sunnah" they call themselves Ah-lul-Quran, though they do not deserve this title. They deny authenticity of the Hadith as well as the work of Mohaddisien, following in the footprints of their spiritual mentors who are primarily orientalists such as subringer, William mowver and Goldzehar. Actually in sub-Continent treacherous act of denial of Ahadith, was outcome of conspiracies hatched by imperial world.

Major misunderstandings of Ah-lul-Quran towards Sunnah arise from the following.

  •           Status of the Prophet (SAW) in their eyes.
  •           According to their view Sunnah was not compiled during the time of prophet hood.
  •           Doubts about the ahadith as fabrication

Indeed their views are based on nothing but merely misconceptions and ill-will against Islam. They not only deny the Sunnah but also the Quran. This paper refutes the objections held forth by the Ah-lul-Quran by indepth analysis and valid references.

منهج الشعر العربي وأساليب تدريسه في الدرس النظامي للوفاق المدارس العربية

مصنف/مصنفین: خان، يحى، ضياء الدين

Religious Institutions in Pakistan play a vital role in the education of Arabic Language, its dissemination and molding of the religious ethos. Being important centers for the proliferation of the Arabic Language these institutions have specific system for the teaching of Arabic language and it’s methodology. The aim of the paper was to investigate the teaching methods established by Wifaq-ul-Madaris Al- Arabia, Multan Pakistan for the teaching of Arabic literature to the students of Religious Institutions, working under its umbrella. The paper found two major aspects; firstly, to analyze the contents of rabic poetry in various sessions; Secondly, to study various prevailing teaching methods of Arabic poetry in these religious institutions. The paper also explored its solid and fragile features from both aspects and recommends suggestions for the promotions of imparting the educations of Arabic Poetry in religious institutions.

Communication Skills in Islamic Perspective

Author: Muhammad, Niaz, Fazle Omer
Living together is the natural instinct of human beings, who rely on communication for fulfilling their needs and conveying their feelings. A lively and peaceful life depends on effective communication which minimizes the chances of conflict. Whereas, ineffective communication leads to create ambiguities, misunderstandings and conflicts. Being a complete code of life, Islam provides the required guidelines for effective communication. The verses of the Holy Quran and Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) highlight this topic. Similarly, the life of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the practical example of effective communication. The current paper deals with the topic of effective communication in the light of Islamic teachings.  

Running Musharakah Product of Islamic Banks: An Alternative of Running Finance

Author: Ahmed, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Arsalan
Islamic banking system is growing day by day. The new era of Islamic banking is very successful as new products are being introduced by Islamic banks to cater the demands of customer under Shariah guidelines, there was demand of a product for working capital as an alternative to the conventional product of running finance. Running Musharakah Product has been introduced as substitute to Running Finance Product. In this paper the concept of Running Finance as well as Running Musharakah is described, the practical steps of running Musharakah are also illustrated to examine the viability of the product.

Economic Policies of Pakistan During Military Rules an Analytical Study in Islamic Perspective

Author: Gulzar, Sadia, Mumtaz Ahmed Salik
In the history of Pakistan, three military governments ruled for a quite long period. Nonetheless, they made no stable policies for the economic development of Pakistan. As a result, Pakistan could not make progress on strong foundation. Economic policies were meant for a shorter interval. Therefore, they only resulted in cosmetic change in the economy. The results of these policies were restricted to a certain class and the public suffered from the negative impact of these policies. Public welfare got secondary importance which resulted in economic inequality. Wealth circulated within a few families. In all the three reigns, no strategy was formed for the paying of external debt. On the one hand, the salvation of Pakistan was put at stake by increasing external debt and aid while on other hand, masses suffered added direct and indirect taxes. In these conditions, common man could not fulfill his basic necessities of life. Pakistan could make considerable progress, if any of the governments might have considered Islamic principles of Islam.

Muhammad (SAW) in the Near-Contemporaneous Non-Muslim Sources: An Appraisal of Robert Spencer’s Views

Author: Rehman, Ata Ur, Saeed Akhtar
Muhammad’s (SAW life is fully reserved and recorded in history. It has been established beyond a shadow of doubt that not only the major and significant events of his life but even the minutest details of his life are also painstakingly preserved by the Muslims. In spite of the availability of abundant authentic documents concerning Muhammad’s (SAW) life, sayings and deeds, some critics of Islam stubbornly refuse to believe in his historicity. Robert Spencer is one such critic who maintains that Muhammad’s (SAW) value is nothing more than a fictional or mythological figure. This article is an attempt to prove the existence of Muhammad (SAW) in contemporary non-Muslims sources. The article is divided into three major parts: the first part of the paper throws light on how much emphasis Muslims lay on historical authenticity of Muhammad (SAW), in the second part of the paper views and doubts of prominent like orientalists Spencer concerning Muhammad’s (SAW) historical authenticity have been summarized, whereas the third part presents Robert Spencer’s views in the same connection and endeavors to refute his views and approach drawing on contemporary non-Muslim Sources.  

An Analysis of Indo-Pakistan Nuclear Doctrines

Author: Noreen, Shabana, Taj Muharram Khan
This study explores the dynamics of nuclear politics in Indo-Pakistan relations. The events after the nuclearization of South Asia aroused an extensive discussion about the basic reasons of countries becoming nuclear. Deterrence idealists have put forward the Nuclear Peace Theory advocating that nuclear arms make war terribly expensive and evade conflict among atomic opponents and thus generate constancy among them. Deterrence cynics have debated that the new nuclear-powered countries would not be able to accomplish the rudimentary requisites for deterrence stability as they would be disposed to defensive and preventive war tactics, construct susceptible atomic weaponries that would disposed to illicit usage. While discussing both stability and instability of nuclear weapons, the intellectuals disregard the importance of nuclear doctrines of the nuclear states which can cause deterrence disappointment or guaranteeing its strength. The author has used primary and secondary data. The primary sources are news bulletins and websites and secondary sources are books, journals etc.

Kipling’s Depiction of the Great Game Between British India and Czarist Russia

Author: Anwar, Zahid, Abdul Hamid Khan
This article provides valuable information about the living conditions of Muslims of the Pak-Afghan Region in the context of revisiting Rudyard Kipling’s view of the Great Game of the 19th century between Great Britain and Russia that roughly continued for about a century beginning in the second decade of the 19th century to the signing of the Anglo Russian convention in 1907. In this respect his famous novel, Kim (1901) has been critically examined to establish the political content of his creative work. Coupled with the appreciation of the novel as a great work of art with its many facets and themes, views of Edward Said have been juxtaposed to arrive at a conclusion that the novel is also a celebration of imperialism. In today’s scenario in Central Asia particularly Afghanistan, a revisit of Kipling is an interesting revelation. The discussion also reveals the similarities of the tussle of two centuries back to the realities in the region today. This insight as we appreciate Kipling’s masterpiece novel proves even more eye-catching and real. This paper also examines Peter Hopkirk’s works on the Great Game to historically asses the dialectics of the imperial struggle between the two super powers of the time. In this connection, a brief discussion is available on the three Anglo-Afghan Wars as well as the conflict in Kashgharia. This article presents an overview of the view head by Russians on the conflict which they call Tournament of Shadows or Bolshya Igra involving spies and military personnel. A fresh look at Kipling’s works in general and his novel Kim, in particular, helps explore the very essentials of the working of Imperialism and empire-building, which is the main stay of this paper. A deeper look would understandably unfurl big powers rivalry in general, and the present day security situation in Asia in particular, by going through the works of a great writer; the first Englishman and the youngest recipient for Nobel Prize in Literature (1907).  

The Creation of Universe in the Light of Quran

Author: Khan, Anwar Saeed, Muhammad Jamal Nasir
The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. Sura l-Baqarah, verse (67) states:  قَالَ أعُوْذُ بِاللّٰہِ اأنْ أَکُوْنَ مِنَ الْجَھِلِیْنَ۔He said, "I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant. "The Qur'an does not render a coordinated description of the universe Creation and how it will end. In lieu of a continuous story of creation and cease, there are verses dispersed all over the Quran which deal with certain aspects of the universe’s Creation and end. These scattered verses provide information on the sequential events marking its development with varying degrees of detail. The primary objective of this paper is to analyze the Quranic Concept of Universe. The idea of steady state by Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, and Fred Hoyle (1948) suggests that this universe is created with big bang, it is expanding and it would be the same, always static, always contracting or always expanding with no end. This is in contrast with the pulsating theory of the accelerating expansion will result in weak gravity which will cause the universe to contract. When this contraction will condense everything back into one single point, this rapid compression will lead to another explosion (often referred to as mini big bang). As a result of which the universe will start expanding again. Hence it results in a pulsating universe in which there is alternate expansion and contraction of universe.  

The Notions of Obtainable Politics in the Light of Quran

Author: Nasiruddin, Hafiz, Muhammad Rizwan
It is generally believed that the contemporary world of academia is divided between Divine and non-Divine philosophies. By considering the Divine theory in accordance to the human behavior, advocates of theory take it in the best interest of mankind. They argued that the Creator Himself guides the human being in right direction. Islam unlike modern concept of governance does not separate religion from politics and fulfills its legislative needs by means of Divine Law or Shariah. In Islamic system, the state through Caliph will have to establish Shariah of God by working on the restrictions set by Him and in conformity with His orders and commands. Yet he is allowed only to give lawful command and the people are also bound to follow only the lawful commands. In Islam there is no place for such a political order where a solitary individual or a group of persons have authoritarian or dictatorial rule. However, the Muslims, in all circumstances, must cling to the state authorities and are obliged to submit to the ultimate source of law given by the Almighty Allah in the Quran. Non-Divine theories, on the other hand mainly stress upon rationalization of human development and behavior in a certain direction. Leaving those theories aside, current study will focus on the political philosophy of Islam as prescribed by the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The subject matter of the study is to see the possibilities regarding implementation of Islamic values in the contemporary state and society.

Principles of Effective Management according to Quran and Sunnah

Author: Salim, Zafar, Muhammad Tahir Malik, Sajid Rahman Khattak
The aim of this conceptual paper is throw light on Islamic principles for effective human resource management. A qualitative approach was applied. The extensive review of existing literature shows that Islamic principles of HRM gives due importance to manager-employee relationship which is beneficial for achieving organizational objectives. Some important and significant principles of Islamic human resource management are trust, sincerity, justice, consultation, equality, division of labour, delegation of authority and remuneration or payment of employees. Islamic management is based on mutual trust between managers and subordinates. Manager and worker should be sincere to organization. Selection and recruitment is based on merit. Justice is the most salient and important characteristics of Islamic management. Islam stresses on mutual consultation in order to resolve existing problem in the organization. Islamic principles of management are expected to benefit the organization, the employer and the employee. The study will contribute information and knowledge to the existing literature on Islamic human resource management. This study will highlight the scope and application of Islamic principles of HRM in developing effective management system.

Protection of Working Women Rights in the Light of the Teachings of Islam

Author: Begum, Hashmat, Wilayat Bibi, Samina Begum
Men and women are the backbone of human civilization and both play their due roles in the society. In the present era, women are found engaged in every walk of life. Their potential was appreciated in the fields of education, research and medical since long but now they have also got prominence in the fields like army, politics, games, culture, economy, engineering and even avionics. Woman of the modern era is now a good mixture of a conscious wife, affectionate and educated mother and an active worker by increasing her importance and status through achievements in all walks of life. The main purpose of the paper was to identify the rights of women at workplace and to highlight the protection given by Islam for the rights of working women. The study was descriptive in nature. Relevant Hadiths and the examples from the lives of Sahaba regarding the justification of women to work and how their rights to be protected, was discussed. The need of the hour is to create a protected environment for women to work with dignity, without the fear of harassment and abuse which will in turn bring higher productivity and better quality of life at work.

Transplant and Donation of Organs in Islamic Perspective

Author: Muhammad, Faisal, Muhammad Zahid
Transplantation of organs and its donation is a burning issue of the present time. It has been carried out in different ways for different purposes. No doubt, the medical field has a vital role in serving the human beings by introducing new means of treatments including the transplant of organs. In Islamic point of view the transplantation and donation of human organs is lawful only when it follows the objectives of Shariah. The human dignity is to be maintained in every movement of life. If practicing the transplant leads to human destruction and violation of its prestige and honor or paves the path to kidnapping, bargaining and immorality, then it should be avoided. Donation of organs, under the supervision of strict regulatory authority, will be beneficial. In this article, Islamic perspective on this issue has been brought forth.

Constitutional Provisions for the Rights of Non-Muslim Minorities in Pakistan

Author: Basri, Eshrat Hussain
Pakistan is a Muslim country and got freedom from British Government, on August 14, 1947. It was separated from India on the basis of Islamic ideology. Though majority of population was Muslims but there was sufficient number (5%) of non Muslims, such as Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Calashes’, Baha’is, Zikaria’s, and Parsis etc.  The presence of non Muslims in Pakistan was a great challenge to safe guard their rights in the constitution of Pakistan to maintain the communal harmony in the country. This paper focuses on the provisions of non-Muslim rights in the constitution of Pakistan. It discusses the constitutional provision for the rights of non Muslims. Such as personal law, freedom to religion, safe guard against special taxes, non discrimination in respect of access to public places, discrimination in services, preservation of language script and culture, promotion of social justice and predication of social evils , right to vote,  reservation of seats in National assembly and to run and manage their religious institutions. This paper also suggests some recommendations for the solution of contemporary non Muslim minorities, problems in Pakistan and also achievement of Ministry of non Muslim Minorities Affairs, 2008 to 2010 in Pakistan.